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(5crman  Qmertcan  Clnnals 




Historical,  Literary,  Linguistic,  Educational  and  Commercial  Relations 


Germany  and  America 


The  German  American  Historical  Society 
The  National  German  American  Alliance 
The  Union  of  Old  German  Students  in  America 


University  of  Pennsylvania. 
H.  C.  G.  Brandt,  Julius  Goebel, 

Hamilton  College.  Harvard  University. 

W.  H.  Carpenter,  J.  T.  Hatfield, 

Columbia  University.  Northwestern  University. 

W.  H.  Carruth,  W.  T.  Hewett, 

University  of  Kansas.  Cornell  University. 

Hermann  Collitz,  A.  R.  Hohlfeld, 

Johns  Hopkins  University.  University  of  Wisconsin. 

Starr  W.  Cutting,  Hugo  K.  Schilling, 

University  of  Chicago.  University  of  California. 

Daniel  K.  Dodge,  H.  Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University  of  Illinois.  University  of  Chicago. 

A.  B.  Faust,  Hermann  Schoenfeld, 

Cornell  University.  Columbian  University. 

KuNO  Francke,  Calvin  Thomas, 

'  Harvard  University.  Columbia  University. 

Adolph  Gerber,  H.  S.  White, 

Late    of   Earlham  College.  Harvard  University. 

Henry  Wood,  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

New  Series,  Vol.  6.  Old  Series,  Vol.  lo. 


published  BY 

Chas.  H.  Breitbarth,  Business  Manager, 


JBcrUn :                          Slew  forft :  Xelpsig  t 

MAYER  &  Mt)LLER               CARL  A.  STERN  F.  A.  BROCKHAUS 

XonDon:  Iparis: 


Q  3 

'y^.  s 




Continuation  of  the  Quarterly 

Americana  Germanica. 

New  Series,  Vol.  6.  Old  Series,  Vol.  lo. 



Colors  Carried  by  German  Mercenary  Troops 102 

Early  Music  in  Philadelphia 157 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  Life  of 3,  65,   121,   187 

German  American  Collection  in  New  York  Public  Library in 

German  American  Historical  Society  and  the  German  American 

Annals 180 

German  American  Historical  Society.    Annual  Meeting 53 

German  American  Researches 257 

Germans  in  Texas 315 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 341 

Himmelsbrief,  the 286 

Lessing  and  Wieland  in  American  Magazines  Prior  to  1846.  .  .  .   238 
National  German  American  Alliance,  Report  of  Meeting  of .  .  . .    115 

Palatines  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania 251 

Provincialism  in  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 32 

Verein  Alter   Deutscher   Studenten   in   Amerika,    Philadelphia 

Zweig    61 



E.  M.  FoGEL,  Business  Manager, 

Box  39,  College  Hall,  University  of  Pennsylvania, 


Berlin  :  New  York  :  Leipzig  : 


London  :  Paris  : 



(Bcrman  Qmcrican  Clnnals 



New  Series,  January  and  February  Old  Series, 

Vol.  VI.      No.    I.  1908.  Vol.   X.      No.    I. 

The  Founder  of  Germantown. 

By  Marion  Dexter  Learned. 


The  part  which  Pastorius  played  as  Agent  of  the  German 
Company,  the  so-called  Frankfurt  Company,  was  by  no  means 
the  most  important  service  which  he  rendered  to  the  newly- 
founded  German  Town.  He  was  far  more  useful  to  the  settle- 
ment as  burgher,  lawgiver,  schoolmaster,  scrivener,  and  writer  of 
both  prose  and  verse.  It  is  in  these  varied  activities  of  the  man 
that  we  see  his  true  importance  as  the  great  German  pioneer  in 

In  the  early  annals  of  Germantown  Pastorius  has  left  last- 
ing testimonials  to  his  indispensable  services  as  a  burgher.  The 
first  five  years  of  its  existence  the  German  settlement  had  no  cor- 
porate form,  but  grew  on  as  a  more  or  less  close  community.  In 
these  years  Pastorius  was  the  virtual  official  factotum,  as  he  man- 
aged the  affairs  both  of  the  German  Company  and  the  Cref elders. 

The  first  year  was  one  of  great  privation  and  not  a  little 
suffering.  Provisions  were  scarce  and  had  to  be  brought  some- 
times all  the  way  from  the  Swedish  settlement  in  Upland.  The 
colony  met  with  an  unexpected  economic  hindrance  at  the  very 
outset.  It  was  made  up  largely  of  weavers  who  knew  but  little 
of  tilling  the  soil.    Their  products  were  in  little  demand,  because 

4  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

the  newcomers  had  brought  with  them  a  good  supply  of  wear- 
ing apparel.  This  is  seen  from  the  slight  sales  at  the  fair  held 
Nov.  1 6,  1684  in  Philadelphia,  where  the  Company  netted  a  little 
over  ten  dollars.^  This  lack  of  market  for  their  wares  brought 
on  a  serious  money  famine,  which  Penn  began  at  once  to  relieve 
by  uniting  with  the  industry  of  weaving  that  of  agriculture,  with 
emphasis  upon  grape  culture.  Pastorius  as  early  as  November, 
1684,  writes  the  German  Company  that  they  shall  send  over  a 
quantity  of  grape  cuttings  and  all  sorts  of  field  and  garden  seeds. - 
We  have  also  from  Pastorius  the  interesting  information  that 
Penn  had  already  planted,  before  1684,  a  vineyard  of  French 
grapes,  and  that  Pastorius  himself  had  brought  over  with  him  a 
number  of  grape  cuttings,  which  were  all  spoiled  by  the  salt  water, 
except  two  which  had  luckily  survived.  In  addition  to  the  lack  of 
money  and  market  for  the  products  of  the  loom,  came  the  great 
need  of  skilled  craftsmen  and  husbandmen,  the  first  to  fell  the 
forest  and  build  houses,  the  second  to  till  the  soil.  Pastorius 
wrote  home  to  the  Company  that  workmen  and  peasants  were 
most  needed  of  all  classes  of  colonists.  As  he  looked  out  from 
the  settlement,  whichever  way  he  went,  it  was  "a  way  into  the 
primeval  forest."  ('Ttur  in  antiquam  silvam").  What  wonder 
he  wished  for  a  dozen  strong  Tyrolese  to  lay  low  the  thick  oak 
trees  !"* 

^  Pastorius  gives  this  account  in  his  Beschreibung,  p.  17 :  "Es  seye  den 
16.  Nov.  [1684]  zu  Philadelphia  Jahrmackt  gewesen  /  da  aber  in  der  Sosietat 
Kauffhause  wenig  viber  10.  Thaler  seye  geloset  worden  /  aus  vorgedachtem 
Geld-Magel  /  und  weilen  die  Neu-Ankommenden  aus  Teutsch-  und  Enge- 
land  meistcntheils  so  viel  Kleider  mit  sich  bringen  /  dasz  sie  in  einigen 
Jahren  nichts  bedorffen."  Cf.  also  the  earlier  form  of  this  statement  in 
Sichere  Nachricht  aus::  America,  p.  7. 

'"Und  weilen  fiir  jetzo  der  Gouverneur  William  Penn  hauptsachlich 
intendire  die  Weberey  und  den  Weinwachs  zu  etabliren  /  so  solle  der  Com- 
pagnie  belieben  /  eine  Quantitiit  Weinfexer  hineinzuschicken  /  wie  auch  aller- 
hand  Feld-  und  Garten- Samen."    (Beschreibung,  p.   17.) 

*  "Arbeitsleut  und  Bauern  sind  erstlich  allhier  am  nothigsten  und  wiin- 
sche  ich  mir  wol  ein  Dutzent  starcke  Tyroler  /  die  dicken  Eichenbaum 
nieder  zu  werffen ;  dann  wohin  man  such  nur  wendt  /  da  heissts:  Itur  in 
antiquam  silvam,  es  ist  alles  nur  ein  Wald."  (Sichere  Nachricht,  p.  3.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  5 

Although  Pastorius  faltered  during  these  first  years,  he  was 
an  unfailing  factor  in  the  life  of  Germantown.  His  close  personal 
association  with  William  Penn  drew  forth  the  constant  concern 
of  the  Governor  for  the  little  German  colony.  It  was  doubtless 
the  friendship  and  aid  of  Penn  which  held  the  Germans  together 
in  this  trying  period  of  the  new  settlement. 

The  following  verses  of  Pastorius  show  his-  state  of  mind : 

"Twas  he  [Thomas  Lloyd]  and  William  Penn,  that  caused  me 

to  stay 
In  this,  then  uncouth  land  and  howling  wilderness, 
Wherein  I  saw  that  I  but  little  should  possess. 
And  if  I  could  return  home  to  my  father's  house. 
Perhaps  great  riches  and  preferments  might  espouse,  etc." 

As  early  as  1686  the  community  of  Germantown  had  become 
strong  enough  to  build  a  church.  Pastorius  mentions  this  fact  in 
his  chapter  "On  the  Religions  of  the  Province,"  without  telling 
us  what  the  character  of  the  worship  was. 

"We  built  here  in  Germantown,  anno  1686,  a  little  church 
for  the  community,  not  aiming  at  an  externally  large  stone  struc- 
ture but  rather  that  a  temple  of  God  (which  we  believers  ourselves 
are)  should  be  built,  and  we  altogether  may  be  pure  and  unspotted."* 

Notwithstanding  this  reference  to  the  simplicity  of  the  struc- 
ture of  their  houses,  we  find  them  planning  very  early  to  erect 
permanent  buildings.  As  early  as  March  7,  1684,  Pastorius,  after 
having  asked  the  Company  in  Germany  to  send  over  a  supply  of 
field  and  garden  seeds,  pots,  kettles,  an  iron  stove,  bed  covers, 
mattresses,  a  piece  of  Barchet  and  Osnabriick  linen  cloth,  the  last 
named  for  sale  at  a  profit,  he  remarks  that  a  tanner  might  find 
profitable  employment,  and  speaks  of  two  things  as  most  neces- 
sary:  I,  building  commodious  houses  on  the  Germantown  lots, 

*  Cf.  Beschriebung,  p.  34.     The  original  passage  is  in   German : 

"Wir  haben  allhier  /  zu  Germanton  Anno  1686.  ein  Kirchlein  fur  die  Ge- 

meinde  gebauet  /  darbey  aber  nicht  auf  ausserliches  grosses   Stein-Gebaude 

gesehen  /   sondern   dasz   der  Tempel   GOttes    (welcher   wir   Glaubige   selbst 

sind)  gebauet  werde  /  und  wir  allesant  heilig  und  unbefleckt  seyn  mogen." 

6  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

and,  2,  erecting  a  brick  kiln,  for  which  Pcnn  had  promised  the 
requisite  ground ;  for  so  long  as  they  could  not  burn  bricks  they 
must  build  houses  of  wood.^ 

As  we  learn  from  the  Charter,  granted  at  a  later  date,  the 
community  was  presided  over  by  a  Town  President,**  a  form  of 
government  transplanted  evidently  from  Germany. 

In  the  year  1689  William  Penn  granted  Francis  Daniel  Pas- 
torius, civilian,  Jacob  Telner,  merchant,  Dirck  op  de  Graef,  linen- 
maker,  Jacob  Isaacs,  Johannes  Cassel,  Heivert  Papen,  Tunes  Cun- 
ders,  Herman  Bon  anl  Dirck  van  Kolk,  all  of  Germantown,  yeo- 
men, a  Charter  for  the  "German  Tow^ne."  The  Charter'^  was 
signed  and  sealed  with  the  Lesser  Seal  by  Penn  in  London  the 
"i2th,  6mo,  Agt.  1689,"  and  sent  to  Thomas  Lloyd,  Keeper  of 
the  Great  Seal  in  Pennsylvania,  and  was  recorded  the  13th  of  the 
3d  month,  1 69 1  in  Patent  Book  A.  Fol.  277.  This  Charter  pre- 
scribed the  general  form  of  government  adopted  for  the  towns  of 
the  Province  and  named  the  following  as  the  first  officers  :  Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius,  Bailif ;  Jacob  Telner,  Dirck  Isaacs  op  de  Graef 
and  Tiines  Kunders — Burgesses;  Abraham  Isaacs  op  de  Graef, 
Jacob  Isaacs,  Johannes  Cassel,  Heyvert  Papen,  Herman  Bon  and 
Dirck  van  Kolk — Committeeman.^ 

The  Charter  of  Germantowai  provided  ( i )  for  a  General 
Court,  to  be  made  up  of  the  Bailif,  Burgesses  and  Committee- 
men,^ which  "shall  have  power  to  make  and  they  may  make,  or- 
dain, constitute  and  establish  such  and  so  many  good  and  reason- 
able Laws,  Ordinances  and  Constitucons  as  to  the  greatest  part  of 
them  *  *  shall  seem  necessary  and  convenient  for  the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  said  Corporacon;"   (2)   for  a  "Court  of  Record 

^  Cf.  Sichere  Nachricht,  p.  7. 

'  Cf.  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Vol.  I,  p.  iii.  The  president  at  the  time 
the  charter  was  granted  was  "Herman  Isaacs  Optegraaf"   (op  de  Graeff). 

'  Cf.  "Charter  Granted  to  the  Inhabitants  of  Germantown,  in  1691" 
{Pennsylvania  Archives,  I,  iiiff.). 

*  "Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  of  German  Towne,  Civilian,  to  be  the  first 
and  present  Bailiffe;  and  the  aforesaid  Jacob  Telner,  Dirck  Isaacs  Opte 
Graaf  and  Tennis  Cocnder  to  be  the  first  and  present  Burgesses;  And  the 
aforesaid  Abraham  Isaacs  Opte  Graaf,  Jacob  Isaacs,  Johannes  Casselle,  Hey- 
wart  Hapen  [Papen],  Herman  Ron  and  Dirck  Vankolk  the  first  and  present 
Committee  men  of  the  said  Corporacon." 

'"Which  said  Bailiffe,  Burgesses  and  Committee  men  shall  be  called  the 
Generall  Court  of  the  Corporacon  of  Germantown"  {Pennsylvania  Archives, 
I,  111-112). 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  7 

to  be  held  every  Six  Weeks  in  the  yeare"  by  the  "Bailiffe,  Bur- 
gesses and  Comonalty  of  German  Towne"  *  *  *  "before  the 
BaiHffe  and  the  three  oldest  Burgesses  of  the  said  Corporacon, 
and  the  Recorder  for  the  time  being." 

The  Record^*'  of  the  General  Court  is  still  in  existence  in  a 
fair  state  of  preservation.  It  is  now  the  property  of  the  Histor- 
ical Society  of  Pennsylvania.  The  minutes  are  kept  partly  in 
German  and  partly  in  Dutch  and  cover  the  period  from  1691  to 
1706-7.  In  the  record  we  can  trace  the  several  activities  in  which 
Pastorius  served  his  countrymen  in  Germantown.  As  has  al- 
ready been  seen,  Pastorius  was  named  by  the  Charter  as  the  first 
Bailif  of  Germantown.  The  following  references  to  him  are 
found  in  the  minutes  of  the  Court  Book : 

On  the  first  day  of  the  tenth  month,  1691,  a  so-called  "new 
election"  was  held  at  which  Pastorius  was  chosen  Bailif.  In 
order  to  show  the  full  machinery  of  the  Corporation,  we  print  the 
results  of  this  election  from  the  Court  Book:^^ 

Neuwe  waal  1691,  i  der  -^  genant  x  br. 

Rurgemeisters,   Scheffen   &   Deputirte.   /  Committee  Men 

Belief  Frans  Daniel  Pastorius  I  Dirck  Jacobs  op  d.   Graeff. 

/i.   Reiner  Tissen  jDirck Sell  [en] 

^2.   Abraham  op  d.  Graef         \  ^^^""^  Schumacher  de  Junger 
^"^^^^^^^   3.  Jacob  Isacks  Jjan  Duden 

(4.   Lenert  Arets  ^^^t  Klmcken 

\  Isack  Dilbeck 
Rekorder  :  Arnold  Kassel 

Stadt  V.  Gericht  Schreiber  Paul  Wulff    I  der  9  der  —  1st  zum  Wege- 
Bott  V.  Schreier  Wolter  Sijmens 
Konstapel  Peter  Keerlis   [Keurlis] 

Rentmeister  F.  Daniel  Pastorius  /  Hansz  Peter  Umstet 

Schrief ,  Vijt  Sgerkis  \  Isack  Schefer 

Johannes  Bleicker[s]  \   Hans  Millarn    [?] 
,  ■  William  Streper[s]      f    Hiiffert  Papen 

^       )  Hendrick  Bookwolt     (   Conard  Kunders 
Dirck  Keyser  /  Abraham    .... 


meisters  gekossen  : 

"The  title  is:  The  Generall  Court  Book  \  of  the  Corporation  of  \  Ger- 
mantown. I  odcr  I  Raths-Buch  \  der  Germantownischen  Gemeinde,  \  ange- 
fangen  den  2tcn  tag  des  4ten  Monats,  Anno  1691.  Original  in  the  Historical 
Society  of  Pennsylvania. 

"Cf.  Raths-Buch,  page  inserted  out  of  order. 

8  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Sept.  15,  6  mo.,  Pastorius  made  an  accounting  for  the  Cor- 
poration showing  that  it  had  2  £  18  sh.  1J/2  p.  outstanding  debts 
and  owed  i  £  i  sh.  6  p.^-  This  same  season  he  was  chosen  Col- 
lector of  Rents  (Rentmeister).^^ 

Anno  1692  on  the  first  of  December  Pastorius  was  elected 
Clerk  ("Statt-und  Gerichtschreiber  oder  Clark"),  while  Dirck 
Jsaacs  op  den  Graeff  was  chosen  Bailif.  On  the  23d  of  the  12th 
month,  1692,  Pastorius  made  an  accounting  to  the  General 
Court  and  Paul  Wulff  and  Jan  Liicken  were  appointed  to  ex- 
amine and  audit  it.  The  7th  of  the  ist  month  1692-3  it  was 
ordered  that  the  appraised  estate  of  Gisbertje  Williams  be  sold 
at  public  auction  in  the  presence  of  Dirck  op  de  Graeff  [Bailif], 
F.  Daniel  Pastorius  [Clerk],  and  Anthony  Loof  [Court  Crier], 
at  Reinert  Tisen's  House  at  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

On  the  24th  of  the  2nd  month,  same  year,  it  is  recorded  that 
the  General  Court  bought  for  Pastorius  a  copy  of  the  Charter  and 
of  the  Statutes  of  the  Corporation  and  Laws  of  Pennsylvania  for 
20  shillings  ;^^  and  that  Jacob  Telner  and  F.  Daniel  Pastorius 
should  request  the  Governor  for  the  confirmation  of  the  Charter 
of  Germantown,  as  friends  in  Philadelphia  deem  that  advisable. ^^ 

In  the  year  1693,  Pastorius  was  made  Justice  of  the  Peace. 

^  "Sep.  16  6-m  verrechnete  Daniel  Pastorius  dasz  die  gemeinte  an  alten 
.  .  .  .  ausstehenden  schulden  zu  fordern  haben  2  lb  18  sz.  V/z  pentz 
.     .     .     .     ngegen  schuldig  sey  an  andere  i  lb  I  sz  6  d." 

"  "•  •  •  [w]urde  darauff  gedachter  Pastorius  von  der  General  Kuert 
zum  Rentmeister  .  .  .  disz  Jaar  gekosen  u.  zu  gleich  decretirt  dasz  denen 
welche  an  die  .  .  .  etwas  schuldig  sint,  ein  bezahlung  zeit  soil  angesetzt 
werden  .  .  .  von  denen  Justizes  oder  6  wochen  Kuert  denen  freistell  .  . 
n   straffen     .     .     dasz   Rentmeister  ampt   erlegen   sollen." 

""Ferner  dasz  den  I7ten  dieses  Monats  dieselbe  [Outer  der  gesbertje  Wil- 
liams] in  prsesentie  Dirck  op  de  Graeff,  F.  Daniel  Pastorii  und  Anthonij 
Loofs  umb  I  uhr  vcrkaufft  und  ausgehoht  werden.' 

"  "D.  24ten  2ten  Monats    1692-3     .     .     . 

Dito  kauffte  die  General  Court  vor  Fr.  Daniel  Pastorius  eine  Copey  des 
Charters,  der  Statuten  dicser  Gemeind  und  Pensilvan.     Gesetz  &  20  Schilling." 

""Jtem  dasz  Jacob  Tellner  und  Fr.  Daniel  Pastorius  bey  dem  Gour 
umb  Confirmation  unseres  Charters  soil  anhalten.  als  Freunde  zu  Philada. 
solches  rathsam  zu  seyn  erachten." 

Melchior  Adam  Pastorius'  Signature  and  Seal. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  g 

The  occasion  of  this  appointment  is  given  by  him  in  a  letter  to 
his  father,  dated  June  i,  1693.  This  was  the  first  time  a  tax  of 
any  kind  was  levied  for  military  or  other  purposes.  A  tax  was 
now  levied  to  defray  the  travelling  expenses  of  Benjamin  Fletcher, 
the  newly  appointed  Governor,  who  was  sent  over  to  direct  the 
affairs  of  the  Province,  w^hile  Penn  was  on  trial  in  England.  Gov- 
ernor Fletcher  confirmed  the  Germantown  Charter  anew  and  con- 
stituted Pastorius  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  or  Irenarcha,  in  the 
County  of  Philadelphia,  as  the  newly  appointed  Justice  pedanti- 
cally termed  himself.  Fletcher  then  continued  his  journey  to 
New  York,  where  he  took  charge  as  Governor  and  Military  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  the  English  Islands  and  Colonies  in  Amer- 

On  the  19th  of  September  Dirck  op  de  Graeff,  Jan  Liicken 
and  F.  Daniel  Pastorius  were  ordered  to  make  an  inventory  of  the 
estate  left  by  Herman  Trapmann. 

Dec.  I,  1693  Pastorius  was  again  elected  Clerk  and  made 
Collector  of  Rents.  It  is  interesting  to  note  the  fees  allowed  for 
making  the  inventory  of  Trapmann's  estate :  Dirck  op  de  Graeff 
received  ^  crown,  Jan  Liicken,  3^  crown,  Anthony  Loof,  6  shil- 
lings, Fr.  Daniel  Pastorius,  4  shillings  and  for  extra  clerical  ser- 
vice, 18  d.^^  At  the  same  session  Pastorius  and  Peter  Schu- 
macher, Jun.,  were  ordered  to  have  a  stock  built  for  the  punish- 
ment of  criminals.  ^^ 

On  the  5th  of  the  nth  month  (January),  the  General  Court 

"  This  most  interesting  passage  is  found  in  the  Beschreibung,  pp.  54-55- 
and  runs  as  follows  in  the  original : 

"Ja  wir  haben  so  lange  Jahr  iiber  keinen  Heller  weder  Kriegs-  noch 
andere  Contributionen  zu  entrichten  gehabt  /  bisz  ctwa  vor  5.  Wochcn  im 
Namen  des  Konigs  Wilhelmi  III  der  neue  Gouverneur  /  Benjamin  Fletcher  / 
zu  Philadelphia  ankam  /  mit  Koniglicher  Ordre  und  VoUmacht  diese  Land- 
schafft  zu  verwalten  /  bisz  William  Penns  Rechfcrtigung  in  Alt-Ensreland 
via  Juris,  ausgefochten  seyn  wird.  Deme  wir  zu  Ersetzung  der  Reise-Kosten 
den  240sten  Pfenning,  scmcl  pro  semper  consentiret.  Dieser  hat  unsere  Ger- 
mantonische  Privilegia,  Krafft  deren  wir  unser  eigen  Gerichte  und  Raths- 
Versammlung  halten  diirffcn  /  uft's  neue  bcstiilligct  /  und  mich  zum  Irenarcha 
oder  Friedens-Richter  in  der  Philadelphischen  Grafschaflft  constituiret  / 
worauf  er  mit  seinem  Volck  wiederum  von  hier  ab  /  nacher  Neu-Yorck 
verreiset  /  woselbst  er  ebenmassig  Gouverneur  /  wie  auch  Knegs-Generalis- 
simus  iiber  alle  Englische  Insuln  und  Colonien  in  America  ist." 

lO  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

appoint  Dirck  op  de  Graeff  and  Pastorius  to  inquire  as  soon  as 
possible  of  Thomas  and  David  Lloyd  in  Philadelphia,  whether  the 
Charter  of  Germantown  did  not  exempt  the  Germantowners 
from  county  taxes;  and  on  the  6th  of  the  5th  month  (July  6. 
1694),  Dirck  op  de  Graefif  and  Pastorius  were  ordered  again  to 
inquire  into  the  same  matter.-"  In  the  minutes  of  this  same  ses- 
sion we  have  an  interesting  and  important  item  relating  to  the 
opening  of  the  Lagcrbuch.-^  On  the  first  of  December,  1694, 
Paul  Wulfif  was  elected  Clerk,  but  declined  without  good  cause 
to  act  and  was  fined  3  lb.  by  the  General  Court,  an  instance  of 
how  seriously  these  Germans  regarded  the  z'ox  popiili  at  this 
early  period  of  our  Pennsylvania  history.  Paul  Castner  (Kast- 
ner)  was  chosen  in  WulfT's  place  and  Pastorius  was  directed  by 
the  General  Court  to  keep  a  record  of  all  marriages,  births  and 
deaths  in  the  German  Township  in  a  special  book,  for  which 
service  he  was  to  receive  the  usual  fees,  so  long  as  the  Court  find 
110  reason  for  appointing  another  in  his  place. ^^ 

When  Paul  Castner  found  it  impossible  to  accept  the  clerk- 

"  I.  Dec.  1693    .    .    . 

"Dito  wurde  von  d.  General  Court  an  diejene  die  mit  des  vertrunkenen 
Herman  Trapmans  Hinterlassenschafft  bemiiht  gewest  zugestanden,  wie 
folgt,  nembi  an  Dirck  op  de  GraefF  ^2-  Cron,  an  Jan  Liicken  ^.  Cron,  an 
Anthonij  Loof  6.  Schilling,  an  Fr.  Daniel  Pastorius  4  schill.  u.  noch  wegen 
fernern  schreibens  18  d." 

""Noch  wurden  Fr.  Daniel  Pastorius  und  Peter  Schuemacher  Junr 
verordnet  einen  Stock  umb  die  iibelthaters  darin  zu  setzen,  zu  bestellen." 

""Den  6ten  des  5ten  Monats  [1694]  wurden  Dirck  op  den  Graeff  u. 
Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  nochmals  abgefertigt,  zu  Philada.  genau  zu  erfor- 
schen,  ob  uns  dr  Charter  von  denen  County  taxen  befreye  oder  nicht?" 

*^  "Dito  wurde  resolvirt,  dasz  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  ds  register  vor 
die  Contracten  etc.  als  ein  lagerbuch  einrichten,  u.  anfangen  solle,  u.  dar- 
vor  gebiihrl  bezahlt  werden." 

"  Anno   1694  den   loten  December     .... 

"Dito  wurde  von  der  Genn  Court  verordnet,  dasz  Frantz  Daniel  Pasto- 
rius alle  Heurathen,  Kindergeburten,  u.  Todesfall,  die  in  der  Germantown- 
ship  vorfallen  in  ein  absonderl.  buch  einschreiben,  u.  darfiir  die  lands  ub- 
liche  Fees  haben  solle,  so  lang  als  die  Gene  Court  keine  wichtige  ursach 
finden  wird  einen  andern  an  seine  Stell  zu  erwehlen." 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  ii 

sliip  for  reasons  of  conscience,  Pastorius  was  chosen  in  his  stead. 
In  the  same  minutes  we  find  that  Pastorius  was  to  receive  4  £ 
for  his  clerical  services  during  the  year  1694-1695.^^ 

At  the  next  election,  Dec.  2,  1695,  Pastorius  was  again  elected 
Bailif  and  Tiines  Kunders  was  chosen  Recorder  and  Antony 
Loof  to  Pastorius'  place  as  Clerk.  It  is  interesting  to  note  here 
that  Loof's  minutes  are  kept  in  Dutch  and  illiterate  German, 
wdiich  is  in  striking  contrast  with  Pastorius'  smoothe  German 

In  the  minutes  of  Jan.  25,  1694-5  we  learn  that  the  record 
of  births,  marriages  and  deaths  was  to  be  kept  in  the  English 
language.'^^  Two  other  items  of  general  interest  appear  in  the 
minutes  of  this  session — one  the  granting  of  a  license  to  Johannes 
Pettinger  to  keep  an  inn  ;-'^  the  other  a  resolution  to  hold  a  fair 
annually  the  13th  and  14th  of  the  3d  month  and  the  9th  month  of 
the  year.  At  the  following  session  of  the  Court  of  Record  Pastor- 
ius was  appointed  to  represent  Heifert  Papen,  who  could  not  at- 
tend because  of  the  confinement  of  his  wife.^^ 

In  the  next  election,  Dec.  ist,  1696,  also,  Pastorius  was 
elected  Bailif.  In  the  minutes  of  Loof  we  have  the  important 
item  that  the  General  Court  directed  Pastorius  to  copy  all  the 

""Den  17.  December  entschuldigte  sich  Paul  Castner  in  der  damahligen 
gen.  Court,  dasz  Er  gewissens  halben  das  Raths-  und  Gerichtschreibers  Amt 
nicht  bedienen  konne.  Wurde  darauff  von  der  genn  Court  einmiitigl.  mit 
Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  verglichen,  dasz  dieser  der  Gemeinde  Lagerbuch 
einrichten,  u.  bisz  den  iten  December  aiio  95.  als  Raths-  u.  Gerichtsschreiber 
dienen  solle  vor  4  lb.  laut  dariiber  gemachten  accords.  .  .  .  Unterzeich- 
nete  Arnold  Cassel  u.  Aret  Klincken  auflF  der  Courts  ordre  2  Vergleich  ge- 
macht  mit  Fr.  Daniel  Pastorius." 

^*Den  25ten  des  Xlten  Monats    1694-5. 

".  .  .  .  Die  Geburten,  Verheurathungen  und  Todesfall  sollen  nach 
Verordnung  der  ersten  in  diesem  Jahr  gehaltenen  Session  in  Englischer 
Sprach  eingeschrieben  werden." 

"  "Den  3ten  des  6ten  Monats  wurde  auff  Johaiies  Pettingers  Versuch 
zugestanden,  dasz  Er  Herberg  halten  moge,  u.  soil  Jhme  der  Beiliff  desz- 
halben  eine  Licence  ertheilen. 

Dito  wurde  beschlossen,  dasz  jahrl  den  I3ten  u.  r4ten  Tag  des  3ten  und 
9ten  Monats  eine  Faire  oder  offentlr  Jahrmarck  solle  gehalten  werden,  u. 
solches  an  den  Drucker  nach  Neu  Yorck  zu  scheiben,  umb  hinfiiro  in  die 
almanach    zu   setzen." 

"'Den  8ten  Octob. 

".  .  .  Auch  soil  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  in  heutiger  Court  of  Record 
an  Heifert  Papens  platz  (  :  als  welches  Frau  im  Kindbett  u.  kranck  darnieder 
lag:)    ds  Recorder  Amt  bedienen." 

12  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

previous  Record  neatly  in  English.  This  was  probably  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  minutes  kept  by  Wulff  and  Loof  presented  a  very 
motley,  not  to  say  almost  illegible,  appearance  in  the  Raths-Buch, 
as  some  specimens  of  Loof's  minutes  given  here  in  the  footnotes 
will  show.^^ 

In  1697  at  the  December  election  Pastorius  was  elected  both 
Recorder  and  Clerk,  and  Reinert  Tisen  took  his  place  as  Bailif. 
The  minutes  now  appear  in  Pastorius'  handwriting.  On  the  8th 
of  December  Pastorius  was  again  made  Collector  of  Rents,  and 
directed  by  the  Court  to  examine  the  accounts  of  Lenert  Arets, 
the  previous  Collector.  The  next  and  last  item  of  1697  relating 
to  Pastorius  states  that  Jacob  Delaplaine  was  elected  Recorder 
and  Clerk  in  Pastorius'  place,  as  the  latter  intended  to  move  to 
Philadelphia  in  the  next  few  days.-^ 

The  name  of  Pastorius  does  not  reappear  in  the  Raths-Buch 
until  1700.  During  the  years  1698- 1700  he  was  teaching  in  the 
Friends'  School  in  Philadelphia.  On  the  2nd  of  December,  1700, 
he  was  again  elected  Clerk  of  the  General  Court  of  Germantown. 
At  the  same  session  Daniel  Falkner  was  elected  Bailif.  Almost 
immediately  upon  his  return  to  Germantown,  Pastorius  seems  to 
have  been  enlisted  again  to  take  steps  to  obtain  the  confirmation 
of  the  Germantown  Charter,^ ^  and  also  to  obtain  release  from 
paying  county  taxes  for  the  Germantown  Corporation.^" 

"  1696.  26.  lom    .... 

"weiter  is  geordert  von  die  Generale  Court,  dasz  Fransz  D.  Pastorus 
geordert  sey  alle  biszhero  Record  sauber  vndt  rein  in  English  abzuschrei- 
ben.  Dito  geordert  Mannen.  om  order  te  stellen  under  bet  volk  in  tijt  van 
brandt.  Jan   Lintzen,   Peter   Schuemacher,   Frans  daniel   Pastorius." 

^  i6g7  den  8ten  des    iten   Monats     .... 

"Jtem  wurde  Jacob  dela  Plaine  an  Daniel  Pastorius  stell  zum  Recorder 
und  Clerk  crwehlet,  weilen  dieser  nechster  Tage  nach  Philada.  verhausen 

^"Den  30ten  Septemb.  1701.  wurde  geordert,  dasz  die  Confirmation 
unsers  Charters  [in  einem]  Request  bey  der  nun  sitzenden  Assembly  soil 
gesucht  werden ;  wie  auch  durch  [einen  Request]  bey  dem  Gouvr  unsere 
Naturalization  in  Engelland  zu  erwerben  &c.  Daniel  [Pastorius]  soil  gede 
rcqucsten  an  behorige  Ort  einliefern,  u.  ds  nothige  Geld  darzu  von  [dem 
Rent]meister  empfangen." 

"At  the  session  of  the  Colonial  Council,  5th  of  ist  mo.  1 700-1,  Pasto- 
rius presented  a  petition  to  this  end.  The  petition  was  recognized  as  one 
of  great  importance  for  tlie  future  policy  of  the  colony  and,  after  being  dis- 
cussed at  length,  was  deferred  till  another  Council  day  for  full  consideration 
(of.  Colonial  Records,  II,  13-14). 

Clock.  Tower  and  Gate,  Sommerhausen. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  13 

At  the  session  of  the  General  Court,  Dec.  i,  1701,  Pastor- 
ius was  re-elected  Clerk, ^^  and  Dec.  17th,  1701,  James  Delaplaine 
and  Daniel  Pastorius  were  directed  to  go  to  Philadelphia  to  con- 
fer with  the  Secretary  about  granting  Jan  Lens  a  license  to  keep 
an  ordinary;  and  Pastorius  is  commissioned  to  demand  of 
Thomas  Fairman,  when  occassion  offers,  the  Draft  of  the  Ger- 
man Township. 

At  the  session  of  Dec.  30,  1701,  a  minute  was  adopted,  en- 
dorsing the  opening  of  a  school  in  Germantown,  and  naming 
Aret  Klincken,  Paul  Wulff  and  Peter  Schumacher,  Jr.,  as  over- 
seers of  the  school,  with  authority  to  take  up  a  subscription  for 
the  period  of  two  years,  and,  if  the  subscription  warrant,  to  en- 
gage a  schoolmaster.  The  minutes  of  the  session  of  May  9,  1702, 
show  that  Justus  Falkner  and  Pastorius  were  delegated  to  confer 
with  Edward  Farmer  concerning  the  cost  of  the  Road  to  Phila- 
delphia.^^ At  the  election  of  Dec.  i,  1702,  Pastorius  was  re-elected 
Clerk  of  Germantown,  and  on  the  5th  of  the  nth  month  was 
chosen  Collector  of  Rents.  At  the  session  of  the  5th  of  the  nth 
month  it  was  ordered  that  the  clerk  bring  in  all  the  books  and 
documents  relating  to  the  Corporation  of  Germantown  at  the  next 
General  Court.  When  the  question  of  a  change  in  the  method  of 
keeping  the  records  of  the  Court  of  Record  came  up  Oct.  25,  1703, 
Pastorius  and  Daniel  Falkner  were  appointed  to  inquire  of  the 
Governor  and  Council  at  their  next  sitting,  whether  the  German- 
town  record  should  be  kept  in    accordance  with  the  new  instruc- 

"  Clerk :   Franz   Daniel   Pastorius. 

"  "Den  30.  Decemb.  1701  wurde  vor  gut  befunden,  hier  in  Germantown 
eine  Schul  anzurichten,  und  sollen  Aret  Klincken,  Paul  Wulff  u.  Peter  Schu- 
macher Junr  Auffseher  darvon  seyn,  u.  die  in  einem  Brieff  vorgeschlagene 
Subscription  befordern;  und  nach  dem  diese  ausfallen  wird,  mit  einem 
Schulmeister  accordiren ;  Diese  Subscription  u.  Schul  soil  zwey  Jahr  wah- 

"Den  gten  des  3ten  Monats   (:May:)    1702    .... 

"Das  Request  wegen  des  Philadelphischen  wegs  soil  noch  so  lang  nach- 
bleiben  bisz  Justus  Falckner  oder  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  der  darzu  en- 
forderten  Kosten  halber  mit  Edward  Farmer  gesprochen." 

14  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

tions.^^  This  same  year,  Dec.  i,  1703,  Pastorius  was  again 
elected  Clerk.  The  minutes  of  Dec.  31,  1703  show  that  some  at- 
tempt was  made  to  bring  order  into  the  rent  records,  as  Hans 
Heinrich  Mehls,  Tiinis  Kunders  and  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius 
were  instructed  to  transfer  the  rent  accounts  from  the  two  exist- 
ing books  into  one,  so  that  the  accounts  could  be  consistently  con- 
tinued from  year  to  year.  At  the  session  of  the  22nd  of  the  2nd 
month,  1704,  these  three  men  handed  over  the  revised  rent 
accounts  in  one  book  in  folio  to  the  Court  showing  the  receipts 
and  disbursements  to  Dec.  31,  1703  and  containing  an  index  or 
list  of  taxables  of  the  Germantovvn  Corporation,  At  the  session 
of  the  20th  of  the  12th  month,  1704-5,  Pastorius  was  elected 
Recorder,  and  Paul  Wulff  chosen  Clerk  in  Pastorius'  stead,  with 
the  provision  that  Pastorius  receive  the  ordinary  fees  and  Wulff  a 
half  crown  or  2  sh.  and  6  p.  for  each  Court.  On  the  12th  of  Sep- 
tember it  was  ordered  that  Pastorius  should  copy  the  records  in 
Paul  Wulff's  hand  neatly  in  English. 

November  23d  Paul  Wulff,  Lenert  Arets  and  Daniel  Pastor- 
ius were  appointed  to  audit  Aret  Klincken's  accounts  of  the  Cor- 

On  the  2nd  of  December,  1706,  Pastorius  was  again  elected 
Clerk,  and  on  the  7th  of  the  nth  month,  1706-7,  chosen  Com- 
mittee man  in  Peter  Schumacher's  stead  and  also  Collector  of 
Rents  in  the  place  of  Aret  Klincken.  At  this  same  session 
Pastorius  was  appointed  one  of  five  assessors  to  levy  an  extra  tax 
of  30  £  on  the  Corporation,  as  it  would  seem,  partly  because  of 

"  "Den  25ten  October  1703.  wurde  ordinirt,  dasz  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius 
und  Daniel  Falckner  sich  beym  Gouverneur  und  Counsel,  so  bald  sie  sitzen, 
erkundigen  sollen,  ob  wir  unsere  Courts  of  Record  allhier  zu  Germantown 
auff  die  alte  weis  niogen  forthalten  oder  ob  wir  nach  der  neuen  Jnstruction 
miissen  habilitirt  werden." 

"  "Den    I2ten   September    .... 

Wurde  verordnet,  dasz  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius,  die  iibrige  Records  unter 
Paul  Wulffen  Hand,  nicht  minder  dan  hiebevor  den  26  December  1696.  Er  dazu 
versucht  und  gestellt  worden,  sauber  und  rein  in  Englisch  einschreiben  solle." 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  15 

the  method  in  which  Klincken  had  kept  accounts,^®  Pastorius  is 
particular  to  note  in  the  minutes  that  he  had  received  from  Klin- 
cken neither  rent  nor  accounts,  but  that  the  Corporation  still 
owed  him,  Pastorius,  2  £  and  14  shillings.^'^  As  the  Germantown 
Corporation  lost  its  Charter,  which  indeed  seems  never  to  have 
been  satisfactorily  confirmed,  in  1707,  the  Raths-Buch  was  not 
discontinued  after  this  year,  leaving  no  record  that  Pastorius  was 
ever  repaid  the  2  £  14  sh.  due  him  from  the  Corporation. 

Although  the  Raths-Buch  breaks  off  here,  this  record  of  the 
brief  span  of  fifteen  years  is  sufficient  to  show  the  significant 
part  which  Pastorius  took  in  the  affairs  of  Germantown  and  to 
make  evident  the  fact  that  he  was  not  only  the  agent  of  the 
German  Company,  but  even  after  he  was  succeeded  by  Daniel 
Falkner,  Johannes  Kelpius  and  Johann  Jawert  he  was  regarded 
as  the  leading  man,  who  could  bring  things  to  pass. 

In  like  manner  the  Records  of  the  Court  of  Record^®  of 
Germantown  show  that  Pastorius  was  an  important  factor  as  at- 
torney in  the  conveyancing  of  property  for  the  Cref elders  as  well 
as  engaged  in  various  other  capacities.  There  are  numerous 
entries  in  the  minutes  showing  that  he  acted  as  attorney  for  many 
of  the  citizens  as  well  as  for  the  German  Company  before  the 
Court  of  Record. 


It  was  but  natural  that  Pastorius,  who  had  studied  at  the 
best  German  universities  of  his  time  and  acquired  the  best  the 
age  had  to  offer,  should  be  found  at  the  head  of  the  educational 
enterprises  of  the  Province  of  Penn.    The  concern  for  educating 

^"'Dieweilen  hiesige  Corporation  ziemlich  schuldig,  und  verschiedene 
nothige  Kosten  erfordert  werden  zu  fortsetzung  des  Gemeinen  Wesens,  als 
soil  ein  Tax  von  30  £  oder  mehr  angelegt  werden,  und  verordnet  nunmah- 
lige  generale  Court  vor  Assessors  William  Strepers,  Cornells  Sioert,  Jan 
Doeden,  Aret  Klincken  und  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius,  dass  sie  alle  u.  Jede 
Einwohner  u.  Besitzer  oder  Eigener  einiges  lands  in  der  Gremantownship 
sollen  taxiren  nach  dem  Werth  ihres  real  und  personal  Vermogens,  und 
sothanig  ihr  Assessment  r,el)cnst  denen  Nahmen  derjenenj  Mans  pt-rsoncn, 
so  ihre  Nahrung  in  gedr  Township  gewinnen,  an  nechste  Court  of  Record 

i6  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

the  youth  of  the  Province  had  been  manifest  in  the  economy  of 
Penn  and  early  found  the  approval  of  Pastorius,  who  in  1684 
under  date  of  March  7th,  wrote  to  his  constituents  in  Germany 
the  following  words:  "This  city  I  laid  out  on  the  24th  of  October 
[1683]  and  called  it  Germantown;  it  is  situated  2  hours  on  foot 
from  here  [Philadelphia]  on  fruitful  soil  and  on  pleasant 
streams,  of  which  I  spoke  before.  This  I  had  to  do  because 
W.  Penn  will  not  grant  any  one  his  portion  apart,  but  all  must 
dwell  together  in  townships  or  towns,  and  this  not  without  good 
reasons,  among  v/hich  the  most  important  is,  that  in  this  way 
children  can  be  kept  in  schools  and  far  more  readily  instructed 
to  good  purpose,  neighbors  also  can  offer  one  another  the  friendly, 
helping  hand,  and  in  unison  praise  and  exalt  the  goodness  of  God 
in  the  public  meetings." 

The  Provincial  Council  at  its  session  on  26th  of  the  loth 
month,  1683,  took  steps  to  engage  Enoch  Flower  to  teach  the 
youth  of  Philadelphia.  This  was  of  the  nature  of  a  Pay  School. 
In  1689  a  form  of  Public  School  w^as  established  under  the  direc- 
tion of  George  Keith.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Provincial  Council, 
Feb.  12,  1697-8,  Samuel  Carpenter,  Edward  Shippen,  Anthony 
Morris,  James  Fox  and  David  Lloyd  petitioned  the  Council  "That 
a  School  be  set  up  &  upheld  in  this  town  of  Philadelphia,  where 

""P.  S.  Wiewohl  ich  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  an  statt  Aret  Klinckens 
zum  Rentmeister  erwehlt  worden,  habe  ich  doch  von  ihm  weder  der  Ge- 
meinde  Rent-  od  Rechnungs  Buch,  noch  einig  pfenning  gedr  Gemeind  an- 
gehend,  empfangen,  so  dasz  dessfalls  gantz  klar  bin,  u.  die  Germantownische 
Gemeinde  noch  an  mich  schuldig  2  £  14  Schill. 

'^  So  far  all  efforts  to  find  the  original  minutes  of  the  Court  of  Record 
have  been  fruitless.  The  only  form  of  it,  which  seems  to  be  extant,  is  a 
very  inaccurate  manuscript  copy  found  in  the  Historical  Society  of  Penn- 
sylvania.    It  has  the  follow^ing  title: 

"The  Records  of  the  Court  of  Record  held  in  the  Corporation  of  Ger- 
mantown from  the  first  day  of  the  eighth  month  Anno  1691  and  thence  for- 
ward from  time  to  time  to  11.  12  mo  1706-7." 

The  Record  opens  thus : 

"Anno  1691  The  sixth  day  of  the  eighth  month  the  first  Court  of  Record 
was  held  at  Germantown  in  the  public  meeting  house  before  Francis  Daniel 
Pastorius  Bailiff,  lacob  Felner  [mistake  for  Telner]  Dirk  Isaacs  op  de 
Graef  and  Herman  Isaacs  op  de  Graef.  three  eldest  burgesses,  Isaac  Jacobs 
van  Bebbor,  Recorder,  Paul  Wulf,  Clerk,  Andrew  Soupli,  Sheriff,  Van 
[mistake  for  Jan]   Luken,  Constable." 


Francis  Daniel  Pastorins  ly 

poor  children  may  be  freely  maintained,  taught  &  educated  in 
good  Literature,  untill  they  are  fit  to  be  pict  out  apprentices,  or 
capable  to  be  masters  or  ushers  in  the  said  School."^^ 

This  petition  was  duly  considered  by  the  Council  and  granted 
at  the  same  session.  The  overseers  of  the  school  were  constituted 
a  corporate  body,  which  was  "To  have  continuance  for  ever,  by 
the  name  of  the  Overseers  of  the  publick  schoole  founded  in  Phil- 
adelphia, at  ye  request,  costs  &  charges  of  the  people  of  God  called 
Quakers."  It  was  evidently  in  response  to  this  demand  for 
public  instruction  for  all  classes  that  the  services  of  Pastorius 
were  solicited  and  secured  as  the  following  facts  set  forth. 

Pastorius  first  appears  in  the  school  records  of  the  Friends' 
Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  in  1697,  by  the  31st  of  the  lOth 
month,  1697,  we  find  the  following  minute: 

"A  paper  for  the  encouragement  of  a  free  school  was  this  day 
read,  whereupon  Samuel  Carpenter  &  James  Fox  are  desired  to 
treat  with  Daniel  Pastorius  and  Thomas  Makins  concerning  the 
same,  and  that  they  desire  the  friends  of  the  town  to  meet  together 
this  day  week  about  the  first  hour  at  this  meeting  house  to  con- 
sider further  of  it,  &  that  Daniel  Pastorius  &  Thomas  Makins  be 

Again  at  the  monthly  meeting  held  the  28th  of  the  ilth 
month,   1697,  we  have  the  following  minute: 

"Samuel  Carpenter  makes  report  to  this  meeting  that  several 
friends  met  together  according  to  the  desire  of  the  last  monthly 
meeting  to  treat  with  Daniel  Pastorius  &  Thomas  Makin  for  keep- 
ing a  public  school,  and  the  friends  then  met,  agreed  with  them, 
provided  this  meeting  approves  of  the  same,  that  the  monthly  meet- 
ing engages  to  pay  them  forty  pounds  each  yearly,  during  the 
time  they  continue  in  the  said  School,  friends  providing  a  School 
house,  which  being  approved  of,  The  Money  is  to  be  raised  by  way 
of  Subscription  and  Samuel  Carpenter  &  James  Fox  are  desired  to 
get  the  subscriptions  &  bring  them  in  the  next  monthly  meeting.  It 
is  agreed  also,  that  they  shall  begin  the  School  the  first  of  the  first 
month  next,  and  that  Samuel  Carpenter  &  James  Fox  do  acquaint 
them  of  it,  And  that  preparations  be  made  for  the  School  in  the  Inner 
Chamber,  over  the  Meeting-house,  and  they  are  to  be  paid  out  of 

Cf.  Colonial  Records,  I,  531-532. 

l8  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

the  Stock  before  money  be  raised  for  the  keeping  of  the  School, 
and  when  raised  to  be  repaid  again.  And  a  Subscription  paper  to 
be  drawn  up  by  Samuel  Carpenter  &  David  Lloyd  according  to  the 
proposals  which  were  ready  at  the  last  meeting." 

At  the  Monthly  Meeting  of  1698  we  find  a  minute  of  the  pay- 
ment of  the  first  (  ?)  half  year's  salary: 

"Anthony  Morris  being  desired  to  receive  the  subscriptions  for 
the  School  from  Pentecost  Teague  &  John  Busby  who  were  desired 
to  Collect  the  same.  He  makes  report  to  this  meeting  that  he  hath 
paid  Daniel  Pastorius  &  Thomas  Makins  the  ballance  of  their  half 
Years  salary  due  the  5th  of  the  7th  mo.  last." 

A  similar  minute  is  found  of  the  Monthly  Meeting  of  the 
28th  of  the  2nd  month,  1699: 

"John  Busby  makes  report  that  He  &  Hugh  Durbrough  hath 
Collected  of  several  of  the  Subscribers  about  £48. ..and  that  they 
have  paid  it  to  Anthony  Morris  who  hath  paid  off  Daniel  Pastor- 
ius and  the  two  Schoolmistresses  salaries." 

Finally,  the  following  minute  of  the  Monthly  Meeting  of  the 
29th  of  the  1st  month,  1700,  marks  the  end  of  Pastorius'  services 
as  teacher  in  the  Friends'  School  of  Philadelphia: 

"Griffith  Owen  having  recommended  John  Cadwallader  as  a 
person  very  fit  for  an  assistant  in  the  School,  (Francis  Daniel  Pas- 
torius being  gone)."'*'^ 

The  inference  may  be  drawn  here  that  Cadwallader  was  to 
take  Pastorius'  place  although  Pastorius'  name  was  always  men- 
tioned before  that  of  Makin  in  the  previous  minutes. 

Some  records  remain  to  tell  us  of  the  kind  of  school  Pastorius 
taught  in  Philadelphia  and  of  the  manner  and  method  of  his 
teaching.  The  subjects  taught  were  doubtless  those  prescribed 
by  the  Resolution  of  the  Provincial  Council  in  December,  1683, 
for  the  school  taught  by  Enoch  Flower,  the  first  schoolmaster  of 

•Reference  is  made  in  this  minute  to  "former  neglects."    Just  who  was 
responsible  for  the  neglects  does  not  appear  in  the  records. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  19 

"At  a  Council  held  at  Philadelphia,  ye  26th  of  ye  loth  month, 
1683.     Present : 

Wm.  Penn,  Propor.  &  Govr. 

Tho.  Holmes,  Wm.  Ilaigue,  Lasse  Cock,  Wm.  Clayton. 

The  Govr  and  Provll  Councill  having-  taken  into  Serious  Con- 
sideration the  great  Necessity  there  is  of  a  Scool  Master  for  ye  In- 
struction &  Sober  Education  of  Youth  in  the  towne  of  Philadelphia, 
Sent  for  Knock  Flower,  an  Inhabitant  of  the  said  Towne,  who  for 
jtwenty  Year  past  hath  been  exercised  in  that  care  and  Imploymt 
in  England,  to  whom  haveing  comunicated  their  Minds,  he  Em- 
braced it  upon  these  following  Termes :  to  Learne  to  read  English 
4s  by  the  Quarter,  to  Learne  to  read  and  write  6s  by  ye  Quarter, 
to  Learne  to  read,  Write  and  Cast  accot  8s  by  ye  Quarter ;  for 
Boarding  a  Scholler,  that  is  to  say,  dyet.  Washing,  Lodging,  & 
Scooling,  Tenn  pounds  for  one  whole  year."*^ 

The  spirit  of  the  school  and  the  jurist-schoolmaster  is  well 
reflected  in  a  letter  of  one  of  the  patrons,  Phineas  Pemberton  and 
in  Pastorius'  reply  to  the  letter  written  on  the  back  of  the  same 
sheet.  Both  letters  are  dated  April  12th,  1698,  and  here  printed 
in  the  quaint  style  and  orthography  of  the  time. 

Letter  of  Phineas  Pemberton  to  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius. 

"My  friend 

Ff.  D.  Pastorious  these  are  to  apologize  for  my  little  girles  have- 
ing as  they  tell  me  broke  the  rules  of  the  Schole  divers  times  even 
to  the  meriting  of  Correction  in  coming  too  late  in  the  morning 
J  wold  not  willingly  that  any  of  mine  shold  be  exemplary  in  faling 
short  of  theire  duty  in  pformance  of  those  decent  a  necess&ry  orders 
that  are  appointed  for  the  scholers  to  observe  and  keep  but  my 
weakness  has  been  such  that  theire  brother  &  sister  were  so  Jm- 
ployed  about  me  for  some  time  they  cold  not  come  at  all  and  after 
they  began  to  come  not  to  be  spared  to  forward  them  in  a  morn- 
ing as  they  ought  to  have  been  but  as  J  recover  J  hope  they  will 
be  better  served  &  so  better  fitted  to  observe  theire  time  in  coming 
&  in  the  meane  time  J  hope  these  may  find  that  favor  as  to  Jimput 
it  rathers  to  our  neglect  of  them  then  they  of  theire  duty  wch  we 
will  endeavor  to  amend  as  fast  as  we  can  is  all  at  prsent  from  thy 
real  friend. 

Phineas  Pemberton. 

The  I2th  mo.,  '98. 

*^Ci.  "Minutes  of  the  Provincial  Council"  (Colonial  Records,  I,  91). 

20  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Pastorius'  Reply  to  Phincas  Pemherton's  Letter. 

Dear  Friend  Phineas! 

Though  thy  two  little  ones  never  were  spoken  to  for  coming 
too  late,  yet  they  seeing  others  corrected  for  that  fault,  are  (as  it 
seems)  afraid;  which  argueth  their  good  disposition,  and  that  the 
very  shadow  of  the  rod  will  do  more  with  them,  than  the  spur  wth. 
others.  J  am  glad  to  hear  by  the  sd.  thy  children,  thou  dost  re- 
cover so  well,  &  get  a  little  more  strength  day  by  day,  which  J 
heartily  wish  the  Lord  may  augment  to  the  full.  No  more  at  pres- 
ent but  ye  cordial  salutation  from  thy  sincere  friend  F.  D.  Pastor- 

The  I2th  of  2d.  1698. 

Another  glimpse  into  the  schoolroom  of  Pastorius  is  to  be 
gained  from  an  experience  of  Israel  Pemberton,  one  of  the 
pupils,  dating  from  the  same  year  and  showing  that  what  Pastor- 
ius had  written  in  the  letter  given  in  full  about  the  use  of  the  rod, 
took  another  turn  three  months  later : 

Introdiictory  remarks  of  Israel  Pemberton  to  his  copy  of  the 

original  letter. 

"About  the  loth  day  of  the  4  month  1698,  ffrancis  Daniel 
Pastorius  a  German  one  of  the  school  masters  of  Philadelphia  took 
occation  (upon  a  small  difference  that  did  arise  between  me  and 
another  scholar)  to  beate  me  very  much  with  a  thick  stick  upon  my 
head  untill  the  blood  came  out  &  also  on  my  armes  untill  the  Blood 
started  through  the  skin  &  both  were  so  swelled  that  the  swelling 
was  to  be  seen  so  that  it  caused  my  cloths  to  stand  out  &  the  flesh 
was  bruised  that  it  turned  black  and  yellow  &  green  my  father  com- 
ing to  town  on  the  13th  day  of  the  5th  mo :  &  my  sister  acquainting 
him  how  I  had  been  vsed  took  me  away  from  ye  school  the  14th 
day  of  the  5th  mo:  &  the  15th  day  sent  me  into  the  Country  from 
whence  J  writ  these  following  epistles. "^^ 

The  letter  which  follows  is  addressed  to  Mackin,  who  seems 
to  have  been  on  more  agreeable  terms  with  this  particular  pupil, 
at  least.  There  is  no  doubt  that  "another"  in  the  letter  refers  to 
Pastorius.     It  is  likewise  to  be  supposed  that  the  stripes  inflicted 

"The    original    MS.    containing    these    letters    is    in    the    possession    of 
the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania. 

**  Cf.   Pennsylvania  Magazine,  xxviii,   109. 


(Outer  Wall  with  Square  Tower.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  21 

by  the  German  schoolmaster  were  sHghtly  magnified  by  his 
pupil  Israel  Pemberton.  Nevertheless  the  punishment  must  have 
been  severe,  or  the  otherwise  rule-loving  father  would  not  have 
taken  his  son  out  of  school.  Judging  from  the  contents  of  the  let- 
ter and  the  severity  of  the  punishment  we  may  suppose  the  "dif- 
ference" between  Israel  and  his  schoolmate  took  the  form  of  an 
outright  fisticuff.  It  is  also  interesting  to  see  the  character  of  the 
more  vigorous  discipline  based  on  the  old  doctrine,  "Spare  the 
rod  and  spoil  the  child,"  of  the  German  school  and  schoolmaster 
reflected  in  Israel's  description:  "Rough  answers,"  "without  hav- 
ing the  liberty  to  speak  one  word  in  my  own  defence."  The 
subscript  of  the  letter  exhibits  a  good  spirit  in  Israel  after  all  and 
gives  us  a  fine  trace  of  the  German  schoolmaster's  personal  ap- 
pearance. We  learn  also  incidentally  that  Pastorius  taught 
Latin  in  this  school  and  that  too  in  this  case  to  a  boy  of  thirteen 

Ye  22th  day  of  ye  5th  mo.  1698 
Deare  master 

Thomas  meakin  Lest  through  mistake  the  abuse  J  Receiued  at 
the  schoole  being  noised  abroad  should  be  taken  to  be  thee  J  made 
bold  to  write  these  few  lines  for  the  clearing  of  thee  thy  Jnstruc- 
tions  were  so  mild  and  gentle  as  that  J  never  Received  one  blow 
or  stripe  from  thy  hand  during  my  stay  there  tho  my  dullness  at 
times  might  have  given  thee  occation  for  if  J  wanted  Jnformation 
with  boldness  J  cold  come  to  thee  being  always  friendly  Received 
but  from  another  J  always  found  Rough  answers  where  J  Quickly 
left  to  trouble  him  not  finding  the  kindnes  as  from  thee  &  Jndeed 
what  he  did  for  me  from  first  to  last  is  to  be  seen  in  that  little  Lattin 
book  J  write  at  his  first  coming  which  J  have  forgot  at  schoole  behind 
me  if  thou  would  be  pleased  to  send  it  by  some  of  the  boatmen  to 
be  left  at  Samll  Jenings  when  thou  meets  with  it  J  shall  take  it  as 
a  kindnes  J  do  say  it  was  not  my  Jntent  to  have  let  it  be  known  but 
the  anguish  of  the  blows  &  being  Jnwardly  opprest  with  greife  to 
think  how  J  was  used  with  out  having  the  liberty  to  spake  one  word 
in  my  own  defence  did  so  chainge  my  Countenance  that  my  sister 
presently  perceived  it  who  was  restles  untill  J  had  discovered  the 
occation  who  rested  not  there  but  would  see  &  when  she  saw  was 
also  so  greived  that  she  would  shew  me  to  some  others  tho  J  en- 
deavored much  to  diswade  her  but  shee  would  not  but  did  cause 
me  to  [be]  seen  by  H:  Carpenter  &  Tho:  whartons  wife,  but  con- 
terary  to  my  mind  tho  he  never  shewed  any  respect  to  me  as  a 

22  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

scholar  but  still  frowned  upon  me  the  Reason  J  know  not  for  J 
never  Jntended  to  vex  him  &  therefore  never  made  use  of  him  & 
thou  being  out  of  schoole  he  took  that  oppertunity  so  to  Thrash 
me  &  J  observed  that  he  generaly  showed  his  disposition  more  when 
thou  was  out  of  schoole  for  whileit  thou  was  in  he  seldome  went 
into  those  extrames  as  at  other  times  this  is  only  priuate  to  thy  self 
J  desire  not  to  Jnjure  him  J  would  willingly  have  stayd  Longer  at 
the  schoole  but  my  sister  having  told  my  father  how  things  were  & 
the  tokens  of  his  correction  still  remaineing  upon  me  tho  about  five 
weeks  since  &  are  still  to  be  seen  &  so  sore  as  that  J  cannot  endure 
any  thing  to  press  against  it  he  wold  not  leave  me  tho  J  desired  it 
but  J  will  forbeare  to  say  any  more  about  it  Lest  J  shold  too  farr 
sten  up  v/hat  J  v/old  have  at  an  end  but  J  Love  thee  &  desire  to  be 
with  thee  &  to  spend  the  rest  of  my  schooling  under  thee,  but 
whether  it  may  be  so  or  no  J  know  not  yet  J  desire  it  with  my  love 
end  these  Lines  who  am  thy  scholar 


Israel  Pcmhcrton's  Letter  to  Richard  Johns. 

"13th  day  of  the  6  mo  1698" 
"I  perceive  by  thyne  that  D.  P.  Sowerness  still  remaines  the 
first  time  J  saw  him  J  told  my  father  that  J  thought  he  would  prove 
an  angry  master  he  asked  me  Vv^hy  so  J  told  him  J  thought  so  by 
his  nose  for  wh  he  called  me  a  prating  boy  but  J  find  J  had  some 
skill  for  J  have  not  onely  the  witness  he  gave  me  of  it  but  J  vnder- 
stand  others  see  it.    Tho  they  have  not  felt  so  much  of  it  as  my  self." 

In  letter  of  Thomas  Makin  to  Phineas  Pemberton  pro- 
testing against  his  sending  Israel  Pemberton,  his  son,  to  another 
school,  dated  Philada.  28:2mo,  1699,  we  learn  that  Pastorius 
did  not  teach  arithmetic,  at  least  not  to  Israel  Pemberton. 

"Augnest  ye  5th  6  mo  [1698] 
My  Deare  Companion 

And  plesent  school  fellow  J  P  Thy  letter  J  received  dated  ye  22d 
of  ye  last  o|m  and  was  hartily  glad  to  hear  of  thy  welfare  and  also 
to  renew  our  former  friendship  which  shall  never  be  violated  one 
my  part  and  altho  our  former  sociaty  suffers  an  ecclipse  by  parting 
with  the  yett  J  comfert  my  self  that  my  stay  will  not  bare  any  long 
date  after  the,  truly  my  master  Pastorus  unkindness  makes  me  whish 
for  ye  yeare  up  and  Then  J  hope  J  shall  be  at  liberty  to  Jnjoy  the 
pleasure  J  have  formerly  had  in  thy  company,  fully  Jntending  Jf  J 
Live  till  September  to  set  ye  falls  and  so  to  take  my  sollemn  farewell 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  23 

of  thee  my  friend  and  all  ye  rest  of  your  family  who  are  the  only 
persons  J  am  acquainted  with  Jn  Those  parts  till  which  shall  take 
leave  and  remain  Thy  assured  friend 

Richard  Johns. 

Mother  Js  in  health  Margret  and  Hannah  were  much  pleased  wth 
thy  notice  of  them  wiching  they  were  Big  annuf  to  write  to  prissilla. 

A  copy  of  a  letter  which  J  received  from  Richard  Johns  the  12th 
day  of  the  6th  month  1698." 

Postscript  of  Israel  Pemherton  to  his  Copy  of  Richard  Johns' 


"J  cannot  but  sorrow  at  times  to  think  of  my  removal  and  the 
occation  of  it  for  J  long  to  be  with  thee  again  tho  some  times  J 
smile  to  myself  to  think  how  J  told  my  father  when  first  J  saw  him. 
J  doubted  he  would  prove  an  angry  master  he  asked  me  why  so 
J  told  him  J  thought  so  by  his  nose  he  called  me  a  prating  boy 
but  J  find  J  had  some  skill  for  he  has  since  confirmed  it  to  me  with 
a  witness  as  if  he  Loved  me  its  more  than  J  know  because  he  never 
shewed  me  any  of  it  however  J  love  him  &  desire  thee  Remember 
my  love  to  him  if  thou  please:  J  am  afraid  J  am  over  bold  therefore 
crave  thy  excuse  &  so  farewell  dear  master."** 

Pastorius  lived  in  Philadelphia  a  part  of  the  time  at  least  dur- 
ing his  period  of  teaching  at  the  Friends'  School  and  left  his  house 
in  Germantown  vacant.  His  children  went  to  school  in  Philadel- 
phia, presumably  to  the  school  in  which  their  father  taught.  This 
we  learn  quite  incidentally  from  a  letter  written  by  them  to  their 
grandfather  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  in  Windsheim  and  dated 
Philadelphia,  Mar.  4,  1699.  In  this  letter  we  learn  that  the  school 
was  kept  eight  hours  every  day  except  Saturday  afternoon  (and 
Sunday),  and  between  the  lines  we  read  a  sign  of  relief  at  the 
thought  of  this  "last  day  of  the  week,"  when  there  was  no  school 
in  the  afternoon.  The  very  interesting  passage  of  the  letter  be- 
ing as  follows  in  English  translation  :^^ 

**Cf.  Pennsylvania  Magazine,  xxviii,  109- no. 

**  Cf.  Beschreibung,  p.  102.  The  original  passage  is  in  German : 
"Wir  wiinschen  gar  ofift  bey  dir  zu  seyn  /ach  class  du  hier  warest  und  in 
unserm  Hause  zu  Germanton  wohnetest  /  welches  einen  schoncn  Obsgarten 
hat  /  und  der  Zeit  leer  stehet  /  indeme  wir  zu  Philadelphia  wohnen  /  und 
taglich  8.  Stunden  lang  in  die  Schul  gehen  miissen  /  ausgenommcn  den 
ietzten  Tag  in  der  Wochen  /  da  wir  Nachmittag  daheim  bleibcn  dorffen," 

24  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

"We  often  wish  we  were  with  you,  if  only  you  were  here  in 
our  house  in  Germantown,  which  has  a  beautiful  orchard,  and  is 
now  standing  empty,  as  we  are  living  in  Philadelphia,  and  have  to 
go  to  school  &  long  hours  every  day,  except  the  last  day  of  the 
week,  when  we  may  stay  at  home  in  the  afternoon." 

The  next  record  of  Pastorius  is  found  in  the  Raths-Buch  of 
Germantown,  where,  as  we  have  seen,  he  is  mentioned  again  in 
1700.  It  seems  more  than  likely  that  Pastorius  was  the  originator 
of  the  proposal  to  open  a  school  in  Germantown,  which  was  ap- 
proved by  the  General  Court  Dec.  30,  1701.  This  school  was 
opened  on  the  nth  of  Jan.,  1702  and  taught  by  Pastorius.  The 
first  Overseers  for  the  year,  1702,  were  Aret  Klincken,  Peter 
Schumacher  and  Paul  Wulfif.  These  were  the  original  sub- 
scribers to  the  School : 

Anton  Loof,  Dirck  Jansen, 

Peter  Schumacher,  Dirck  Jansen,  der  Knecht, 

Paul  Wulff,  Johannes  Umstett, 

Jacob  Simons,  Heifert  Papen, 

Jacob  Delaplaine,  Jan  Leusen, 

Jonas  Potts,  Peter  Bon, 

Isaac  Schumacher,  Hermann  Bon, 

Levin  Herberdink,  Dirck  Keyser, 

Johann  Bleikers,  Glaus  Tamson, 

Gerhard  Ruttinghusen, 

and  two  others  whose  names  have  not  been  deciphered.*^ 

This  school  was  open  to  boys  and  girls.  Tlie  voluntary  con- 
tributors gave  from  2  to  10  shillings  a  year.  Those  who  paid 
tuition  gave  from  4  to  6  shillings  a  week.  The  names  of  the 
patrons  who  sent  children  to  the  school  the  first  year  were : 

'"  An  important  source  for  Pastorius'  activity  as  teacher  of  the  School 
in  Germantown  was  his  Cash-Book,  which  was  consulted  some  years  ago  by 
both  O.  Seidensticker  and  S.  W.  Pennypacker,  but  seems  to  have  disap- 
peared since  that  time.  The  above  account  is  based  on  Seidensticker's 
original  notes  from  the  Cash-Book  printed  in  the  Der  Deutsche  Pionicr, 
III,  56  ff.  The  present  writer  will  be  very  grateful  for  any  information  as 
to  the  Cash-Book. 


(Old  Fountain  and  Woman  with  a  Watertank. 
Schoolmaster  Gutmann  and  his  son  on  the  right.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 


Christian  Warmer, 
Arnold  van  Vossen, 
Johann  Cunrad  Codweis, 
Cornelis  Sivert, 
Aret  Kuster, 
Jan   Doeden, 
Lenert  Arets. 

Aret  Klincken, 
Reinert  Tysen, 
Tiines  Kunders, 
Wilhelm   Strepers, 
Paul  Kastner, 
Renier  Hermans, 
Abraham  op  de  Graeff, 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  list  that  very  few  of  the  original 
voluntary  subscribers  sent  children  to  the  school  the  first  year,  the 
most  of  them  contributing  evidently  to  encourage  the  undertak- 
ing. In  connection  with  this  day  school  there  was  also  an  even- 
ing school  for  those  who  could  not  attend  during  the  day.  In 
the  year  1702  the  following  attended  this  evening  school: 

Paul  Engel,  Agnes  Kunders, 

Peter  SchoU,  Peter  Keyser, 

Matthis  Kunders,  Peter  Keurlis, 

Matthis  Keurlis,  Wilhelm  Gerits, 

Samuel  Kastner,  Johannes  Gerckes, 

Jacob  Engel,  Jan  Kunders, 

Hanna  Siverts,  Andreas  Hartzfelder. 

The  growth  of  the  Germantown  school  is  clearly  indicated 
by  the  increased  list  of  patrons  for  the  year  1706-1708: 

Tunes  Kunders, 
Jan  Liicken, 
Lenert  Arets, 
Jacob  Gottschalk, 
Heinrich  Sellen, 
Paul  Engel, 
Aret  Klincken, 
Jacob  Schumacher, 
Thomas  Potts,  Sen., 
Jan  Neus, 
Paul  Kastner, 
Arnold  van  Vossen, 
Richard  Townsend, 
Wilhelm  Strepers, 
Abraham  Tunes, 
Cornelis   Tisen, 
Peter  Schumacher, 

W.  Baumann, 
Benjamin  Armitage, 
Wilhelm  de  Wees, 
Cornelis  de  Wees, 
Samuel  Richardson, 
Conrad  Rutter, 
Jonas  Potts, 
Jan  Doeden, 
Jan  de  Wilderness, 
Paul  Kiister, 
Paul  Ruttinghusen, 
Benjamin  Morgan, 
Christian  Warmer, 
Christopher  Witt, 
Georg  Schumacher, 
Joseph  Coulson, 
Isaak  van  Sintern, 

26  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Cornells  Siverts,  Peter  Keyser, 

Griffith  Miles,  Aret  Kiister, 

Isaak  Schumacher,  Cunrad  Jansen, 

Paul  Wulff,  Hans  Heinrich  Mehls, 

Herman  Tunes,  Cunrad  Rijtters  (Rutter?) 

Jan  Lensen,  Jiirgen  Jacobs, 

Dirck  Jansen,  Wilh.  Hosters, 

Matthis  Milan,  Hans  Graef, 

Anton  Loof,  Hans  Neus  (Jan  Neus?) 

Walter  Simons,  Heinrich  Kassel, 

Howel  James,  Peter  Keurlis, 

James  Delaplaine,  Richard  Huggin, 
Anthony  Klincken, 

It  would  seem  strange  that  a  community  like  that  of  Ger- 
mantown,  with  a  highly  educated  man  like  Pastorius  at  the  head, 
should  not  have  had  a  school  before  1702,  nineteen  years  after  the 
settlement  of  the  town.  Seidensticker'*'''  thought  it  likely  that  an 
evening  school  existed  before  1702.  It  seems  more  likely  that 
the  instruction  of  children  was  given  in  the  meeting  even  from  the 
earliest  assembling  in  private  houses  till  the  building  of  the 
church  in  1686.*^  The  minute  in  the  Raths-Buch  of  Dec.  3,  1701, 
seems  to  preclude  the  actual  existence  of  a  separate  community 
school  before  that  time.  It  is  quite  likely  that  the  opening  of 
the  Germantown  school  was  directly  stimulated  by  the  renewed 
effort  to  improve  the  Friends'  School  in  Philadelphia,  where 
Pastorius  had  just  finished  an  engagement  as  teacher  in  the 
Friends'  School.  For  there  is  no  longer  any  question  that  Pas- 
torius taught  for  the  Friends  and  not  in  a  private  school  of  his 
own  in  Philadelphia  as  was  considered  possible  by  Professor  Sei- 

The  question  was  raised  by  Professor  Seidensticker  whether 
Pastorius  taught  in  German  or  English  in  the  Germantown  school. 

*'  Cf .  Der  Deutsche  Pionier,  III,  56. 

**  Cf.  Beschreibung,  p.  34. 

**Cf.  MS.  copy  of  Seidensticker's  Biographical  Sketch  of  Francis  Daniel 
Pastorius  among  the  D.  P.  Bruner  papers  loaned  me  by  Mr.  Abram  Bruner 
of  Roanoke,  Va.,  after  Mr.  D.  P.  Bruner's  death. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  27 

There  seems  little  reason  for  supposing  that  the  language  of  in- 
struction was  German,  although  teacher  and  pupil  alike  no  doubt 
often  spoke  German,  as  most  of  the  pupils  were  from  German 
families.  But  the  fact  that  the  General  Court  as  early  as  1696 
had  ordered  the  minutes  of  the  Raths-Buch  to  be  copied  in  English 
by  Pastorius  is  evidence  that  they  already  recognized  the  neces- 
sity of  using  the  official  language  of  the  Province  in  business  in- 
tercourse and  it  is  hardly  likely  that  they  would  have  taken  an 
opposite  policy  by  establishing  a  strictly  German  school,  especially 
as  the  pupils,  who  spoke  German  at  home,  needed  a  knowledge 
of  English  above  all  else.  Then  too  the  fact  mentioned  by  Seiden- 
sticker,  that  the  titles  of  Pastorius'  school  books,^**  which  were 
evidently  intended  as  aids  in  his  teaching,  are  in  English,  would 
seem  to  show  that  the  instruction  was  given  in  English.  The 
other  works  of  Pastorius  of  a  pedagogical  character  but  with 
German  sub-titles  are  of  a  more  advanced  character  and  scarcely 
designed  for  use  in  the  school.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  Pastorius 
taught  some  of  the  subjects  of  his  other  English  books  in  the 
school,  as  for  example  The  Young  Country  Clerk,  The  Good 
Order  and  Discipline  of  the  Church  of  Christ,  particularly  to  the 
more  advanced  boys  of  the  school. 

It  is  not  stated  how  long  Pastorius  taught  the  Germantown 
school,  but  it  seems  likely  that  he  continued  the  school  as  long  as 
he  was  able  to  teach,  at  least  till  1718. 

Although  Pastorius  was  educated  in  the  humanities  and 
deeply  read  in  the  scholastic  literature,  his  contact  with  the  reali- 

"Cf.  the  following  books  by  Pastorius: 

1.  Pruner   c.    1698. 

2.  Lingua  Anglicana  or  Some  Miscellaneous  Remarks  Concerning   the 
English  Tongue. 

3.  Lingua   Latina   or   Grammatical   Rudiments. 

4.  Collection  of  English  Rhymes,  Alphabetically  Arranged. 

5.  A  Breviary  of  Arithmetick  and  Arithmetical  Hotch-Potch. 

6.  Formulae  Solennes  or  Several  Forms  of  such   Writings  as  ore  vul- 
garly in  Use,  whercunto  an  Epistolography  is  annexed. 

7.  Vademecum  or  the  Christian  Scholar's  Pocket  Book. 

28  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

ties  of  the  new  world  convinced  him  of  the  need  of  a  new  edu- 
cation, which  should  have  more  regard  for  the  realia.  He  even 
goes  so  far  as  to  regret  the  great  outlay,  which  his  father  had 
made  for  his  now  somewhat  useless  preparation  for  life.  As 
early  as  1699  in  a  letter  to  his  father,  he  set  forth  this  changed 
attitude  in  significant  detail — a  point  of  view  far  ahead  of  his 
time  and  anticipating  the  educational  revolution  of  the  nineteenth 
century.  The  German  part  of  the  letter  in  question  is  given  here 
in  English  translation  with  the  Latin  passages  unchanged  as  they 
appear  in  the  original : 

"As  for  other  matters  this  colony  still  increases  daily  in  popu- 
lation and  human  wickedness,  nevertheless  I  hope  the  condition 
of  things  will  never  become  so  inhuman  as  in  those  European  uni- 
versities, at  which  one  must  learn  for  the  most  part  nothing  but 
dediscenda.  Multi  enim  Professores  inutilibus  quacstionihus  & 
acutis  tricis  nngalibus  tempiis  terunt,  &  duni  discentium  mcntes  in 
supervacaneis  quaestionibus  detinent,  hnpediunt  eas  ne  ad  solidiora 
aspirent.  Nitiiatur  explorare  giiid  sit  Jupiter  &  Vulcanus,  sed  non 
guid  fit  Christus?  Conantur  qiioque  sanetissemum  Verbum  Dei 
Aristotelicis  Syllogismis  iUuminare  &  defendcre,  quasi  vero  Spiri- 
tus  ille  Sanctus  {qui  solus  verus  Author  &  Dictator  scripturae  est) 
per  damnatum  Ethnicum  &  in  Inferno  ejulans  Ingenium  Aristotelis 
posset  reformari  ant  illustrari. 

Others  passed  the  precious  time  with  nothing  but  useless  ques- 
tions and  indagationibus,  an  vera  sit  ilia  Jnscriptio  scpulchralis  in 
Monte  Fiascone:  Propter  Verbum  est  est  Dominus  meus  mortuus 
est.  Others  look  for  the  ablative  case  in  the  Greek  declensions,  but 
for  what  purpose  they  need  it,  they  themselves  do  not  know. 

Indeed  nowadays  the  students  are  beginning  to  drink  one  in 
every  ten  of  their  number  to  death,  and  to  send  him  into  the  Hell- 
ish realm  of  Satan,  which  is  in  very  truth  greatly  to  be  lamented, 
and  it  were  to  be  sought  of  God,  that  the  eyes  of  professors  as 
well  as  students  might  be  opened,  so  that  they  might  know  how 
vain  it  is  to  boast  of  the  light  of  the  Gospel  and  yet  remain  in  such 
abominable  works  of  darkness. 

Accordingly  I  pity  my  dear  brother  Johannes  Samuel,  if  he, 
having  learned  piety  and  the  fear  of  God  from  his  dear  parents 
and  tutor,  should  afterwards  lose  them  again  at  the  universities 
and  experience  so  much  dediscinda  with  the  extreme  peril  of  his 
soul,  and  I  would  much  rather  advise  him,  as  a  true  brother,  that 
he  learn  some  respectable  practical  trade,  in  which  he  could  serve 
God  and  his   fellow  Christian,  the  which,  although  it  is  regarded 

(2f^  ^jU/^  aC.  ^My  $if<^.  -^^^i 

P^'2(r^-/Gf1    <;?/^^  vW  ^.^  ^i^ 

Calendar  of  Pastorius'  Life, 
(From  "Res  Propria^"). 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  29 

little  and  despised  among  you,  is  notwithstanding  more  in  accord 
with  the  divine  order  and  apostolic  teaching  than  all  scholastic 
speculation;  for  in  the  main  the  highly  versed  are  highly  perverse 
&  scientia  mundana  infiat.  Such  lofty  haughty  spirits  wish  after- 
ward to  live  in  great  state;  for  this  they  need  large  sums  of  money, 
which  they  try  to  obtain  to  the  harm  of  their  neighbor,  in  order 
that  their  wives  and  children  may  be  able  to  strut  around  a  la  mode. 
In  opposition  to  this  the  humble  people  taught  of  God  say  with 
Antonius :  Non  data  non  ciipio,  and  think  it  right  with  Palingenius, 
contentum  vivere  parvo,  cum  quihus  concordat  S.  Paulus  Hebr. 
13.  V.  5."" 

Pastorius  himself  regretted  that  he  had  devoted  the  precious 
time  of  youth  to  obstruse  scholastic  learning  rather  than  to  the 
more  practical  realia.  He  expressed  this  in  strong  language,  in 
reflecting  upon  his  early  education : 

"I  myself  would  give  several  hundred  rix  dollars,  if  I  had  de- 
voted the  precious  time,  spent  in  learning  Sperling's  Physic,  Meta- 
physic  and  other  unnecessary  sophistical  argumentations  and  dispu- 
tations, to  engineering  and  printing,  which  would  now  be  more 
serviceable  to  me,  and  more  useful  and  interesting  to  me  and  my 
fellow  Christian  than  all  such  physic  and  metaphysic  and  all  Aris- 
totelean  Elencki  and  Syllogismi,  by  means  of  which  no  savage  or 
unchristian  man  can  be  brought  to  God,  much  less  a  piece  of  bread 
be  earned."^- 

Pastorius  and  his  fellow  townsmen  were  not  only  zealous 
for  the  growth  of  the  settlement  but  scrupulous  about  their  legal 
status  as  citizens  of  the  Province  and  subjects  of  the  Crown.  As 
early  as  the  7th  of  the  3d  month,  1691,  some  sixty  High  and  Low 
Germans  of  Germantown  declared  their  allegiance  to  King  Wil- 
liam and  Queen  Mary,  and  fidelity  to  the  Proprietor  of  the  Prov- 
ince. All  seems  to  have  gone  on  smoothly  in  the  German  Town- 
ship until  1705-6,  when  the  conduct  of  the  affairs  of  the  German 
(or  Frankfurt)  Company  assumed  a  more  serious  aspect  and  the 
civil  rights  of  the  Germans  were  felt  to  be  insecure.  Accord- 
ingly a  petition  was  laid  before  the  Colonial  Council  asking  for 

Cf.  Beschrcibimg,  pp.  99-100. 
■  Cf.  Opening   of  the  Bechstein  Library,  Addresses,  p.  34. 

30  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

the  naturalization  of  those  surviving  Germans  and  others,  who 
had  promised  fealty  in  1691,  and  about  a  hundred  others  by  spe- 
cial act  of  Assembly  and  the  sanction  of  the  English  Crown.^* 
This  petition  was  laid  before  the  Council  on  the  15th  of  3d  month, 
1706,  and  favorably  considered,  as  the  following  minute  will 
show : 

"A  Petition  of  Joannes  Koster,  and  about  150  other  high  and 
low  Germans  to  the  Govr.  and  Council  was  read,  setting  forth,  that 
the  Petrs.,  with  many  other  aliens  to  the  kingdom  of  England,  by 
the  Encouragement  of  the  Propr.  had  Transported  themselves  into 
this  Province,  &  by  their  Industry  had  changed  the  uncultivated 
Lands  they  had  purchased  into  good  settlemnts.,  &  for  Twenty-two 
years  past  had  behaved  themselves  as  Liege  &  Loyal  subjects  of 
England,  that  above  60  of  the  said  Ptrs.  at  one  time,  viz:  the  7th 
of  ye  3  mo.,  1691,  had  in  open  Court,  promised  allegiance  to  K. 
William  &  Q.  Mary,  &  fidelity  to  the  Propr.,  besides  many  others 
who  had  done  the  Like,  &c.  that  such  as  have  not  already  obliged 
themselves  are  ready  to  do  it  when  they  shall  be  admitted.  They 
therefore  request,  that  (seeing  they  are  not  at  present  believed  to 
be  secure  in  their  Estates)  for  remedying  the  unhappiness  they  may 
be  engaged  in,  if  they  be  still  considered  as  foreigners,  the  assem- 
bly may  be  convened  with  all  Convenient  speed,  &  a  Bill  recom- 
mended from  this  board  for  naturalizing  all  &  every  of  the  said 
Ptrs.,  that  they  may  have  an  undoubted  right  to  hold,  enjoy,  alien- 
ate, sell  &  dispose  of  any  of  their  Lands,  as  the  natural  born  sub- 
jects of  England  may  or  can  do  in  this  Province,  &  also  that  they 
may  be  capable  of  Electing  or  being  elected,  to  serve  in  Assembly 
&  other  Offices ;  also,  that  some  of  the  Petrs.  being  Mennists,  who 
(with  their  Predecessory  for  above  150  Years  past,)  could  not  for 
Conscience  sake  take  an  Oath,  the  same  provision  may  be  made  for 
them  by  a  law,  as  is  made  for  those  called  Quakers  in  this  Prov- 
ince, and  that  the  said  Law  may  be  sent  home  with  the  rest,  past 
by  the  late  Assembly,  in  Order  to  obtain  the  Queens  Royal  Appro- 

Which  Petition  being  argued  and  Considered,  It  is  Resolved, 
that  it  is  highly  reasonable  the  Petrs.,  and  all  others  in  their  Cir- 
cumstances, should  be  rendered  Secure  in  their  Estates  and  Titles 
to  their  lands  in  this  Province,  the  value  of  which  is  generally,  but 
the  efifect  of  their  own  labours,  and  in  pursuance  of  some  parts  of 

•'Cf.  Patent  Index  Book,   A  &  AA    (Department  of  Internal   Affairs, 
Harrisburg,  Pa.). 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  31 

the  prayer  of  the  said  Petition  leave  is  given  to  the  sd.  Petrs.,  to 
procure  the  attorney  Genl.  to  draw  up  a  bill  for  that  purpose,  to 
be  laid  before  this  Board  where  it  shall  meet  with  all  due  Encourage- 

Nearly  four  years  later  the  Bill  was  presented  to  the  Coun- 
cil, which  had  the  following  minute  entered,  September  29,  1709, 
stating  that: 

"The  Govr.  acquainted  the  board,  that  the  night  before  the 
Speaker  attended  with  several  members  of  the  House,  brought  him 
the  Bill  for  naturalizing  the  Germans,  which  he  now  desired  to  pass, 
and  accordingly  he  was  pleased  to  give  his  assent  to  the  said  bill,  be- 
ing Intituled  an  Act  for  the  better  Enabling  of  Divers  Inhabitants  of 
the  Province  of  Pennsylvia.,  To  Hold  and  Enjoy  Lands,  Tenemts. 
and  Plantation  in  the  same  Province. "^^ 

This  joint  action  of  the  Governor,  the  Assembly  and  Colon- 
ial Council  naturalized  about  150  Germans  of  the  colony,  among 
whom  were  many  of  the  original  settlers  with  Pastorius'  name 
at  the  head  of  the  list.  ^®  Thus  the  founder  of  Germantown  was 
also  the  first  of  his  countrymen  to  become  a  naturalized  citizen — 
the  crowning  test  of  loyal  citizenship. 

"  Cf.  Colonial  Records,  II,  241  ff. 

"  Cf.  Colonial  Records,  II,  493-494. 

"^This  list  is  so  inaccurately  printed  in  the  Colonial  Records  that  many- 
names  are  unintelligible  to  any  but  the  expert,  who  is  not  only  able  to  read 
the  original  but  also  knows  the  correct  forms  of  the  names  themselves  in 

(To  be  Continued.) 


By  Professor  B.  A.  Heydrick, 
State  Normal  School,  Millersville,  Pa. 


Make  a  snout  (snoot).  Grimace. 

"Teacher,  he's  making  snouts  at  me." 

Lan.,  Ad.,  Leh.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Sch. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  schnoot  mocha;  Ger.  schnauze  machen.    Colloq. 


Make  done.  Finish. 

"I  want  to  make  done  by  sundown." 

Lan.,  Ad.,  Mif.,  Lack.,  Dan.,  Leb. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  fardichmocha;  Ger.  fertig  machen. 


Make  good.  Apologize  for. 

"You'll  have  to  make  that  good  or  fight." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Cen.,  Bucks,  Leh.,  Leb. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  gut  mocha;  Ger.  gut  machen. 

Hoover,  p.  98 :  "  .    .   .do  make  good  my  insolence  to  the  said 

Blanche  Chetwynd." 

Make  one's  self  home.  Go  home  (usually  at  once). 

"I  must  make  myself  home  now." 

Lan.,  Dau.,  Sch.,  Berks,  Ad. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  sich  ham  mocha. 

Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsyhiania  33 

Make  out.  Extinguish. 

"Make  the  light  out.     I  do  not  need  it." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Leb.,  Ad.  Montg. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  ousmochd;  Ger.  ausmachen. 


Make  ready.  Prepare  one's  self  by  changing  clothes  or 


"It's  dinner  time ;  I  must  go  and  make  ready." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  ready  mocha,  or  of  things,  fardich  mocha;  Ger. 

sich  fertig  machen. 
C— Obsolete. 

Make  shut.  Shut. 

"Make  the  door  shut" — i.  e.,  close  the  door,  not  implying  any 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  Ad. 
Pa.  Ger.  zumocha;  Ger.  zumachen. 

Make  to.     (Rare.)  Close. 

"Make  the  door  to." 
Lan.,  Cent.,  Leb. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  zu  mocha;  Ger.  zumachen. 

Make  ugly.  Result  badly. 

"It  might  make  ugly  yet  before  the  war  is  over." 

Lan.,  Berks,  Cum.,  Dau.,  Leb.,  Ad. 

Pa.  Ger.  weesht  mocha;  Ger.  iviist  machen,  wiist  being  used 
provincially  for  ugly,  had. 


34  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Me.  Ethical  dative,  with  put. 

"Put  me  some  gravy  on  my  bread." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Berks,  Del.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

So  used  in  Scotland. 


[Cf.  such  expressions  as  "It  broke  for  me." — Editor.] 

Melt.  Spleen. 

"You  can  tell  the  weather  by  the  hog's  melt." 

Y.,  Ad.,  Cen.,  Mer.,  and  Salem  Co.,  N.  J. 
C.  gives  milt.    Obs. 

Mitten.  Glove;  hand  covering  with  fingers. 

"His  mittens  have  the  fingers  worn." 

Lan.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Ad.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Leh. 

Cf.  glove.  The  meanings  are  interchanged;  so  in  Ger.  Hand- 
schuh  is  used  colloquially  in  both  senses.  Here  the  confu- 
sion perhaps  arises  from  the  Pa.  Ger.  word  for  glove, — mits. 
Also  henshing  is  used  for  both  gloves  and  mittens. 

C— Obs. 

Mondays,  etc.  Monday.    The  days  of  the  week  used  in  plural 

when  but  one  day  is  referred  to. 

"I'll  start  to-morrow  and  get  back  Mondays." 
Lan.,  Leb.,  Montg.,  Ad.,  Dau.,  Sch. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  Mondogs,  etc.,  so  used.     Possibly  a  loose  use  of 

Ger.  genitive. 

MozEY.  A  marble,  any  kind  except  a  commy. 

"I'll  trade  you  a  mosey  for  three  commys." 

Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  35 

MozHY  (mozhey).  Molasses  candy. 

"We  made  mozhy  at  the  party." 

Lan.,  Ad.,  Y.,  Lack.,  Luz.,  Leb.,  Sch. 
fr  Pa.  Ger.  moshy;  molosich,  molasses. 

MuLLiGRUR.  I.  Tadpole.    2.  Grub  in  decayed  wood. 

"We  caught  some  mulligrubs  in  the  pond." 

Leb.,  Y.,  Lan.,  Ad. 

The  word  is  used  indifferently  in  meanings  i  and  2,  but  I  have 

not  found  it  in  meaning  given  in  Century. 
C. — Hellgramite.    Local,  U.  S. 

New  land.  A  clearing. 

"I'm  going  to  plow  up  that  new  land" 

Lan.,  Y.,  Leb.,  Ches.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  nei  lond. 


Nix.  No  ;  nothing. 

"That  board  is  nix  good,"  or  "good  for  nix." 

Lan.,  Y,,  Mer.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  niks;  Ger.  nichts. 

The  expression  nix  nUts  =  good  for  nothing,  is  also  found. 

C— Coll.,  U.  S. 

Nixcumerous.    (Slang.)  An  emphatic  negative. 

"Will  you  do  it?"     "Nixcumerous!" 

Lan.,  Sch.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Men,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  nix  kum  drous;  Ger.  nichts  kam  daraus. 


36  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Not,  or  not  so.  Used  at  end  of  interrogative  sentence. 

"Have  you  seen  it,  not?" 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  Sch.,  Berks,  Ad. 

fr.  Ger.  nicht  wahr;  Pa.  Ger.  net  wor,  or  net  so. 

The  words  ain't,  ain't  not,  ain't  so,  are  used  in  the  same  way. 


Not  much  worth.  Worth  little. 

"That  man  is  not  much  worth." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa,  Ger.  net  fel  wart;  Ger.  nicht  viel  werth. 


Off.     (Slang.)  Cross ;  provoked. 

"He  gets  off  at  me  every  day." 

Lan.,  Y,,  Ches.,  Sch.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

Cf .  offish. 


Once.  Expletive. 

"Rosina,  will  you  marry  me  oncef" 

"Where  were  you?"    "I  was  at  the  store  once." 
Lan.,  Y.,  Per.,  Ches.,  Mif.,  Bucks,  Ad. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger  amol;  Ger.  ein  mat. 
Grumbine  says,  used  after  a  request  or  invitation ;  but  it  is  often 

used  in  other  ways,  as  in  second  example  above. 
Hoover :  "Say,  cnc^,  you?"    P.  57. 
C— Local  Pa. 

Orless.  Unless. 

"I'll  speak  to  him,  orkss  you  will." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Camb.,  Berks. 

The  form  ornelse  is  also  found. 


Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  37 

OuTEN  (out'n).  Extinguish. 

"It's  time  to  outen  your  light." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Ches.,  Cum.,  Bucks,  Bed.,  Blair,  Ad. 

C. — Prov.  Eng. 


S. — Prov.  Eng. 

Paddy.  1  Molasses  candy. 

"Fine  paddy,  20  cents  a  pound." 

Lan.,  Sch.,  Leb. 



Paddy.2  One's  equal ;  a  match  for. 

"Come  on  if  you  dare ;  I'm  your  paddy." 
Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Ad. 

Query :  fr.  Paddy,  an  Irishman,  hence  one  ready  with  his  fists. 

Paddy.8  Small  cushion  for  a  chair. 

"Take  this  chair;  it  has  a  paddy  on  it." 
Lan.,  Leb.,  Bucks,  Y.,  Ad. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  pad.    Not  in  Home. 

"^PY.  "^oung  chicken. 

"There's  the  hen  with  her  pcepies." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Berks,  Mif.,  Leb.,  Ad.,  Bucks. 

Probably  onamatopoetic. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger  huvi.    Not  in  Home. 


38  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Peg,  v.  t.  To  throw. 

"Peg  a  stone  at  that  bird." 

Y.,  Lan.,  Sch.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  A. 


Perfect  tense  used  for  preterite. 

"Last  night  after  I  have  done  my  work." 

Bucks,  Ad.,  Lan.,  Leb. 

Pa.  Ger.  uses  the  compound  with  hoivd  in  this  way.  The  pret- 
erite tense  occurs  only  in  a  very  few  verbs.  See  Learned, 
p.  63. 

Piecing.  Eating  between  meals. 

"That  child's  always  piecing." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Berks,  Ches.,  Sch.,  Mif.,  Lack. 
So  used  in  Scotland. 
C— Coll.  U.  S. 

Piece-way.  Part  of  the  way. 

"Won't  you  go  with  me  a  piece-way?" 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  Y.,  Sch.,  Ches.,  Berks,  Phila.,  Blair, 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  shdik  wag;  Ger.  stilck  tveg.      (Coll.) 

Poke,  n.  Blow. 

"Hit  him  a  poke." 

Dau.,  Men,  Leb.,  Sch.,  Ches.,  Lan. 
C.  defines  as  a  "gentle  thrust." 

Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  39 

PoNHAWS  (pon'haws).  A  dish  like  fried  mush,  made  by  boiHng 

buckwheat  flour  and  corn  meal  with 
the  juice  of  fried  meat,  and  some- 
times scraps  of  pork.  When  cold 
this  is  cut  into  slices  and  fried. 

"We  had  ponhaws  for  breakfast." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Bucks,  Cen.,  Leb.,  Leh.,  Ad.,  Sch.,  Men 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  ponhaws.    Query:  Ger.  pfann-hase. 
The  word  scrapple  is  often  used  for  this  dish. 


Powwow.  To  heal  by  conjuration. 

"She  ought  to  get  some  one  to  pozvwow  over  her  hand." 

Lan.,  Bucks,  Cent.,  Ad.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Sch. 

Also  used  as  noun  and  adj.  in  the  phrase  "powwow-doctor." 
The  word  and  the  practice  are  very  common  in  these  locali- 
ties. Hoover  gives  a  description  of  the  method  of  powwow- 
ing.    Ch.  XXXIV. 

C.  limits  application  to  aborigines.  [But  cp.  Pa.  Ger.  brauche. 

Preposition  transposed,  taken  to  end  of 

This  is  frequent.    Examples: 

"Cross  the  street  over"  =  cross  over  the  street. 
"Get  the  road  out"  =  get  out  of  the  way. 
"Hitch  the  horse  out"  =  unhitch  the  horse. 
"Look  the  window  out"  =  look  out  of  the  window. 
"Walk  the  road  up"  =  Walk  up  the  road. 
"Dress  out"  =  undress. 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Ad.,  Berks,  Mif.,  Sch.,  Bucks. 

The  construction  is,  of  course,  German,  the  preposition  being 

treated  as  part  of  a  separable  verb  and  placed  last.    The  order 

in  Pa.  Ger.  is  the  same. 

40  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Present  progressive  tense.    Future  tense. 

"I  am  having  a  new  coat  next  week." 
"She  is  getting  buried  to-morrow." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Mif.,  Dau.,  Cum.,  Bucks. 

In  Pa.  Ger.  there  is  no  regular  form  for  the  future  tense,  the 
present  being  used.  Learned  gives  a  future  form  (p.  64), 
but  it  is  very  rare  in  spoken  or  written  Pa.  Ger. 

Puff,  n.     (Slang.)  Breath. 

"Fm  all  out  of  puff." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Bucks,  Sch.,  Ches.,  Mif.,  Ches.,  Montg.,  Dau.,  Ad.,  Y. 

"Fm  puffed"  for  "Fm  out  of  breath"  also  used. 


Push-buggy.     (Rare.)  Baby  carriage. 

"Put  the  baby  in  the  push-buggy." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Berks,  Per. 
fr.  Ger.  schieb-wagen. 

Put,  n.     (Slang.)  Invitation. 

"I  did  not  go  to  the  party  because  I  didn't  get  a  put." 

L.,  Ad.,  Y.,  Bucks,  Ch.,  Cum.,  also  in  Maryland. 

Rats.  Corn-cockle. 

"There's  too  much  rats  growing  in  my  wheat." 

Y.,  Ad.,  Leb. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  rawdd;  Ger.  rade. 


Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  41 

Rig.  Horse  and  carriage. 

"Bring  the  rig  along  and  I'll  ride." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Ad.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  Bucks. 

C— Coll.  U.  S. 


Right  smart.  Many. 

"Were  many  there?"    "Yes,  right  smart." 

Lan.,  Sch.,  Y.,  Lack.,  Bucks,  Ad. 
C— U.  S. 

Saddy.  Thank  you.     (Used  only  by  and  to  children.) 

"When  he  gives  you  anything,  you  must  say  saddy." 
Lan.,  Leb.,  Sch.,  Bucks,  Ad. 


Scrapple.  Same  as  ponhaws,  q.  v. 

C. — Of  Pa.  German  origin. 

Scratch.  To  itch. 

"My  ear  scratches." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Tioga,  Cum.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  krodsa,  which  means  scratch  or  itch;  Ger.  kratsen 

has  sometimes  both  meanings. 

Second  Christmas.  Day  after  Christmas. 

"Come  and  see  us  on  second  Christmas." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Sch.,  Cent.,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  swedd  Krishdog. 

The  day  after  Christmas  is  also  kept  as  a  holiday,  and  is  a  great 
day  for  visiting.  The  expression  "Second  Day  New  Year" 
is  also  found. 

Hoover,  p.  201 :  "If  I  Hve  I'll  be  seventy-six  on  Second  Christ- 


42  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsyhania 

Second  last.  Next  to  the  last. 

"He  lives  in  the  second  last  house  on  the  street." 

Ad.,  Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Sch.,  Berks. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  zwedd  ledshd;  Ger.  zweit  letzt. 

C-O.  , 

Selfial.  Possessing  proper  self-esteem,  consideration. 

"He's  not  selfish,  but  se'lfial." 


S. — Characterized  by  regard,  especially  proper  regard,  for  one's 
self  or  one's  interests. 

Set  a  plate.  Put  it  out  on  Christmas  eve  for  gifts ;  corre- 

sponding exactly  to  hang  up  a  stocking. 

"Did  you  set  your  plate  last  Christmas?" 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Per.,  Sch.,  Blair,  Berks ;  also  in  Cecil  Co., 

Md.,  and  Mineral  Co.,  Va. 

S  HIPPY.  Lamb. 

"You  can  see  the  ewe  and  her  shippy." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  Leb.,  Sch.,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  shipli;  Ger.  schdflein;  -li  or  -1  is  invariably  used  in 

Pa.  Ger.  to  form  diminutives   (cf.  Haldeman,  Pennsylvania 

Dutch,  p.  17). 

Short  in  one's  mind.  Forgetful. 

"He'll  never  remember,  he's  so  short  in  his  mind." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Blair,  Bucks,  Y.,  Ad.,  Cent. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  korts  in  sin. 

The  form  short-minded  also  occurs. 


Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  43 

Sight  unseen^  or  Used  in  trading,  meaning  that  neither 

Sight  and  seen.  object  of  barter  is  to  be  seen. 

"I'll  trade  knives  with  you  sight  unseen." 

Lan.,  Ches.,  Y.,  Sch.,  Ad. 

Snip,  n.  Young  person ;  used  contemptuously. 

"I  don't  care  what  the  snip  says." 

Lan.,  Lack.,  Ad.,  Leb.,  Camb.,  Ches.,  Y.,  Sch, 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  shnip.    Not  in  Home. 

S. — A  small  and  insignificant  thing  or  person;  quotes  Mas- 
singer,  New  Way,  II,  2. 

Snits  (snits).  Dried  fruit,  usually  apples.     When  used  of 

other  fruit,  the  name  is  given,  as  "peach 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Berks,  Ad.,  Bucks. 

fr.   Ger.  Schnits,  dried  fruit,  usually  pears;  Pa.  Ger.  shnits, 
dried  fruit,  usually  apples. 


So.  As. 

"It  was  so  long  as  your  arm." 

Dau.,  Bucks,  Y.,  Lan.,  Cent,  Leb. 
fr.  Ger.  so,  also  Pa.  Ger. 
C— Obs. 

Sots  (sots).  Yeast. 

"I  must  borrow  some  sots  for  my  baking." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Cum.,  Sch.,  Leh.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  sods;  Ger.  sat^. 


44  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Sour,  m.     (Rare.)  Piccalilli  or  chow-chow. 

"Pass  me  the  sour." 

Lan.,  Montg.,  Cent.,  Leb. 
Noun  from  adjective. 

Spellings.  Words  to  be  spelled. 

"Make  out  a  list  of  spellings  for  me." 

Y.,  Leb.,  Lan. 

Stand.  Cost.     (Usually  in  past  tense.) 

"That  wheel  stood  me  ten  dollars." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Sch.,  Mif.,  Bucks,  Ad. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  schtad;  Ger.  stehen,  so  used. 
C. — Obsolete. 

Standing  full.  Full  of  upright  objects. 

1.  "That  farm  used  to  be  standing  full  of  trees." 

2.  "The  hall  was  standing  full  of  people." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Ches.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.,  Pa.  Ger.  shtad  fill;  Ger.  vollstehen. 

In  example  i  the  trees  might  still  be  there  though  cut  down ; 
example  2  means  that  the  hall  was  full  of  people  who  were 
standing;  it  would  not  be  used  of  a  crowded  house  when  the 
people  were  seated. 


Stick  the  light  on.     (Rare.)  Enkindle;  light. 

"Get  the  lamp  and  stick  the  light  on." 

Dau.,  Lan.,  Huntg.,  Bucks, 
f r.  Pa.  Ger.  idiom ;  also  Ger. 

Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  45 

Stick-wagon  or  Carriage,  no  top,  for  two 

Road-wagon.  persons;  open  box. 

"We  drove  over  in  a  stick  wagon." 

Lan.,  Dau.,  Mif.,  Ad. 

Still.  Used  at  end  of  sentence  to  denote  customary  action. 

"I  see  him  when  I  go  down  street  still." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Ad.,  Dau.,  Cent. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  ols. 

The  word  is  used  of  the  future  with  no  reference  to  the  past  at 
times.  Thus,  in  engaging  a  new  milkman,  one  would  say, 
"I  want  you  to  stop  at  my  house  still/'  although  he  had  never 
stopped  previously. 


Stone-boat.  Low  sled,  drawn  by  one  or  two  horses. 

"Bring  those  barrels  on  the  stone-boat." 

Lack.,  Per.,  Cent,  Mercer. 
C— U.  S. 

Stove-plate.  Stove  hearth. 

"Brush  the  ashes  oflf  the  stove  plate." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Sch.,  Ches.,  Blair, 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  Ufa  blat;  Ger.  ofen  platte. 
C— In  Pa. 

Stroobly.  Tangled,  dishevelled;  usually  of  hair. 

"You  can't  go  in  with  your  hair  all  stroobly." 

Lan.,  Leh.,  Leb.,  Per.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Cent,  Ad.,  Y.,  Sch. 
f r.  Pa.  Ger.  strublich,  not  in  Home ;  Ger.  struppig. 

46  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Such.  The  same,  used  without  article. 

"We  have  a  house  such  color." 

Lan.,  Dau.,  Y.,  Leb.,  Sch. 

Query ;  fr.  Ger.  solche  Farbe,  colloq. 


Speck.  Fat  of  pork. 

"I  like  sourkrout  and  speck." 

Y.,  Lan.,  Leb.,  Mif.,  Camb.,  Bucks,  Ad. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  schpeck;  Ger.  speck. 
C— Ger.  Pa. 

Spritz.  Splash;  sprinkle. 

"Look  out  or  I'll  spritz  you !" 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Y.,  Ad. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  shpritsd;  Ger.  spritzen. 


W.  gives  sprit,  obsolete. 

Taste  after.  Taste  of. 

"These  potatoes  taste  after  coal-oil." 

Leb.,  Bucks,  Ad.,  Y. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  shmokd  noch;  Ger.  smecken  nach  (coll.). 


Tearing-out.     (School  slang.)  Scolding. 

"He  got  a  tearing-out  in  history  to-day." 

Lan.,  Bucks,  Ches.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Sch. 

Used  by  telegraph  operators  on  Pa.  R.  R. 


Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  47 

Tell  good-by.  Bid  good-by. 

"I  must  wait  and  tell  him  good-by." 

Lan.,  Blair,  Camb.,  Y.,  Berks. 

Pa.  Ger.  sawgd  is  used  for  both  say  and  tell,  hence  in  EngUsh 
these  words  are  interchanged. 


Thank  one's  self  to.  Thanjc. 

"Jennie  thanked  herself  to  Miss  Weiss;"  i.  e.,  thanked  Miss 

Lan.,  Y.,  Leb.,  Sch.,  Dau.,  Camb. 
.^,^_  fr.  Pa.  Ger.  sich  bddonkd  zu;  Ger.  sich  bedanken. 

The  cold.  A  cold. 

"I  have  the  cold  so  bad  I  can  hardly  talk." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Mif.,  Dau.,  Blair,  Cum.,  Snyder,  Camb.,  Y.,  Ad., 

So  used  colloquially  in  Cork,  Ireland, 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  er  hot's  kalt,  's  standing  for  article  [or  es  kalt?] 


The  DAY.    (Rare.)  To-day. 

"I  haven't  seen  him  the  day." 

Mifflin,  Huntg. 
C. — Scotch. 

Through  other.  Confused. 

"Oh,  you're  through  other." 

Lan.,  Cent.,  Ad.,  Leb.,  Y. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  dorch  'n  onerd;  Ger.  durch  einander. 

The  form  "through  another"  is  also  found. 

"They  were  a'  speaking  and  gabbling  through  other." — Scott, 

Heart  of  Midlothian,  Ch.  XVL    In  glossary  "through  other" 

is  defined  "confusedly,  all  together." 

48  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Tie  away.     (Rare.)  Untie. 

"Did  you  tie  the  boat  away?" 

Lan.,  Leh.,  Leb.,  Bucks. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  losbina;  Ger.  los  binden. 


TiLL.^  By  (in  expressions  of  time). 

"I  do  not  know  my  lesson  now,  but  I  will  know  it  till  to-morrow." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Ad.,  Dau.,  Y.,  Bucks. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  his,  which  is  used  in  senes  of  Ger.  bis  and  also  his 

dahin,  as  above. 

TiLL.2  To  (limit  of  distance). 

"We  walked  out  till  the  toll-gate." 

See  TiLL.i 

Bucks,  Lan.,  Y.,  Ad.,  Cent. 

In  York  Corp.  Chr.  play.  The  Judgment  Day,  1.  174 :  "The  way 

till  hevene  he  will  you  wisse." 
C. — Obs.  or  poor. 

Tin.  Tin  cup. 

"Bring  me  some  water  in  a  tin." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Bucks,  Men,  Cent.,  Ad.,  Leb.,  Sch. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger  hlech  (Ger.  hlech),  which  means  the  metal  or  the 

cup  made  of  it. 
The  word  would  never  be  used  of  a  pot  and  of  a  pan,  only  in 

combination,  as  pie-tin,  cake-tin. 
C. — Pot,  pan  or  other  utensil  made  of  tin. 

To.  With. 

"I  want  some  butter  to  my  bread." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Ad. 
Said  to  be  colloquial  in  Scotland, 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  su,  also  Ger. 
C. — Obs.,  prov.  or  colloq. 

Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  49 

To  HOME.  At  home. 

"She  is  not  to  home  to-day." 

Lan.,  Sch.,  Lack.,  Bucks,  Ad. 

fr.  Ger.  2u  House;  Pa.  Ger.  2u  ham. 

C. — Coll.  or  prov. 

ToLE.  Drain,  culvert. 

"I'll  make  a  tole  to  carry  the  water  off." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Ad. 

f r.  Pa.  Ger.  dol,  not  in  Home ;  Ger,  dohle.     [  ?] 

Towards  noon.  Southward. 

"My  house  looks  towards  noon." 

Lan.,  Bucks,  Y.,  Cent. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  gaga  midog;  Ger.  gegen  mittag. 

The   phrases   "Towards   three  o'clock"   =   S.   W. ;    "towards 

morning"  =  E. ;  "towards  sunset"  =  W.,  are  also  used. 

Under  through.  Underneath,  with  idea  of  motion. 

"We  went  under  through  the  fence." 

Lan.,  Bucks,  Ches.,  Leb.,  Sch.,  Berks. 
Pa.  Ger.  undr  dorch;  Ger.  unter  durch. 

Tut  (tilt).  Small  paper  bag. 

"Shall  I  put  the  candy  in  a  tutf" 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Y.,  Sch.,  Cum.,  Berks,  Ad. 

Pa.  Ger.  tud;  Ger.  DUte. 


50  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

Ugly,  adv.  Badly,  severely. 

"He  thrashed  him  ugly." 

Lan.,  Ad.,  Y.,  Cent.,  Phila.,  Bucks,  Leb. 
Pa.  Ger.  weesht;  Ger.  wiist. 

See  Make  ugly. 

Hoover,  p.  149:  "...   McClellan  was  getting  thrashed  ugly 
at  Richmond." 


Under  the  weather.  Slightly  ill. 

"John's  been  under  the  weather  lately." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Leb.,  Camb.,  Mif.,  Bucks. 

Pa.  Ger.  undr  'm  wed'r.    Query :  Adopted  from  English. 

C.— Colloq. 

Updump.  Upset. 

"Don't  rock  the  boat  or  you'll  updump  it." 

Lan.,  Ches.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Montg.,  Ad. 

Used  to  could.  Used  to  be  able. 

"I  used  to  could  walk  thirty  miles  a  day." 

Dau.,  Lan.,  Ches.,  Y.,  Bucks,  Mercer. 

Wait  on.  Wait  for. 

"ril  go  along  if  you  wait  on  me  a  few  minutes." 

Lan.,  Y.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Per.,  Mer.,  Ad. 
f r.  Pa.  Ger,  wawrtd  uf;  Ger.  warten  auf. 

Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania  51 

Want  out.  Want  to  get  out. 

"Open  the  door,  I  want  out." 

Lan.,  Dau.,  Bucks,  Per.,  Men,  Ad. 

"Want  in,"  "want  up,"  "want  down,"  all  used. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  ivill  'naus;  Ger.  will  hinaus. 


Were.  Was. 

"I  were  there  too." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Berks,  Y.,  Cent. 
Pa.  Ger.  wor;  Ger.  war. 

What  for.  What  kind  of. 

"What  for  book  is  that?" 

Pa.  Ger.  wos  fr'n;  Ger.  was  filr  ein. 

C. — Used  by  Pa.  Germans  and  their  neighbors. 

With,  adv.  Along. 

"I  forget  whether  he  was  with  or  not." 
Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Berks, 
fr.  In  Pa.  Ger.  as  in  Ger.,  mit  is  sometimes  used  without  an 


Wonder,  v.  Surprise,  used  reflexively. 

"It  wonders  me  that  he  stays  so  long." 
Bucks,  Ad.,  Y.,  Leb.,  Sch.,  Lan. 
fr.  Pa.  Ger.  's  zuundrt  mich;  Ger.  es  zvundert  mich. 
C.  says  that  wonder  was  formerly  used  with  a  reflexive  dative, 
but  in  its  proper  sense. 

52  Provincialisms  of  Southeastern  Pennsylvania 

WooTS,  or  WooTSY  (woots).  Pig;  the  second  form  used 

as  diminutive. 

"Drive  the  wootsy  into  the  pen." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Mif.,  Y.,  Ad.,  Dau. 

fr.  Pa.  Ger.  wuts.    Possibly  onomatopoetic.    Cf.  Peepy. 


Worst  way.  Very  much. 

"He  wants  to  see  me  the  worst  way." 

Lan.,  Leb.,  Dau.,  Lack.,  Sch.,  Blair,  Per.,  Ches.,  Montg.,  Camb., 

Phila.,  Berks,  Mer.,  Ad. 
St.— Slang. 

Young.  Recently  fallen,  of  snow. 

"The  fields  were  covered  with  young  snow." 

Lan.,  Ad.,  Y.,  Cum. 

C.  gives  "young  ice,"  quoting  Greely. 

YousE.  You  (plural). 

"Did  youse  see  them  yesterday?" 
Also  used  in  Ontario,  Canada.     (Penetang.) 


The  sixth  annual  meeting  of  the  German  American  Society- 
was  held  in  the  hall  of  the  German  Society,  corner  of  Marshall  and 
Spring-  Garden  Streets,  Monday,  January  6th,  1908.  The  first 
part  of  the  meeting  was  devoted  to  the  business  affairs  of  the 
Society,  among  which  was  the  election  of  officers.  The  following 
officers  were  elected  ; 

President,  Dr.  Albert  Bernheim,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Vice  Presidents,  L.  P.  Hennighausen,  Baltimore,  Md. ;  H. 
M.  von  Starkloff,  St.  Louis,  Mo. ;  C.  F.  Huch,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Editor,  Marion  Dexter  Learned,  Box  10,  College  Hall,  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Treasurer,  Hans  Weniger,  437  Arch  Street,  Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Secretary  and  Business  Manager,  Chas.  H.  Breitbarth,  5821 
Chester  Avenue,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

The  activity  of  the  Society  during  the  year  was  centered 
very  largely  in  the  publication  of  matter  relating  to  the  history 
of  the  Germans  in  America,  through  its  official  publication,  Ger- 
man American  Annals.  Among  the  more  important  contri- 
butions were  "The  Diary  of  Rev.  Andrew  Rudman,  from  July 
26th,  1696,  to  June  14th,  1697,"  translated  and  edited  by  Luther 
Anderson,  A.  M. ;  "German  Archives  as  Sources  of  German 
American  History,"  by  Joseph  G.  Rosengarten;  and  "Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius,  the  Founder  of  Germantown,"  a  series  of  arti- 
cles by  the  editor,  M.  D,  Learned. 

Among  a  number  of  new  articles  accepted  for  publication 


54  The  G erman- American  Historical  Society 

are  "The  History  of  the  German  in  Texas,"  "The  Germans  in 
Missouri,"  "German  Music  in  Philadelphia,"  as  well  as  a  num- 
ber of  more  occasional  articles. 

On  nomination  of  the  first  President  of  the  Society,  Dr.  C. 
J.  Hexamer,  President  Theodore  Roosevelt  was  unanimously 
elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  Society,  and  a  few  days  later 
accepted  membership  in  the  following  communication : 

The  White  House, 

February  lo,  1908. 

My  dear  Sir : 

The  President  has  received  your  favor  of  the  24th  ultimo, 
with  enclosed  certificate  of  honorary  membership  in  the  German- 
American  Historical  Society,  and  requests  me  to  assure  you  that 
he  accepts  with  much  pleasure. 

Conveying  to  you,  and  thru  you  to  the  members  of  the  So- 
ciety, the  President's  thanks  for  the  compliment  thus  paid  him, 
believe  me. 

Very  truly  yours, 

Wm.  Loeb,  Jr., 
Secretary  to  the  President. 
Dr.  Albert  Bernheim, 

141 1  Spruce  Street, 
Philadelphia,  Pa. 

The  business  part  of  the  meeting  was  followed  by  a  banquet, 
at  which  some  thirty-five  ladies  and  gentlemen  participated.  The 
following  toasts  were  responded  to : 

"The  Welcome  Guests,"  Dr.  Albert  Bernheim.  who  also  was 
toastmaster  for  the  evening. 

The  German- American  Historical  Society  55 

"The  Germans  in  Pennsylvania,"  Hon.  Samuel  W.  Penny- 
packer,  former  Governor  of  Pennsylvania. 

"Research  in  German  American  History  as  a  Patriotic  Mo- 
tive of  American  Citizenship,"  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer,  President 
German  American  Alliance. 

"The  Germans  in  International  Commerce/'  Mr.  Rudolph 
Blankenburg  (in  the  absence  of  Mr.  Blankenburg,  this  toast  was 
responded  to  by  Mr.  Henry  Lierz). 

"The  German  American  Historical  Society,"  Arno  Leon- 
hardt,  President  of  the  Junger  Mannerchor. 

"The  German  Language  in  America,"  M.  D.  Learned  (in 
Professor  Learned's  absence  on  account  of  illness,  the  toast  was 
answered  by  Professor  K.  D.  Jessen). 

"The  German  Press  in  America,"  Henry  Detreux,  Presi- 
dent of  the  Harmonic  Society. 

"The  German  Emperor,"  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer. 

"President  Roosevelt,"  Legationsrat  Werner  Hagen,  the 
Imperial  German  Consul. 

This  was  generally  recognized  as  the  most  successful  an- 
nual meeting  in  the  history  of  the  Society,  and  a  number  of  new 
members  have  already  been  added  to  the  list.  It  is  hoped  that 
the  list,  both  of  annual  and  life  members,  may  reach  the  full 
limit  of  two  hundred  during  the  present  year. 

The  publication  plans  of  the  Society  are  not  intended  to 
conflict  with  the  purposes  of  either  State  or  Local  Societies 
throughout  the  country.  Articles  will  be  gladly  received  from 
historical  societies  or  historical  investigators  throughout  the  coun- 
try. It  is  the  policy  of  the  German  American  Annals  to  pub- 
lish materials  of  permanent  value,  and  the  Society  solicits  such 
from  all  who  are  active  in  the  field.  Carefully  written  biogra- 
phies of  notable  German  Americans  are  particularly  welcome. 

Ex-Governor  Pennypacker  referred  to  one  of  the  descend- 
ants of  Germantown,  now  a  resident  of  Philadelphia,  who,  in  his 
article  on  the  State  Capitol,  had  cast  aspersions  upon  his  German 

56  The  German- American  Historical  Society 

ancestry.  The  speaker  then  traced  the  significance  of  rehgious 
views  of  the  Anabaptists  for  the  history  of  Pennsylvania  and  the 
part  played  in  it  by  the  Quakers.  He  referred  to  the  late  Dr. 
William  Pepper  (German  Pfeffer),  Dr.  Joseph  Leidy  (German 
Lfidig)  and  Emily  von  Schamberg  as  typical  examples  of  Ger- 
mans in  Pennsylvania  life. 

Dr.  C.  J,  Hexamer  then  pointed  out  the  importance  of  Ger- 
man American  historical  research  as  an  incentive  to  American 
citizenship,  referring  to  the  fact  that  too  little  account  has  been 
taken  of  the  Germans  by  writers  on  American  history.  He  also 
paid  a  glowing  tribute  to  the  influence  of  the  German  Emperor 
in  the  relations  of  Germany  and  America. 

Legationsrat  Werner  Hagen,  the  German  Consul  of  Phila- 
delphia, replied  with  a  fine  appreciation  of  the  efforts  of  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt,  who,  like  the  German  Emperor,  had  contributed 
much  to  bring  about  a  cordial  understanding  between  Germany 
and  America  and  thus  laid  a  firmer  basis  for  universal  peace. 

The  addresses  of  Mr.  Arno  Leonhardt  and  Mr.  Henry 
Detreux  we  give  below  in  full : 

Rede  des  Hcrrn  Leonhardt. 

Es  ist  keine  kleine  Aufgabe  vom  Komitee  mir  gestellt  wor- 
den,  den  Toast  auf  die  Deutsch-Amerikanische  Historische  Ge- 
sellschaft  zu  beantworten.  Obgleich  hier  in  der  Stadt  der  Bru- 
derliebe  geboren,  habe  ich  mich  wenig  um  deutsch-amerikanische 
Geschichte  bekiimmert  und  befinde  ich  mich  darum  auf  einem  mir 
fremden  Felde. 

Ich  habe  viel  gelesen,  namentlich  haben  mich  die  Mittheilun- 
gen  des  Deutschen  Pionier-Vereins  mit  seinen  ausfiihrlichen  Be- 
richten  aus  der  Feder  unseres  Mitgliedes  C.  F.  Huch  sehr  inte- 
ressirt.  Unsere  historische  Gesellschaft  ist  noch  jung,  feiert  sie 
doch  heute  erst  ihren  6.  Geburtstag.     Dieselbe  ist  nicht  zu  friih 

The  G erman- American  Historical  Society  57 

entstanden,  um  die  unsere  Deutschen  interessirenden  Schrift- 
stiicke,  Dokumente  und  sonstigen  Wahrzeichen  aus  der  Ge- 
schichte  vom  Lande  unserer  Pioniere  unter  Pastorius  bis  zum 
heutigen  Tage  zu  sammeln,  niederzuschreiben  und  unserer  Nach- 
kommenschaft  zu  erhalten.  1st  doch  in  unserem  Staate,  und 
zwar  in  unserem  Philadelphier  Vorort  Germantown,  die  erste 
Ansiedelung  der  Deutschen  zu  verzeichnen,  und  wiirde  bald  im 
hastenden  Treiben  unserer  1,500,000  Einwohner  verwischt  wer- 
den,  wenn  nicht  seiche  Gesellschaften  wie  die  unserige  es  sich 
zur  Aufgabe  gemacht  batten,  Statistiken  zu  sammeln  und  in  unser 
Archiv  einzutragen.  Ausser  diesem  Werke  sollte  unsere  Gesell- 
schaft  dahin  wirken,  dass  die  Wahrzeichen  unserer  Geschichte  in 
der  Form  von  Monumenten  dem  alltaglichen  Publikum  vorge- 
fiihrt  werden,  wie  die  beiden  deutschen  Monumente,  fiir  welche 
wir  schon  Propaganda  gemacht  haben  —  Pastorius,  durch  den 
Deutsch-Amerikanischen  Central-Bund,  und  General  Muhlenberg, 
durch  unsere  Deutsche  Gesellschaft.  Es  ist  beschamend  fiir 
unser  Deutschthum,  dass  erst  jetzt,  nach  50  Jahren,  die  ersten 
Schritte  in  dieser  Richtung  gethan  werden,  aber  noch  bescha- 
mender,  dass  die  Mittel  so  langsam  einkommen,  dass  wir  voraus- 
sichtlich  noch  Jahre  lang  auf  die  Ausfiihrung  zu  warten  haben 
werden.  Keiner  sollte  zuriickstehen,  dass  diese  beiden  Werke  so 
bald  als  moglich  erstehen,  dadurch  fiir  unser  Deutschthum  und 
seine  Geschichte  indirekt  Propaganda  machend.  Um  unserem 
deutsch-amerikanischen  historischen  Felde  mehr  Anerkennung  zu 
verschaffen,  miissen  wir  auch  auf  die  Ausschmiickung  der  zwei 
Zimmer  in  Valley  Forge  hinarbeiten,  welche  als  Beispiele  deutsch- 
amerikanischer  Geschichte  unsern  Nachkommen  dienen  sollen. 
Das  eine  im  Namen  des  Generals  von  Steuben,  das  zweite  fiir 
De  Kalb,  welche  als  deutsche  Verbiindete  unseres  Generals  Wash- 
ington so  viel  zur  Griindung  unserer  grossen  Republik  beigetra- 
gen  haben.  Wenn  diese  Monumente  errichtet  sind,  muss  die 
Jugend  aufmerksam  werden  und  wird  fragen :  Warum  steht  Ihr 

58  The  G crman- American  Historical  Society 

hier?  Unci  deutsch-amerikanische  Gescliichte  muss  so  antwor- 
ten,  dass  der  verdiente  Respekt  nicht  ausbleiben  kann,  was  unsere 
deutschen  Vorvater  fiir  Amerika  gethan  haben.  Hat  der  wiss- 
begierige  Theil  der  Jugend  die  Frage  gestellt,  wird  dieselbe  dann 
die  Antwort  in  unseren  Annalen  suchen,  in  den  Werken,  die  wir 
aus  alter  Zeit  gerettet  und  unserem  Archiv  einverleibt  haben. 
Dies  ist  unser  heiliger  Zweck,  er  bedeutet  die  Errettung  unserer 
deutschen  Muttersprache  in  diesem  Lande,  ihre  Erhaltung  fiir 
unsere  deutschen  Lieder,  fiir  unsere  deutschen  Kirchen,  unser 
deutsches  Theater,  deutsche  Literatur,  Kunst  und  Wissenschaft. 
Wir  sollen  es  zu  unserer  Aufgabe  machen,  dahin  zu  wirken,  dass 
die  historischen  Unrichtigkeiten  in  den  Schulbiichern,  welche  die 
Deutsch-Amerikaner  behandeln,  berichtigt  werden,  und  unsern 
Vorkampfern  Gerechtigkeit  fiir  ihre  Thaten  gezollt  wird.  Ausser 
den  Kampfern  in  den  Kolonien  oder  Befreiungskriegen,  sollten 
die  Deutschen,  welche  fiir  unsere  Union  in  den  Krieg  zogen,  be- 
riicksichtigt  werden ;  dann  was  die  Deutschen  und  ihre  Nach- 
kommen  fiir  Antheil  an  Industrie  und  Handel,  Kunst  und  Wis- 
senschaft, Technik,  Landwirthschaft  u.  s.  w.  genommen  haben. 
Unsere  Gesellschaft  sollte  Leute,  welche  die  Fahigkeiten,  die  Zeit 
und  die  Lust  dazu  haben,  anregen,  innerhaib  der  engeren  Grenze 
unserer  Stadt  oder  dem  weiteren  Umfang  unseres  Staates  Penn- 
sylvanien  die  Spuren  der  deutschen  Pioniere  aufzusuchen  und 
den  Antheil,  welchen  die  eingewanderten  Deutschen  und  deren 
Nachkommen  an  der  Entwickelung  unseres  Landes  genommen 
haben,  festzustellen  und  aufzudecken.  Wir  sehen  ein,  was  fiir 
eine  kolossale  Arbeit  wir  uns  auferlegt,  aber  —  aller  Anfang  ist 

Nun  zum  Schluss.  Wenn  unser  Junge  das  21.  Jahr  er- 
reicht  hat,  wird  er  als  Jiingling  in  dem  Zwischenraum  der  15 
Jahre  wohl  Gutes  von  sich  horen  lassen  konnen,  und  damit  er 
gedeihe  und  sein  Streben  von  Erfolg  gekront  werde,  fordere  ich 
Sie  auf ,  „unser  Erstes"  auf  sein  Wohl  zu  leeren ! 

The  G erman-A mcrican  Historical  Society  59 

Die  Rede  des  Herrn  Detreus. 

Die  Presse  ist  das  grosse  Medium,  das  die  Reibungen  und 
Kollisionen  des  tag-lichen  Lebens  und  Strebens  beseitigen  und 
Wahrheit  und  Klarheit  in  das  Wirrsal  des  rastlosen  Schaffens  der 
Neuzeit  bringen  soil  —  und  wie  manchen  Strahl  der  Erleuchtung 
bringt  unsere  deutsch-amerikanische  Presse  in  die  Dunkelheit 
und  Oede  des  engherzigen  Lebens  und  Treibens  gewisser  Kreise, 
die  ich  jetzt  nicht  nennen  will;  die  zu  bekampfen  jedoch  gerade 
gegenwartig  von  unserem  Bunde  Vorbereitungen  getroffen  wer- 
den  und  worin  wir  fast  ausschliesslich  auf  die  Unterstiitzung 
der  deutschen  Presse  angewiesen  sind. 

Der  Stand  eines  Zeitungsmannes  ist,  wie  die  meisten  der 
hier  Anwesenden  wohl  wissen,  kein  leichter.  Es  vergehen 
manchmal  Jahre  und  Jahrzehnte,  bis  wieder  einmal  etwas  Be- 
sonderes  am  Horizonte  der  Neuigkeitswelt  auftaucht,  und  wah- 
rend  dabei  die  ausserhalb  der  Sphare  der  Presse  stehende  ge- 
wohnliche  Menschheit  siisser  Ruhe  pflegen  kann,  muss  gerade 
der  arme  Zeitungsmensch  sein  Gehirn  anstrengen,  um  etwas 
Neues  auf's  Tapet  zu  bringen. 

Bismarck  hat  einmal  gesagt,  ein  Zeitungsschreiber  sei  in  der 
Regel  ein  Mann,  der  seinen  Beruf  verfehlt  habe.  Das  mag  ja 
von  seinem  Standpunkte  aus  ganz  richtig  gewesen  sein.  Mir 
scheint  jedoch,  dass  es  von  dieser  Regel  bei  unseren  deutschen 
Zeitungen  glanzende  Ausnahmen  gegeben  hat,  solche,  die  ihren 
Beruf  mit  warmem  Herzen  und  hervorragenden  Fahigkeiten  ver- 
folgten  und  darin  ihren  Landsleuten  mit  leuchtendem  Beispiele 
und  grossem  Erfolge  vorangingen.  Ich  brauche  nur  einzelne 
Namen  zu  nennen  —  Karl  Schurz,  und  ganz  in  unserer  Nahe 
Dr.  Kellner. 

Moge  unsere  deutsch-amerikanische  Presse  auch  in  Zukunft 
ein  Bollwerk  bilden  gegen  die  Fluth  von  Unduldsamkeit  und  ge- 
gen  unamerikanische,  puritanische  Engherzigkeit.  Moge  die- 
selbe  dem  Volke  mit  weiser  Fiihrung  vorangehen,  wenn  es  gilt, 

6o  The  G erman- American  Historical  Society 

den  echt  amerikanischen  Ausspruch  „Fair  play  to  all"  in  die 
Wirklichkeit  zu  iibertragen. 

Es  wiirde,  wie  gesagt,  zu  weit  fiihren  und  Ihre  Geduld  miss- 
brauchen,  wollte  ich  mich  iiber  die  Stellung  der  deutsch-amerika- 
nischen  Presse  der  englischen  gegeniiber  verbreiten,  jedoch  so 
weit  erlauben  Sie  mir,  mich  in  kurzen  Worten  zu  aussern :  Dass 
die  Stellung  der  deutsch-amerikanischen  Presse  der  englischen 
gegeniiber  stets  eine  ausserst  schwierige  sein  wird,  da  dieselbe 
immer  in  zwei  Sprachen  arbeiten  und  gegen  eingewurzelte  Vorur- 
theile  kampfen  muss. 

Mogen  die  Vertreter  der  deutsch-amerikanischen  Presse  nie 
vergessen,  dass  dieselben  nicht  nur  dazu  da  sein  sollen,  um  der 
Sensationssucht  des  Publikums  zu  frohnen,  sondern  immer  ein- 
gedenk  der  Mission  bleiben,  die  sie  in  diesem  Lande  zu  erfiillen 



Vereinigung  alter  deutscher  Studenten  in  Amerika. 

Die  Vereinigung  alter  deutscher  Studenten  in  Amerika  hat 
wiederum  ein  neues  Reis  an  ihrem  Stamme  gezeitigt,  namlich 
den  Zweigverein  Philadelphia.  Schon  seit  Jahren,  selbst  vor  Be- 
stehen  des  Central- Verbandes  wurden  in  Philadelphia  von  ehe- 
maligen  deutschen  Akademikern  Versuche  gemacht,  einen  aka- 
demischen  Verein  zu  griinden,  aber  ohne  den  ersehnten  Erfolg. 
Es  ist  endlich  den  Bemiihungen  des  Herrn  Professor  Dr.  Marion 
D.  Learned  und  Dr.  Albert  Bernheim,  Mitgliedern  des  New 
Yorker  Central- Verbandes,  gelungen,  einen  Zweigverein  in  Phil- 
adelphia in's  Leben  zu  rufen.  Derselbe  wurde  am  26.  Oktober 
1907  offiziell  durch  die  Herren  Dr.  Carl  Beck  und  Dr.  Carl 
Pfister  aus  New  York  in  der  Halle  der  Deutschen  Gesellschaft 
eroffnet.  Ein  frohlicher  Kommers  hielt  die  Mitglieder  noch 
lange  zusammen,  wobei  auch  in  einem  Telegramm  des  Geburts- 
tages  des  Prasidenten  Theodore  Roosevelt  gedacht  wurde.  Das 
Prasidium  lag  in  den  Handen  der  auswartigen  Gaste  Herren 
Beck  und  Pfister,  sowie  der  Herren  Learned  und  Bernheim.  Mit 
Ungeduld  erwartete  man  die  Einladung  zur  zweiten  Zusammen- 
kunft.  In  Folge  der  Schwierigkeiten,  ein  geeignetes  Lokal  zu 
finden,  dauerte  es  langer  als  man  anfangs  erwartet  hatte.  Der 
Zweigverein,  der  inzwischen  auf  iiber  40  Mitglieder  angewachsen 
war,  hielt  seine  zweite  Zusammenkunft  im  alten  Ratskeller  am 
27.  Januar  ab.  Die  auf  dem  Programm  vorgesehene  Beamtenwahl 
ergab  das  folgende  Resultat :  Prasident,  Albert  Bernheim;  Vize- 
Prasidenten,  Marion  Learned,  Hobart  A.  Hare,  William  B.  Van 
Lennep,  Judson  Daland  und  Hubert  Meier;  korrespondirender 
Sekretar,  Max  J.  Walter;  Schatzmeister,  Max  Kuttner.     Das 


62  Philadelphia  Ziveig 

Prasidium  des  Kommerses  lag  in  den  Handen  der  Herren  Albert 
Bernheim,  Marion  D.  Learned  und  Max  J.  Walter.  Lustige  und 
ernste  Erinnerungen  an  die  einstige  Alma  Mater  jenseits  des  At- 
lantischen  Ozeans  hielt  die  Teilnehmer  noch  lange  in  hochst 
frohlicher  Stimmung  vereint. 

Max  J.  Walter,  korr.  Sekretar. 

(Scrman  Qmcrican  Qnnals 




Historical,  Literary,  Linguistic,  Educational   and    Commercial    Relations 


Germany  and  America 


The  German  American  Historical  Society 
The  National  German  American  Alliance 
The  Union  of  Old  German  Students  in  America 



University  of  Pennsylvania. 


H.  C.  G.  Brandt, 

Hamilton  College. 
W.  H.  Carpenter, 

Columbia  University. 
W.  H.  Carruth, 

University  of  Kansas. 
Hermann  Collitz, 

Johns  Hopkins  University. 
Starr  W.  Cutting, 

University  of  Chicago. 
Daniel  K.  Dodge. 

University  of  Illinois. 
A.  B.  Faust, 

Cornell  University. 
KuNO  Francke, 

Harvard  University. 
Adolph  Gerber, 

Late  of  Earlham  College. 

Julius  Goebel, 

Late  of  Harvard  University. 
J.  T.  Hatfield, 

Northwestern  University. 
W.  T.  Hewett, 

Cornell  University. 
A.  R.  Hohlfeld, 

University  of  Wisconsin. 
Hugo  K.  Schilling, 

University  of  California. 
H.  Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University  of  Chicago. 
Hermann  Schoenfeld, 

Columbian  University. 
Calvin  Thomas, 

Columbia  University. 
H.  S.  White, 

Harvard  University. 

Henry  Wood,  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

New  Series,  Vol.  6. 


Old  Series,  Vol.  10. 

published  by 


Chas.  H.  Breitbarth,  Business  Manager, 


ffierim  :  mew  l!?otft  : 


XonDon  : 

Xe(p3ifl  : 

parte  : 

©erman  Qmcrican  Clnnats 



New  Series,  March  and  April  Old  Series, 

Vol.  VI.     No.   2.  1908.  Vol.  X.     No.   2. 


The  Founder  of  Germantown. 

By  Marion  Dexter  Learned.  ,.^ 




It  is  natural  to  inquire  into  the  private  life  of  a  public  man 
at  any  time,  but  it  is  particularly  instructive  to  do  so  in  the  case 
of  a  man  of  the  most  liberal  education,  when  he  steps  from  the 
aula  of  the  university  into  the  wigwam  of  the  wild  man  in  the 
primeval  forests  of  the  New  World. 

The  motives  leading  to  this  apparently  abrupt  change  of  con- 
dition were  not  altogether  single,  nor  without  reflection  and  prep- 
aration in  the  case  of  Pastorius.  The  dominant  motive  was  the 
desire  to  escape  the  turmoil  of  the  Old  World  by  finding  a  quiet 
refuge  in  the  West.  Closely  linked  with  this  selfish  desire  was 
the  higher  motive  of  bearing  the  message  of  Christian  truth  tr 
the  Red  Men  of  America.  This  was  the  attitude  of  Quietists  oi 
that  time,  and  common  to  Pietist,  Mennonite  and  Quaker  alike — 
the  spirit  that  lives   on   in  these   sects,   especially  the   German 

Quietists  of  Pennsylvania,  to  the  present  day. 


66  Francis  Daniel  Pastoriiis 

All  efforts  to  find  a  picture  of  Pastorius  or  any  member  of 
his  family  have  proved  futile.  It  is  possible  to  reconstruct  an 
outline  sketch  of  his  appearance  from  scanty  notes  found  here 
and  there  in  his  works  and  in  the  letters  of  Israel  Pemberton, 
already  given  above,  particularly  the  following: 

"J  long  to  be  with  thee  again  tho  some  times  J  smile  to  myself 
to  think  how  J  told  my  father  when  first  J  saw  him.  J  doubted  he 
would  prove  an  angry  master  he  asked  me  why  so  J  told  him  J 
thought  so  by  his  nose." 

While  this  does  not  tell  how  the  nose  of  the  schoolmaster 
turned,  it  is  quite  in  keeping  with  Pastorius'  description  of  him- 
self, which  is  as  follows: 

"The    Compiler    of    this    little    Manuscript    is    a    Melancholy- 
Cholerick   Complexion,   and   therefore    (juxta    Culpepper,   p.    194) 
gentle,  given  to  Sobriety,  Solitary,  Studious,  doubtful,  shame-faced, 
timerous,  pensive,  constant  &  true  in  action,  of  a  slow  wit  with' 
obliviousness :  &c. 


He  can' 

any  do  him  wrong, 
e  can't  remember't  long."  ^ 

This  self-analysis  would  seem  to  warrant  the  schoolboy 
metaphor  of  Israel  Pemberton,  when  he  speaks  of  his  teacher, 
D.  P.  Pastorius,  as  "D.  P.  Sowerness,"  in  his  letter  to  Richard 

The  first  five  years  of  Pastorius'  life  in  Germantown  were 
busy  with  the  work  of  settling  the  German  colony,  and,  in  spite 
of  moments  of  despondency  and  discouragement,  the  jurist- 
pioneer  seems  to  have  been  fairly  contented  with  his  lot  in  the 
little  German  Town.  He  saw,  one  after  another,  new  houses 
rise  in  the  clearing,  and  the  smoke  of  comfort  and  contentment 
rise  from  freshly  built  chimneys,  heralding  the  progress  of  the 
German  settlement. 

*  Cf.     Talia  Qualia  Medicinalia,  Artificialia  &  Naturalia,  p.  2. 


•    ;     i   R  I     r   U    A    I,   I   I,    SJ, 

hf  1  --  1 1  o  n  1  n  u  t    S  c  K  i.H  r  o  K I  a  I  « 
C  O  L  1,  K  C  T  U  S 

'l    I     Oh  T  II  nllOX*      VlKIIAIH     AsATOKl^U 
i      ,  A  I.    II  11   M    1    OMil  Al    t  V  H    M 

:  COM    M    t'    N   1   C  A    1'   V  S 

j'i  A  B  V 

^1  I.TIIIORK'  AD^MO  !•  \-.  l-ORia  f  C 

^M  r  ■   \.         * 

.CoMtl-k    At    SCOLAKLliA    ^^  1  ■.  .    .  im>  k  K  >  L- 


-1.  ^^'"••'■V.-  i 

TvMi   Apa- 


Title  1*age  of  Melchior  Adam  Pastorus' 
"Fasciculus  Rvthmorum  ". 

Francis  Daniel  Pastoriiis  67 

It  was  a  lonely  life  for  the  agent  of  the  German  Company  with 
his  little  personnel  of  servants  in  these  far-off  western  wilds,  but 
with  no  companion  to  share  the  fears  and  hopes  of  the  passing 
years.  What  memories  of  his  early  years  still  lived  in  his  fancy, 
we  do  not  learn  from  his  personal  notes  or  reminiscences. 
Whether  any  fair  figure  out  of  his  student  days  still  passed  like  a 
guardian  spirit  athwart  his  dreams,  he  does  not  tell.  But  one 
fugitive  song  has  come  down  to  us  in  his  writings,  which  seems 
to  date  from  this  earlier  period  of  the  days  in  Europe  and  which 
may  be  the  one  witness  that  his  life  was  not  utterly  void,  at  least 
of  memories  of  romance  of  the  lighter  vein.    This  song  runs : 

Darf  man  dich  Corinna  kiissen 

So  kom  mein  Liebe  zu  mir  her, 
Ich  werd  es  wohl  am  besten  wissen, 

Das  war  die  antwort  ungefahr. 
Sie  Hesse  zwar  u.  sagte  Nein, 
Und  gab  sich  doch  gedultig  drein. 

Lass  o  mein  Kind !  bleibe  stehen, 

Lauff  schone,  schrie  ich,  nicht  zu  weit. 

Lass  uns  Liebe  werck  begehen, 
Wir  sind  in  unsrer  besten  zeit. 

Sie  seuffzte  zwar !  u.  sagte  Nein, 

Und  gab  sich  doch  gedultig  drein. 

So  halte  nun  und  lass  dich  kiissen, 
Kein  mensche  soil  in  dieser  Stadt 

Nicht  der  geringste  darvon  wissen, 
Dass  jemand  dich  gekiisset  hat. 

Sie  zuckte  zwar  u.  sagte  Nein, 

Und  gab  sich  doch  gedultig  drein. 

Hiemit  so  zog  ich  meine  strasse, 

Daher  ich  neulich  konien  war, 
Erfuhr  in  dessen  bester  massen, 

Von  der  Corina  wunderbahr, 
Dass,  Ja  bey  vielen  pfliget  Nein 
Und  Nein  so  viel  als  Ja  zu  seyn. 

68  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Come,  Corinna,  let  me  kiss  thee ! 

Come,  my  dearest,  to  me  here ! 
I  would  know  why  joy  should  miss  thee, 

I  would  have  thine  answer  clear ! 
Smiling  sweetly  said  she,  "No," 
Then  demurely  yielded  so. 

"Stay  here  near  me,  oh,  my  treasure," 

Cried  I ;  "run  not  off  so  far ; 
Let  us  try  love's  luring  measure, 

While  our  lives  the  richest  are." 
Sighing  deeply  said  she,  "No," 
Then  demurely  yielded  so. 

Raise  thy  head  and  let  me  kiss  thee ! 

Not  a  man  shall  ever  learn 
How  with  longing  I  caress  thee. 

How  my  lips  to  thine  do  turn. 
Then  she  trembled  and  said,  "No," 
But  demurely  yielded  so. 

Often  since  whene'er  I  wander, 

Whether  far  or  near  the  way. 
O'er  the  lesson  do  I  ponder 

From  Corinna  learned  that  day. 
"No"  is  sometimes  backwardness, 
"No"  is  sometimes  meant  for  "Yes."  ^ 

In  the  year  1688,  November  6,  Pastorius  married  Ennicke 
Klostermanns,  the  daughter  of  Jan  Klostermanns,^  alias  Johannes 
Zu  Neuenhaus  and  Ennicke  von  Nensheim,  who  already  had  by 

'  This  translation  was  made  by  Ex-Governor  S.  W.  Pennypacker  and  set 
to  music  by  Arthur  L.  Church,  who  published  both  the  English  and  German 
text  with  the  music.  Mr.  Church  kindly  presented  the  present  writer  with 
a  copy  of  this  print. 

'In  the  Beschreibung,  p.  60,  Pastorius  gives  this  account:  "Nun,  meinen 
particulier  Zustand  anbelangende  /  berichte  kiirtzlichen :  Dasz  Anno  1688. 
den  26.  Novemb.  ich  mich  allhier  zu  Germanton  an  Jungfrau  Annam  Klos- 
termannin  /  Herrn  Henrici  Klostermanns  /  Medicinse  Doctoris  aus  dem 
Hertzogthum  Cleve  gebiirtig  verheurathet  habe."  This  account  does  not  agree 
with  that  of  the  Beehive,  unless  we  are  to  supply  "Schwester"  instead  of 
"Tochter"  after  "Henrici  Klostermanns"  in  the  passage. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorins  69 

her  first  husand  two  children,  Willm  von  Nensheim,  ahas 
Spikermanns,  living  at  Speltrop,  and  Gertrud  von  Nensheim,  who 
had  married  and  gone  to  live  in  Amsterdam.  Ennicke  von  Nens- 
heim-KIostermanns  had  by  her  second  husband,  Jan  Kloster- 
manns,  three  children:  Jan  Klostermanns,  already  deceased, 
Heinrich  Klostermanns,  then  living  in  Heussen,  and  Ennicke 
Klostermanns,  the  wife  of  Pastorius.  Ennicke  Klostermanns- 
Pastorius  was  born  December  15,  1658,  in  Miillheim-on-the- 

Account  has  already  been  given  of  the  personal  effects  which 
Pastorius  brought  with  him,  in  1683,  to  America.  It  appears 
from  his  Res  propriac,^  that  Ennicke  was  also  well  equipped  for 
setting  up  a  new  household  when  Pastorius  married  her,  as  the 
following  list  of  her  personal  effects  at  the  time  of  their  marriage 
will  show : 

An  Silbergeld.  36.  Reichsthaler  oder  io£  i6s.  disslandisch 
An  Kleidern: 

Ein  Schwartz  seiden  Kaper,  12s. 

3.  reichleiber, 

I.  paar  zeugerne  Ermel, 

1.  tiichern  hembdrock. 

2.  Schwartz  gronrasch  Leibergen. 

1.  Schwartz  gronraschen  Schiirtz, 

2.  blaue  rock, 

I.  blau  leinen  Schiirtz. 
6.  Schiirtzeltiicher. 

3.  paar  gestrickte  striimpf. 
3.  paar  gestrickte  striimpf, 

2  paar  schue,  und  i.  paar  panto feln. 

An  leinen  Zeug. 

ein  yard  Nesseltuch, 

II.  Hollandsche  Elen  fein  liiien, 
8.  hembder. 

8.  nastiicher. 

3.  bettlacken. 

4.  Servieten, 

*  Cf.    Res  Propriae,  p.  23- 

70  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

5.  halstiicher. 

4.  Untersten. 

6.  Kroplappen, 

5.  Sonentiicher. 
5.  Kappen. 

18.  Dreckmiitzen. 

An  Hansgerath: 
eine  neue  kist, 
I.  Spiiirad  samt  haspel. 

An  Biichern: 

Jerem.  Dyckens  wiirdiger  Tischgenoss.  12s. 
Saldeni  Christliche  Kinder-schuel.  12s. 
Christliches  Gedenckbiichlein.  24s. 

It  appears  also  in  the  records,  that  Ennicke  had  real  estate 
in  Germantown.  She  bought  in  all  fifty  acres  of  land  in  Ger- 
mantown,  as  follows:  Thirty  acres  of  the  German  (Frankfurt) 
Company  next  to  Isaac  Dilbeck,  according  to  an  agreement  dated 
August  18,  1689;  further  twenty  acres  next  to  Jan  Doeden  from 
the  same  company  by  an  agreement  dated  August  21,  1689.  This 
land  was  purchased  on  terms  of  a  perpetual  rental  of  six  shillings 
and  five  pence  to  be  paid  annually  on  the  first  day  of  the  sixth 
month. ^ 

The  issue  of  the  union  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  and 
Ennicke   Klostermanns   was   two   sons:     Johann    Samuel    Pas- 

"  In  the  Res  Propriae  we  find  the  following : 

Enneke  Klostermanns,  nun  Pastorius  hat  in  Germantown  an  land  fiinffzig 
ackers,  oder  ein  gagtzes  Stattlos,  gelegen  zwischen  Isaac  Dilbeck  und  Jan 
Doeden.  Nembl :  30  Ackers,  neben  Isaac  Dilbeck  aufF  Ewigen  Erbpacht 
von  der  Franckfurtn.  Compagnie  vor  isd.  alt  Engln.  gelds,  laut  Contracts  de 
dato.  d.  18.  Augusti  1689.  [ :  Die  Copey  darvon  folgt  pag.  34.]  Ferner 
20.  ackers,  neben  Jan  Doeden,  auch  auff  Ewigen  Erbpacht  von  gedr.  Compe. 
vor  4.  Schill ;  lod.  diszlandischer  wehrung,  laut  Contracts  de  dato  den  21. 
Aug.  1689  [ :  Dessen  Copey  sihe  pagina  36 :  ]  Jst  also  der  vollige  Erbpacht 
von  diesem  los  oder  50.  ackers  Jahrlich  6.  Schill,  und  sd.  Pensylvanischen 
gelds,  den  iten.  tag  des  6.  Mon. 

Jetztgemeldes  los  hat  im  Dorff  40=acker. 

Jetztgemeldes  los  hat  im  Seitland  lo^acker. 

Die  breite  darvon  im  Dorff  ist  I4=ruth  4  Fusz. 

Die  breite  darvon  im  Seitland  7=ruthen  4  fusz. 

Die  Liingte  im  Dorff  ist 
im  Seitland. 

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'-  lit  Bie;  In  mem  J^aug/benen  Id)  nad)  'iJli^UdjMt  g||(  i(?b  «»tlfft.  ©ej 

hirr  «r;«mt)t«  eif,  unb  Hn«  (!ll»/?lmtB» 

Letter  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  to  his  Parents. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  Ji 

torius,  born  in  Germantown,  March  30,  1690,  and  Heinrich  Pas- 
torius, born  in  Germantown,  April  i,  1692.  Ennicke  suffered 
from  the  effects  of  the  birth  of  this  second  son  all  the  rest  of  her 
life,  as  it  appears,  from  the  lack  of  proper  surgical  care.  The 
name  Pastorius  has  come  down  through  direct  descendants  of 
these  two  sons  to  the  present  time,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  genealog- 
ical chart  at  the  end  of  this  work. 

Although  greatly  concerned  for  the  education  of  his  two 
sons,  Pastorius  recognized  the  economic  conditions  in  Pennsyl- 
vania and  the  importance  of  a  practical  breadwinning  trade,  and 
accordingly  had  each  of  his  boys  learn  such  a  trade.  The  elder 
son,  John  Samuel,  at  the  age  of  sixteen  years  (1706),  learned 
the  weaver's  trade  with  Paul  Kastner,  and  afterwards  carried  on 
this  trade  in  the  house  of  his  father,  who  furnished  him  the  out- 
fit. In  171 6,  August  15,  John  Samuel  married  Hannah  Lijckens, 
the  youngest  daughter  of  Jan  Liickens,  in  open  meeting  in  Ger- 
mantown. The  younger  son  Henry,  likewise  learned  the  trade 
of  weaving  from  his  brother,  but  in  171 3  took  up  shoemaking 
by  himself.  At  the  approach  of  winter,  1714,  he  went  to  Bombay 
Hook,  and  remained  there  and  in  the  Duck  Creek  region  until 
1 71 6.  By  a  curious  coincidence  both  John  Samuel  and  Henry 
narrowly  escaped  death  by  the  fall  of  a  horse.^ 

The  names  of  both  John  Samuel  and  Henry  Pastorius  appear, 

'The  original  in  the  Res  Propriae  runs  as  follows: 

Mein  altester  Sohn  Joh.  Samuel  gebohren  ut  supra,  pag.  8,  den  30. 
Mertz  1690.  Icrnte  ano  1706  das  Weben  von  Paul  Kastner,  u.  trieb  es  hernach 
in  seines  Vatters  haus,  der  ihm  die  gerathschaff[t]  verschaffte. 

Ano  1716.  den  15.  Aug.  heurathete  er  Jan  Liickens  jiingste  tochtcr 
Hanah  in  offentlichr  Versamblung  zu  Germantown.  Da  Er  eben  zu  vor  mit 
einem  fferd  fallende  den  fusz  sehr  verrenckt  hatte,  u.  den  20,  dito  bekam  ers 

Mein  jiingster  Sohn  Heinrich,  gebohren,  ut.  supra,  pag.  8,  den  i.  April 
1692.  lernte  von  seinem  bruder  das  Weben;  und  ano  1713.  von  selbst  das 
Schuemachen.  Aiio  1714.  geg  winter  gieng  er  nach  Bumby  Hook  u. 
hielt  sich  deselbst  und  an  der  Duck  Creek  auff  bisz  ins  Vorjahr.  Ano  1716. 
hatte  er  in  der  May-fair  zu  Philadelphia  einen  elcnden  fall,  stiirtzte  mit  dem 
fferd.  Da  daii  dieses  sofort  todt  blieb  und  er  auch  selbst  vortodt  auffge- 
nonien  wurde.  Doch  schenckte  ihm  Gott  vor  diszmahl  das  leben,  welches 
er  ja  danchbarl  erkeiien,  und  sich  rechtschaffcn  bessern  mag. 

72  Francis  Daniel  Pas  tonus 

together  with  those  of  their  father  and  mother  (the  last  two  in 
Francis  Daniel  Pastorius'  hand),  on  the  marriage  certificate  of 
Henry  Kunders  and  Catharine  Strepers  signed  at  the  Abington 
Monthly  Meeting,  7  da.  7  mo.,  1710.'^  Henry  Pastorius'  name 
appears  later  on  the  petition  for  the  renewal  of  the  Charter  of 
Germantown,®  under  Thomas  Penn. 


The  correspondence  in  the  Beschreibung  shows  that  Pastor- 
ius kept  alive  his  friendship  with  a  number  of  his  old  friends  in 
Germany  during  the  first  years  of  his  life  in  Pennsylvania.  The 
letters  written  to  his  old  preceptor,  Schumberg,  and  to  Mode- 
lius,  rector  of  the  school  at  Windsheim,  contain  much  important 
information  concerning  the  new  country. 

In  addition  to  the  Latin  verses  concerning  the  vanity  of  the 
world,  he  dedicated  his  first  work,  printed  after  his  arrival  in 
America,  Vicr  Tract'dtlcin,  to  Schumbergius.'* 

'  Cf.  Photographic  reproduction  in  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, "Marriage  Certificates,"  Vol.  2.  The  certificate  is  printed  in  Publica- 
tions of  the  Genealogical  Society  of  Pennsylvania,  Vol.  II,  pp.  66-67. 

'The  original  petition  is  in  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania.  It  begins 
thus :  "To  the  Honorable  Thomas  Penn  Esquire  one  of  the  Proprietors  of  the 
Province  of  Pensilvania,  &c,  the  Humble  Petition  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Ger- 
mantownship,"  and  is  signed  by  forty-three  petitioners,  with  "Henry  Pas- 
torius" at  the  head  of  the  third  and  last  column  of  names. 

'  The  dedication  is  in  Latin  and  runs  as  follows : 

Ad  Praenobilem  &  Eruditissimum  Virum  ac  Dominum  TOBIAM 
SCHUMBERGUIM  Senatorem  Windsheimensem  Amicum  singulari  animi 
cultu  devenerandum : 

Amatissimc  Schumbcrgi! 

Pnimitias  Lucubrationum  mearum  &  Fundamentum  subsequnturas  in  eri- 
genda  &  cultivanda  vera  Religione,  Tuse  Prudenti  Dominationi  vel  ideo 
dedicare  in  animum  induxi,  ut  si  forte  me  in  errore  aliquo  deprehensum 
esse  intellexeris,  mutare  me  commone facias.  Testem  autem  produce  ipsum 
Salvatorem  meum  Dominum  JESUM  Christum,  quod  non  sugillandi  aut 
injuriandi  animo,  sed  nudse  simplicisque  veriratis  [sic!]  indagandae  gratia, 
calamum  inmanus  assumpserim,  rum  lugubrem  nimis  Ecclesiae  Christianae 
statum  mecum  penitius  perpendi  advertique  Gentes  venisse  in  haereditatem 
Domini,   ac  omnis   Generis  Feras   Vineam   Christi   depavisse.     Id  quod  jam 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  73 

In  the  letter  to  Rector  Georg  Leonhard  Model  (Modelius), 
he  exhibits  a  keen  interest  in  the  importance  of  the  life  of  the 
Indians  as  an  object  lesson  for  civilized  Europeans,  and  gives 
an  interesting  description  of  the  Red  Men  as  he  saw  them  in 

Other  letters  from  his  correspondence  with  members  of  the 
German  Company,  and  with  his  father,  show  that  he  kept  in 
touch  with  affairs  in  the  Fatherland.  The  letters  of  Pastorius' 
sons  to  their  grandfather,  and  the  latter's  long  and  detailed 
account  of  his  life,  written  in  reply,  form  one  of  the  most  inter- 
esting parts  of  the  Bcschrcibung,  and  exhibit  the  gentle  affection 
still  linking  the  Colonial  offspring  to  the  old  home  beyond  the 

It  is  apparent,  also,  from  the  records  and  events  of  German- 
town,  that  Pastorius  was  on  friendly  terms  with  his  fellow- 
countrymen  in  the  little  German  Town.  He  speaks  of  these  Ger- 
man friends  as  among  those  who  were  especially  kind  to  him 
during  his  severe  illness.  In  a  passage  in  the  Beehive,  he  men- 
tions Jacob  Tellner  as  one  of  his  friends : 

"J  endeavoured  at  Spare  times  to  make  this  present  Hive  on  a 
Quire  of  fine  Paper,  which  a  friend  of  mine  [Jacob  Tellner:]  depart- 
ing for  Europe  did  give  me." 

Pastorius  dedicated  at  least  two  poems  to  Tellner  upon  the 

dudum  multi  pietate  &  vita  Carissimi  Viri  doluerunt,  &  adhuc  omnes  Boni 
passim  dolent. 

Ut  vero,  Vir  Doctissime !  instituti  mei  fincm  mentemq;  tanto  penitius 
percipias,  admonitum  te  velim,  ut  Christi  Domini,  eiisq ;  Apostolorum 
Praecepta  diligenter  omnium  Hominum  Statutariis  commentis  e  diametro 
opponas  persuasumq ;  tibi  habeas  quod  contrariis  talifer  sibi  invicem  oppositis 
Veritas  ipsa  ultro  elucescet.  Et  tu  jam  num  cam  corde  manuq ;  prehcnsam 
tenebis.  Et  tunc  abunde  mihi  credes  quod  omncs  Innovatores  &  contradic- 
tores  Mandatorum  DEI,  aliquando  coram  Tbrono  extremi  Judicis  nullatcnus 
subsistent,  sicut  ii  qui  JESU  jussa  sunt  secuti ;  Hunc  ergo  solum  tu  ama 
cordicitus,  ejus  Dicta  &  jussa  observa,  Veritatem  dilige,  &  in  Ipso  bene  vive  & 
vale !  non  immemor  ejus,  qui  in  hisce,  extremis  finibus  Terrae  quotidie  memor 
est  tui,  morieturq ;  tibi  ter  lidus 

Germanopoli  I  Jan.  1690. 

Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius. 

74  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

latter's  departure  for  Europe.  The  first  is  inscribed:  Hacc  ad 
Jac.  Tellnercm  aeuropaeantcm;  the  second  with  the  superscrip- 
tion:   Ad  eiindem  (  :Jac.  Telhierem)  runs  thus: 

Nach  dem  Krachen  nach  dem  Knallen, 
Nach  dem  Doiiern,  nach  dem  Schallen 
folgt  der  helle  Sonen-schein. 

Man  musz  durch  das  Wetter  dringen, 
Will  es  heute  nicht  gelingen 
Jacob!  es  wird  morgen  seyn. 

Darumb !  lass  nicht  ab  von  Hoffen, 

Konit  Errettung,  Du  hasts  droffen ; 

Was  Gott  will  ist  Gliick  u.  Heyl. 

Dei  Voluntas  mea  felicitas. 

Haec  ego  propere,  Tu  prospere. 

Vale  ac  Salva;  [ei]  iterum  iterumque."^ 


After  rumbling,  after  roaring, 
After  thunder  and  downpouring, 
Follows  oft  the  clear  sunshine. 

Men  must  forth  whate'er  the  weather, 
And  to-day  must  forth  together, 
Jacob !   Up  the  morn  is  fine. 

Be  not  then  so  sad  and  moping, 
Dawns  the  freedom  you  are  hoping, 
Comes  another  brighter  mood 
What  God  wills  is  luck  and  good. 

The  character  and  learning  of  Pastorius,  as  well  as  his  offi- 
cial position  as  Agent  of  the  German  Company  and  founder  of 
the  German  Colony,  brought  him  into  contact  with  the  leading 

°a  Printed  by  permission  from  the  original  manuscript  in  the  possession 
of  Ex-Governor  S.  W.  Pennypacker,  whose  English  translation  is  subjoined 
to  the  original. 



2.  Dc  omniDm  San£ioruin  Vitis 
^  IT.  Dcornnin:n  Pontificxini  Starjtis 
\  III.  De  CorKlioium  Decifionibus 
,    IV.  De  Epilcoois  8c  Patriarchis  Confiaft*- 
i  tinopolitcinis. 

^  :4>a^  it't : 

2.  Ten  2iUcr  p>^p|tc  (BcfcQ  2:tnful>vuna 
S.Von  ^cr  £onciIicn  Snitt/'Scpivung* 
4.  \3v>ii  Ocp.en  Btfd^^ffcn  ur»^  Patriafcfecft 

3iun  0)runbe 

i  ©cr  Funfftfsbui  nod)fcrner  ^(lrallf 

i  prs:rr/itfiret, 


PAStORIUN.    ].  11.  L. 

\    ®^:un^  an^ckgtcn  /  unD  wm  nut  ^utvtn 

'  Succcfs  aufgeVnben  ^^tabt: 

JnmChrifii  M.DCXC. 

Title  Page  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius'  "  Tracta 


Francis  Daniel  Pasforius  75 

men  in  the  Province,  with  some  of  whom  he  formed  a  life-long 

Thomas  Lloyd. 

On  the  journey  across  the  ocean,  Pastorius  made  the  ac- 
quaintance of  the  Welsh  physician,  Thomas  Lloyd,  whose  per- 
sonality and  learning  strongly  attracted  the  German  jurist.  The 
first  bond  of  sympathy  seems  to  have  been  the  knowledge  of  the 
Latin  language  which  enabled  both  of  them  to  carry  on  conver- 
sation. Lloyd  had  studied  at  Jesus  College,  Oxford,^*^  and 
learned  the  continental  pronunciation  of  Latin,  so  that  he  and 
Pastorius,  the  German,  could  readily  understand  each  other. 

"Alone  with  him,  I  could  in  Latin  then  commune : 

Which  tongue  he  did  pronounce  right  in  our  German  way." 

The  friendship  thus  begun  in  a  foreign  tongue  on  board  the 
ship  America,  while  crossing  the  Atlantic,  continued  till  the  death 
of  Lloyd  in  171 3,  and  the  memory  of  his  Welsh  friend  was 
kept  alive  by  Pastorius  in  poetic  tributes  which  he  dedicated  to 
Lloyd's  daughters,  Rachel  (Preston),  Hannah  (Hill)  and  Mary 
(Norris),  after  their  father's  death.  These  poetic  memories 
were  still  accessible  to  Watson  in  a  separate  manuscript,  when 
he  wrote  his  Annals  of  Philadelphia  in  the  Olden  Time,  but  seem 
to  have  disappeared  into  private  hands  or  to  have  been  lost  since 
that  time.  Fortunately,  the  Beehive  has  preserved  many  of  these 
verses,  which  contain  important  information  concerning  the  rela- 
tions of  Lloyd  and  Pastorius. 

In  a  long  prose  preamble  Pastorius  recounts  the  mercies  of 
God,  and  exhorts  the  daughters  of  Thomas  Lloyd  to  join  him 
in  thanksgivings  to  the  Most  High,  on  the  anni\ersary  of  their 
arrival  in  Pennsylvania.    As  special  mercies  he  makes  mention  of 

'"Cf.  John  Jay  Smith,  Letters  of  Dr.  Richard  Hill  and  His  Children 
1854,  and  Charles  Perring  Smith,  Mss.  Mem.  of  the  Carpenter  Family  (in 
the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania). 

76  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

their  escape  ''from  the  Cruel,  Enslaving  Turks,  once  supposed 
to  be  at  our  heels/'  the  Providential  care  which  has  protected 
them  these  one  and  thirty  years,  the  kindness  of  William  Penn 
"as  a  Compassionate  Father  for  his  unskillful  Children,"  "keep- 
ing us  unarmed  creatures  all  along  in  ease  &  Peace,  making  as 
it  were  the  Indians  our  Charissimos  or  Brethren." 

A  Token  of  Love  and  Gratitude. 

Just  one  and  thirty  years,  or  (says  one,  J  know  who,) 

Eleven  thousand  and  Three  hundred  Twenty  two 

Whole  Days  &  Nights  are  past,  since  we  arrived  here 

At  Phi-la-del-phi-a,  where  ye  three  Sisters  dear, 

Jn  Love  together  link'd,  still  arm  in  arm  do  hold 

Each  other  as  they  paint  the  Charities  of  old. 

Should  mine  Arithmetick  proceed,  &  multiply, 

(Like  God  his  Blessings  does,)  it  would  (Be  pleas'd  to  try, 

And  pardon  when  ye  find  an  overly  mistake,) 

Of  Minuts,  Seconds  call'd,  most  thousand  Millions  make. 

Thus  long  ye  have  been  here!  and  ev'ry  Moment  he 

(Or  if  this  Web  of  Time  in  smaller  Thrums  can  be 

Divided,)  has  bestow'd  some  Benefits  on  you. 

Brave  husbands.  Store  of  Goods,  &  hopeful  Children  too.  &c. 

Oh !  that  my  slender  Quill  could  further  set  in  Ranks 

His  Graces  to  our  Souls  before  your  eyes,  that  Thanks 

Might  as  of  one  heart  rise  to  him  the  Holy  One. 

And  like  pure  Jncense  yield  sweet  Savour  at  his  Throne : 

Where,  with  the  Cherubims,  and  Spirits  of  Just  Men, 

Your  Parents  worship  him,  &  that  not  now  &  then. 

As  we  poor  Mortals  do,  Confin'd  below  the  Sky 

To  Faint  &  Weakness ;  but  always,  Jncessantly. 

John  De  la  Val  with  them  his  Strength  about  this  bends. 

And  all  Eternity  in  Hallelu — Jahs  spends. 

Your  Brother  Mordecai,  (J  speak  what  J  believe,) 

And  those  your  tender  Babes,  who  left  this  Vale  of  Grief, 

Of  Sorrows  &  of  Tears,  to  Heaven's  Majesty 

He  his  Te  Deum  sings,  they  their  Hosanna  cry. 

There  they  expect,  that  ye  and  your  Relations  may 

Depart  in  due  Time,  out  of  these  Tents  of  Clay, 

Jnto  the  Mansions,  which  the  Lord  prepar'd  above. 

For  all  his  Followers,  that  live  &  die  in  Love. 

Like  Thomas  Lloyd  has  done ;  whom  God  there  does  regard, 

And  in  his  Offspring  here  his  Faithfulness  Reward. 

Now,  notwithstanding  he  for  you  (his  Daughters)  longs 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  77 

To  mix  your  Melodies  with  his  Celestial  Songs ; 

Yet  I  say,  Tarry  ye !  let  me  the  first  fall  Sick, 

Ascend  &  meet  him  in  my  last  Climacterick, 

Or  LXIIIth  year  of  age,  J  am  in,  and  almost  out. 

I'm  far  from  Flattering!  and  hope  ye  read  my  mind, 

Who  can't,  nor  dare  forget  a  Ship-Mate  true  &  kind. 

As  he  your  Father  was  to  me,  (an  Alien,) 

My  Lot  being  newly  cast  among  such  English  men, 

Whose  Speech  J  thought  were  Welsh,  their  words  a  Canting  Tune, 

Alone  with  him  J  could  in  Latin  then  Commune : 

Which  Tongue  he  did  pronounce  right  in  our  German  way, 

Hence  presently  we  knew,  what  he  or  J  would  say. 

Moreover,  to  the  best  of  my  Rememberance, 

We  never  disagreed,  nor  were  at  Variance ; 

Because  God's  sacred  Truth,  (whereat  we  both  did  aim,) 

To  her  indeared  Friends  is  everywhere  the  same. 

Therefore  'twas  he  that  made  my  Passage  short  on  Sea, 

'Twas  he  &  William  Penn,  that  Caused  me  to  stay 

In  this  then  uncouth  land,  &  howling  Wilderness, 

Wherein  J  saw  that  J  but  little  should  possess. 

And  if  I  would  Return  home  to  my  Father's  house. 

Perhaps  great  Riches  &  Preferments  might  espouse,  &c. 

How  be't  nought  in  the  World  could  mine  Affection  quench 

Towards  Dear  Penn,  with  whom  J  did  converse  in  French. 

The  Vertues  of  these  Two  (and  Three  or  Four  beside,) 

Have  been  the  chiefest  Charms,  which  forc'd  me  to  abide. 

And  though  these  Persons,  whom  J  mention  witli  Respect, 

( Whom  God  as  Jnstruments,  did  graciously  elect. 

To  be  His  Witnesses  unto  this  faithless  Age,) 

Are  at  a  distance  now  from  our  American  Stage, 

Jn  which  as  Actors,  or  Spectators,  we  appear, 

Their  Memory  Survives :   To  me  they're  very  near. 

J  often  wish  J  might  their  Patience  so  express 

As  J  the  want  thereof  ingenuously  Confess. 

Good  Lord !  what  Jnjuries  have  your  said  Genitor 

Of  Villains,  whilst  he  was  Lieutenant-Governour ! 

Jt  seem'd  to  me,  he  would  his  Master  Equalize, 

And  suffer  wretched  Fools  his  Station  to  despise, 

Especially  George  Keith,  well  nigh  devour'd  by  Lice. 

But  honest  Thomas  Lloyd  has  laid  his  Body  down 

Jn  Rest  &  Peace  with  God,  &  now  does  wear  the  Crown 

Of  Immortality,  of  Glory  &  of  Life, 

Laid  up  also  for  us,  if  lawfully  we  strive. 

F.  D.  P. 
Fortunate  Deo,  Fictas  Fcrt  Denique  Palmant. 

78  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Germantown,  the  20th  day  of  the  vith  mo:  1715.  dedicated  by 
the  Papists  to  their  S.  Bernhard  and  being  the  Anniversary  feast  of 
our  happy  Arrival  at  the  MetropoHs  in  this  Province. 

Rachel  Preston,  Hannah  Hill  &  Mary  N orris. 

Your  kindness  wherewithal  my  last  years  Meeters  met, 

Does  this  new  monument  of  ship-mate-ship  beget, 

Which,  if  it  shall  receive  the  selfsame  Recompense, 

May  rise  as  high  again,  &  shew  a  twelvemonth  hence 

Some  Matters,  as  I  hope,  of  greater  Consequence, 

Unless  my  Jnk  dry  up,  or  my  small  Diligence. 

Dear  Friends,  another  year  besides  the  thirty-one, 

(Whereof  my  former  Sheet,)  is  now  elapsed  and  gone. 

Sith  that  we  landed  here  on  Philadelphia's  Shore 

Our  Duty  then  requires,  to  praise  the  Lord  once  more. 

For  all  his  Goodnesses,  in  the  Plurality, 

Which  Ev'ry  one  of  you  enjoy'd  as  well  as  J : 

This  Second  Paper  shall  enumerate  but  some, 

Jn  Grammars  threefold  Tense,  Past,  Present  &  to  Come. 

God's  Mercies  over  Us  have  been,  before  we  were 

Produced  on  the  Stage  of  this  Terrestrial  Sphere, 

He  pour'd  us  out  as  Milk,  within  our  Mother's  Womb, 

And  least  that  this  should  be  yt  First  Stuff's  walking  Tomb, 

Did  Crudle  it  like  Chees,  and  when  yet  weak  &  fresh, 

Fill  up  the  tender  skin  with  Sinews,  Bones  &  Flesh. 

Our  Bodies  thus  prepared.  He  graciously  would  give 

A  never-dying  Soul,  thereby  to  move  and  live. 

To  move  &  live  to  Him,  in  Whom  we  live  and  move, 

Oh !  that  we  always  might  obedient  Children  prove, 

Dread,  love  and  worship  God,  the  only  Father,  which 

Beyond  all  Fathers  is,  most  Bountiful  and  Rich. 

'Tis  He  and  He  alone,  that  made  us  what  we  are. 

And  of  His  Handy-work  did  ever  since  take  Care. 

By  Angels,  Parents,  Friends ;  Nay  oft  by  wretched  Foes, 

Who,  aiming  at  the  Head,  could  scarcely  hit  our  Toes. 

So  having  been  (poor  things!)  a  Nine-month  Closed  in 

A  dark  and  narrow  Vault,  (Concluded  under  Sin, 

Old  Adam's  Progeny,)  were  usher'd,  that  we  should 

As  well  our  Genitors,  as  other  men  behold ; 

But  presently  we  wept,  quite  overwhelm'd  with  Fears, 

Forecasting,  that  we  came  into  a  Vale  of  Tears. 

How  be't  they  kiss'd,  they  buss'd,  &  dandled  us  so  long, 

Till  with  their  Flatteries,  &  lulling  Midwife's  Song, 

They  Dun'd  our  Juicy  Ears,  And  in  our  Nurse's  Lap, 

Outwearied  by  these  Tunes,  we  took  a  Gentle  Nap ; 

Title  Page  of  Pastorius'  "Alvearialia.  " 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  79 

Soon  wak'ned  of  our  Trance,  they  laid  us  to  the  Breast, 

The  which  of  all  the  Sports,  (me  thinks,)  has  been  the  best; 

For,  when  we  grew  some  years,  discerning  sad  from  glad, 

They  sent  us  to  the  School,  where  we  learned  good  &  bad. 

More  of  the  last  than  first— Had  not  our  Parents  skill 

Surpass'd  our  Masters  Wit,  how  Jll,  alas !  how  Jll 

Would  things  still  be  with  us  ?    Had  God  withheld  his  Light, 

We  were  as  blind  as  Moles  ;  But  Thanks  to  Him !  our  Sight 

Increased  with  our  Age :  Wherefore  J  humbly  bless 

The  Fountain  of  this  Gift,  the  Sun  of  Righteousness ; 

Whose  Rays,  if  well  improv'd  by  us,  so  as  they  ought. 

Will  warm  our  fainting  Hearts,  and  grant  us  what  we  sought, 

When  J  from  Franckenland,  &  you  from  Wales  set  forth, 

The  one  out  of  the  East,  the  Other  of  the  North,^°^ 

Jn  order  to  Exile  ourselves  towards  the  West, 

And  there  to  serve  the  Lord  in  Stillness,  Peace  &  Rest. 

He  gave  us  our  desires ;  For  one,  that  rightly  seeks, 

Does  never  miss  to  find.    A  matter  of  eight  weeks 

Restrained  in  a  ship,  America  by  name, 

Jnto  America  [Amo(a)rica:]   we  came: 

A  Countrey  bitter-sweet,  &  pray  how  can  't  be  less, 

Consid'ring  all  the  World  does  lie  in  wickedness  ? 

And  though  perhaps  some  thought,  that  Penn-Silvania 

Should  be  excepted,  and  dream'd  of  Utopia, 

That  Extramundane  place  (by  Thomas  Morus  found. 

Now  with  old  Groenland  lost,)  where  all  are  safe  &  sound; 

Yet  is  it  parcel  of  the  hodd  and  cursed  ground.    Gen.  3:17. 

What  happ'nd  by  the  way,  is  needless  for  to  tell ; 

But  this  J  dare  not  slip,  that  when  the  Lion  fell 

Upon  my  Back,  and  when  next  in  a  frightful  Storm, 

Once  J  myself  did  fall,  there  Crawling  as  a  worm, 

Brave  honest  Thomas  Lloyd  has  been  the  only  Man, 

That  heal'd  me  by  God's  help,  our  great  Physician, 

Our  Maker,  Saviour  &  our  Prophet,  Priest  and  King, 

Good  Shepherd,  Teacher,  Guide :   Our  All  and  Everything. 

To  Him  the  Holy  One,  we  his  Redeemed  bow. 

And  Glory,  Majesty,  Renown  and  Praises  owe. 

For  what  He  hitherto  was  pleased  to  bestow. 

(On  us  poor  Creatures,  whose  Cup  did  overflow,) 

In  two  parts  of  this  Globe,  especially  here, 

Where  we  at  present  breathe,  which  Tense,  tho'  ne're  so  near,  H 

'"aFrancia  Orientalis :    Wallia  Septentrionalis.     [The  notes  tg  the  poem 
are  by  Pastorius  himself.] 

8o  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

I  hardly  comprehend  :  Jt  suddenly  posts  by, 

E'en  in  an  Jnstant,  and  the  Twinkling  of  an  Eye. 

'Tis  nothing  but  a  Now,  a  Now  that  can  not  last ; 

Pronounce  it  with  all  haste,  &  with  all  haste  it's  past. 

A  Weaver's  shuttle  is  not  half  so  Swift  or  fleet, 

This  momentary  Jot  has  rather  Wings  than  Feet : 

It  vanishes  like  Smoke,  like  Dust  before  the  W'ind, 

And  leaves  as  sounding  Brass,  an  Echoing  Voice  behind, 

Which  minds  us,  that  it  should  be  Carefully  imploy'd, 

So  as  the  same  has  been  by  honest  Thomas  Lloyd, 

My  quondam  real  Friend,  whom  with  this  Epithet 

J  honour  thankfully,  and  never  shall  forget 

His  many  Courtesies,  to  my  Departing  hour, 

Altho'  my  years  should  reach  to  other  Sixty-four. 

If  you,  his  Daughters,  &  your  Families  &  J 

W^ith  mine  do  follow  him  ;  we  may  be  sure  to  die 

Jn  Favour  with  the  Lord,  and  Unity  with  Friends : 

By  three  things  he  excell'd,  Faith,  Love  &  Patience. 

And  this  (to  wit  the  last,)  adorned  thus  his  life, 

That  J  may  truly  say,  she  (it)  was  his  second  Wife. 

Concerning  Charity  (the  Center  of  my  Trine,) 

It  did  as  clearly  as  his  other  Vertues  shine : 

He  kindly  deal'd  with  all,  to  ev'ry  one  did  good. 

Endearing  chiefly  God,  and  then  the  Brotherhood. 

His  Christian  Belief  was  grounded  on  the  Rock, 

And  so  could  easily  endure  the  hardest  Shock : 

Plain-hearted  he  has  been,  profound  &  Orthodox, 

Opposed  by  Geo.  Keith's  dull  lowing  of  an  Ox." 

A  Bull  of  Bashan,  who  went  willfully  astray ; 

But  honest  Thomas  Lloyd  continued  in  the  Way, 

Christ  Jesus,  with  streight  Steps :  Jf  we  walk  on  in  them, 

We  shall  undoubtedly  get  to  Jerusalem, 

The  City  of  the  Saints  Solemnity  above, 

Built  of  the  purest  Gold,  wall'd,  pav'd  &  ciel'd  with  Love. 

J  say,  we  shall  arrive,  (and  that  is  yet  to  come,)  III 

Ere  long  in  Paradise  our  long  &  lasting  Home ; 

For,  when  what  we  call  Time,  (a  thing  at  best  but  short. 

And  to  be  used  as  Paul  the  Brethren  does  exhort,) ^^ 

Will  once  be  swallow'd  up,  with  Death,  in  Victory, 

Those  Tenses  needs  must  cease  to  all  Eternity. 

Eternity,  a  word  whereof  J  fain  would  speak. 

"  Vox  Bovis,  non  Hominis. 
"  I.  Cor.  7  :29. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  8i 

Because  J  feel,  it  does  a  deep  Jmpression  make 

Upon  my  Spirit ;  But  as  Augustin  was  out 

In  such  like  Mysteries,  and  proved  too  too  stout, 

Reproved  by  a  Child,  that  tried  to  transfuse 

The  Water  of  the  Sea  into  his  slittle  Sluce. 

So,  if  by  Millions,  yea  by  thousand  Millions  more, 

Jnstead  of  Units,  J  shall  Nine  and  Ninety  Score 

Fine  Bales  of  Genoa  all  over  Multiply, 

'Twill  but  a  Hair-breadth  be  as  to  Eternity. 

The  Stars,  and  Jacob's  Steed,  are  without  Number,  and 

He  is  a  Shatter-pate,  that  Counts  Grass,  Drops  &  Sand : 

A  perfect  Bedlam,  ay !  who  with  Simonides 

Presumes  to  Chalk  out  God  &  Everlastingness. 

Let  us  be  therefore  wise,  and  thus  retract  the  Days, 

Which  from  our  Cradle  up  in  Jdleness  and  plays. 

Or  infinitely  worse,  have  frequently  be  [en]  spent, 

That  for  transacted  Sins  we  seriously  repent : 

And  take  what  heed  we  can,  that  in  this  ruhing  Time, 

We  nothing  may  mis-do,  mis-think,  mis-speak,  mis-rime. 

As  to  Futurity,  none  of  us  all  can  say. 

That  either  you,  or  J,  shall  see  an  other  Day ; 

For  this  good  reason  we  Comit  that  unto  Him, 

Who  rides,  above  all  Times,  upon  the  Cherubim. ^^ 

He  sees  the  Pristine,  and  what  henceforth  must  ensue, 

Like  present  evermore :   Gives  unto  Each  his  Due, 

And  they,  who  faithfully  their  Talents  do  imploy, 

Shall  be  rewarded  there  with  Crowns  &  boundless  Joy. 

Thus  J  am  finishing  my  homely  Lines,  and  crave, 

Dear  Shipmates  your  Excuse,  that  J  so  boldly  have 

With  Doggrels  troubled  you.  Fare  well,  rememb'ring  me, 

Who  am  your  loving  &  affectionate  F.  D.  P. 

The  4th  day  of  the  6th  mo:  1716.  Rachel  Preston  died,  and  was 
buried  the  15th  ditto  at  Philada.  when  my  Son  John  Samuel  married 
with  Hannah,  the  youngest  daughter  of  John  Lucken,  at  German- 

Genes.  35.  v.  20. 
A  Pillar  upon  Rachel's  Grave 

Brave  Jacob  once  would  set, 
That  he  a  Monument  might  have 

So  as  not  to  forget 
Her  Vertues,  Love  and  Faithfulness, 

'2  Sam.  22:11  &  Psalm  18:10. 

j<2  Francis  Daniel  Pasforins 

Wherein  She  did  Excell, 
And  Hkewise  thereby  to  express 

That  he  Esteem'd  Her  well. 
Thus  thou,  Friend  Preston,  since  thy  Wife, 

Our  Dearest  Rachel  is 
Departed  now  this  troublesom  Life, 

To  Ever-lasting  Bliss, 
Rear  up  a  Pillar  on  thy  Heart, 

For  always  to  Remind, 
How  she  stood  in  her  sorest  Smart 

Jn  Patience  not  behind  ; 
But  was,  when  Weak,  endu'd  with  Strength, 

Faith,  Hope  and  Charity, 
Till  taken  to  the  Lord  at  length. 

Does  Praise  and  Magnify 
His  holy  and  most  glorious  Name 

With  the  Triumphant  Church ; 
Pray !  let  us  Jmitate  the  same, 

Tho'  left  here  in  the  Lurch, 
Where  I  myself  look'd  for  that  Fate, 

My  Ship-Mate  underwent, 
And  wherefore  thought  to  antidate 

The  last  J  to  Her  sent. 
Thrice  happy !  Not  to  see  these  lines, 

Beholding  better  Things, 
She  like  a  Star  at  present  shines 

Before  the  King  of  Kings. 

Blessed  are  the  Dead  which  die  in  the  Lord 
from  henceforth:  Yea,  saith  the  Spirit,  that 
they  may  Rest  from  their  Labours;  and 
their  Works  do  follow  them.    Rev.  14.  v.  13. 

This  Obelisk,  in  haste  made  by  a  sorry  hand. 

Serves  only  for  a  Draught,  to  show  how  thine  should  stand. 

God's  Serjeant,  Death,  must  do,  what  he  has  in  Coniand. 

The  foregoing  I  sent  in  form  of  a  Letter  to  my  loving  Friend 
Samuel  Preston,  the  late  husband  of  the  deceased  Rachel  Preston. 

The  4th  day  of  the  3d  Mo.  1717.  Elizabeth  Hill  sent  me  the  little 
Book,  Jntitled  A  Legacy  for  Children,  being  some  of  the  last  Ex- 
pressions &  Dying  Sayings  of  Hannah  Hill,  junr  &c.  Into  which  I 
wrote  what  followeth,  &  so  restored  it 



^}ol  tjttfj 


^^    /HiAC- 

Uc^fi^jl.  3ee  litacjM 







^  <y  //l^y/  not  unhcr^^^^ 

Page  of  Pasjorius'  " Alvearialia.  ' 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  83 

To  my  zvcll-bcloved  Friend  Elisabeth  Hill. 

Elizabeth !  this  Book  of  mine 

Let  henceforth  (as  a  Gift,)  be  thine; 

vide  pag.  4. 
I  read  it  over  thrice  a  day 
Since  in  my  hands  the  same  did  stay, 
And  now  return  it  unto  thee. 
But  twice  from  first  to  last  to  see 
Each  week,  how  Mother's  Name  Sake  dear, 
Thy  loving  Sister,  in  God's  Fear 
Has  laid  her  tender  Body  down 

page  21. 
Hereafter  wearing  that  bright  Crown 
In  Heaven  for  all  faithful  ones 
Laid  up ;  When  as  both  Wasps  &  Drones 
Lake- ward  are  going  when  they  die ; 
Fear  therefore  God,  Truth  magnify, 
Due  Respect  to  thy  Parents  give, 
Plainness  embrace,  and  thou  shalt  live. 

Live  forevermore  with  those  named  page  10  &  32  as  also  with 
her  that  gave  thee  this  wholsom  Advice,  page  19.  in  the  glorious  & 
over-Joyful  presence  of  God,  &  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  So  be  it, 

This  Book  here,  coming  back,  two  other  such  demands. 

For  else  't  had  never  gone  out  of  P 's  hands, 

Who  with  the  like  brave  Stuff  his  Library  adorns, 

And  in  regard  thereof  both  Gold  and  Silver  scorns ; 

Because  by  that  we  reap  great  Profit  to  our  Minds, 

But  this,  (lov'd  too  too  much,)  I^.Ien's  Understanding  blinds 

Dear  Betty !  then  succeed  in  Sister  Hannah's  stead, 

The  holy  Scriptures  oft,  with  other  good  Books,  read: 

Delight  in  Needle-work,  Delight  likewise  to  write. 

And  Letters  full  of  Sense  (as  She  did)  to  Jndite. 

vide  pag.  32. 
So  thou  wilt  truly  be,  (as  J  may  truly  say,) 
The  most  Accomplished  Maid  in  Philadelphia. 

F.  D.  I\ 
Germantown  the  6th  day  of  the  3d  month  1717. 

84  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Williani  Pcnn. 

The  most  important  friendsliip  formed  by  Pastorius  in 
PennsyKania  was  that  with  William  Penn,  the  proprietor  of  the 
province.  On  the  21st  of  August,  1683,  the  day  after  his  arrival 
in  Philadelphia,  Pastorius  presented  his  credentials  to  Penn,  and 
was  well  received,  both  by  the  proprietor  and  his  German  secre- 
tary, Johann  Lehenmann.  Pastorius  has  left  two  accounts  of  this 
first  meeting,  one  in  the  Bcschrcibung,^^  and  the  other  in  the 
Sichcrc  Nachricht.^'"  The  latter  includes  most  of  the  former  and 
gives  besides  an  interesting  estimate  of  his  character  and  work, 
and  hence  is  given  in  English  translation  here : 

The  20th  [of  August]  we  passed  New  Castle,  Upland,  and 
Dunicum  [Tinicum  Island]  and  arrived  at  evenfall,  God  be  praised, 
at  Philadelphia ;  where  on  the  following  day  I  delivered  to  W.  Penn 
the  letters,  which  I  brought  with  me,  and  was  received  by  him  with 
friendly  affection;  of  this  very  worthy  man  and  celebrated  ruler  I 
should,  in  justice,  write  much  more;  but  my  pen,  (although  it  is 
from  an  eagle,  which  a  so-called  savage  recently  brought  into  my 
house)  is  much  too  weak  to  express  the  lofty  virtues  of  this  Chris- 
tian, for  such  he  is  in  deed.  He  often  sends  me  an  invitation  to  dine 
with  him,  also  to  walk  or  ride  in  his  always  edifying  company;  and 
when  I  was  lately  away  a  week  fetching  provisions  from  New  Castle, 
and  he  had  not  seen  me  during  that  time,  he  came  himself  to  my 
cottage,  and  desired,  that  I  should  come  and  be  his  guest  several 
times  a  week.  He  is  sincerely  devoted  [to  the  Germans],  and  said 
once  publickly  in  my  presence  to  his  Councilors  and  those  about  him : 
I  am  fond  of  the  [Germans]  and  wish,  that  you  shall  love  them  too; 
although  I  never  at  any  other  time  heard  such  words  of  command 
from  him ;  these  pleased  me  however  so  much  the  more,  because 
they  are  quite  in  unison  with  the  command  of  God  (vid.  Job.  3,  23). 
I  cannot  say  more  now  than  that  Will.  Penn  is  a  man  who  honors 
God,  and  is  honored  by  Him  in  return :  who  loves  that  which  is 
good  and  is  justly  loved  by  all  good  men,  &c.  I  doubt  not,  some  will 
yet  come  hither  themselves  and  experience  in  fact  that  my  pen  has 
not  written  enough  in  this  matter." 

■  Cf.  Beschreibung,  p.  ^7. 
a.  Sichere  Nachricht,  p.  2  (in  photographic  reproduction  given  above). 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  85 

This  esteem  for  the  proporietor  Pastorius  seems  to  have  re- 
tained even  in  the  midst  of  the  difFiciilties  which  he  found  arising 
out  of  Penn's  pohcy  of  assigning  the  Germans  their  land.  As  we 
have  already  seen,  it  was  Penn  and  Thomas  Lloyd  chiefly  who 
kept  Pastorius  from  abandoning  the  German  Colony  and  return- 
ing to  his  native  land.  Even  in  the  midst  of  Penn's  trial  in  Eng- 
land, Pastorius  remained  loyal  to  the  great  proprietor. 

Nor  was  the  appreciation  all  on  Pastorius'  side.  Penn  has 
left  us  an  interesting  testimonial  to  the  character  of  Pastorius 
in  a  later  letter  written  in  answer  to  an  incjuiry  of  Pastorius' 
father,  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius,  as  to  the  life  of  his  son,  Fran- 
cis Daniel,  in  America.  These  letters,  with  a  German  translation, 
were  published  in  the  Beschrcibung.  They  form  such  an  interest- 
ing incident  in  the  life  of  Pastorius  and  Penn  that  they  may  fit- 
tingly be  given  entire  here : 

Salutem  ab  ipso  fonte  Salutis  Jesu  Christo  quam  plurimam. 
Vir  Prselustris  Humanissime  &  in  Jesu  Dilecte. 

AUdaciam  meam  in  scribendo  facile  condonabis  cum  intellexeris 
ex  paterna  id  fieri  solicitudine  &  affectione  erga  filium  meum  Fran- 
ciscum  Danielem  Pastorium  in  Pensylvania  tua  commorantem  abs 
quo  jam  longo  tempore  nil  literarum  accepi,  ideo  naturalis  &  Paternus 
affectus  me  impulit,  ut  de  statu  ac  vitcC  genere  ipsius  pauca 

Speraveram  ego  quidem  me  in  scncctute  mea  in  ipso  baculum  & 
solamen  habiturum,  sed  spe  mea  frustratus  sum,  dum  in  Provinciam 
tam  longe  a  me  dissitam  ipse  se  contulit. 

Vive  in  Jesv  felicissime  &  per  ministrum  quendam  de  tuo 
famulitio  respondere  desiderio  &  petitioni  meae  dignare.  Qui  ipse 
toto  corde  exopto  esse 

Windshemii  20.  Jun.         Tua;  Humanissimas  Dominationis  scrvus  ad 
1698.  omnia  Mandata  paratissimus. 

M.  A.  P. 

In  answer  to  this  came  by  post  to  Neustatt-on-the-Aysch 
(where  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  was  temporarily  living  after 
his  departure  from  Windsheim),  April  25,  1699,  the  following 
answer  in  Latin : 

86  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Observande  mi  in  Jesu  Christo  Amice. 

Ex  intimo  amoris  affectu  te  saluto  prsesentemque  tibi  &  futuram 
exopto  felicitatem,  quae  constat  in  fida  obedientia  in  Lucem  &  Cogni- 
tionem  illam  quam  tibi  per  Christum  Jesum  impertiit  Deus. 

Nuper  adhuc  in  vivis  fuit  filius  tuus,  &  jam  nunc  Philadelphiae 
agit.  Irenarchia  hoc  anno  est,  aut  nuperrime  fuit,  alias  Vir  sobrius, 
probus,  prudens  &  pius  audit,  spectatse  inter  omnes,  inculpatjeque 
famae,  Famihas  pater  est,  quot  vero  filiorum,  ignoro,  Amoris  tui 
pignus,  cum  hteris  valetudinis  tuae  nunciis  pergratum  ilh  accideret. 

Brevi  Provinciam  istam  juvante  Deo  visurus  sum,  interea  tem- 
poris  quid  vehs  &  quid  de  eo  expertas  vel  ad  ipsum  scribas  vel  in 
Literis  ad  me  dandis  exprimas. 

Cum  Votis  itaque  ut  Devs  una  cum  salutis  sua  demonstratione 
dignetur  seniles  tuos  annos  sicuti  dim  Simeoni  prolongare,  valere  te 

Bristolii  die  20.  Mensis  12. 
vulgo  Februarii  1699. 

Sincerus  tibi  ex  animo  amicus. 
William  Penn. 
A  Monsieur  Monsieur  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius. 
President  a  Windsheim  in  Franconia. 

It  may  be  noted  here  that  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  dedi- 
cated the  following  anagram  to  William  Penn : 

Guilelmus  Penn  Dei  gratia  Regisq  Fauore  Princeps  Pennsyluaniae. 

Anagramma : 

Perpcndens   falacia  munia  Regni  quasiui  greges  populi  tui   sereni. 
Nusquam  tuta  fides.    Nunc  Terra  recalcitrat  [  ?]  Astris 

Subditus  in  Regem  surgit  et  arma  gerit 
Filius  obsistit  Patri,  mala  filia  matri. 

Justus  ab  iniusto  plectitur  exilio 
Sicce  manu  CromWel  violentus  Sceptra  Stuardi 

Inuasit,  sed  mox  reddidit  ilia  DEVS. 
Rex  lacob  Leges  Regni  dum  tollit,  et  almum 

Frangere  conatur  Relligionis  opus 
ludicio  ecce  Dei  iusto  secedere  Regnis 

Cogitur  et  iusto  plectitur  Exilio. 
Hinc  ego  perpendens  fallacia  munia  Regni 

Territus  obstupui,  cordeque  contremui 
Inde  Greges  pie  Christe  tui  super  Orbe  sereni. 


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Title  Page  of  Pastorius'  "  Delici/k  Hortenses.  " 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  87 

Quaesiui  Populi  qui  tua  jussa  colat. 
Hunc  Philadelphiacis  collegi  nuper  in  oris 
Syluanisque  locis  pectora  fida  Deo/^ 

The  tribute  paid  by  Penn  to  the  character  of  Francis  Daniel 

"Vir  sobrius,  probus,  prudens  &  pius, 
Spectatse  inter  omnes,  inculpataeque  famae," 

is  a  fitting  memorial  to  the  many-sided  German  pioneer,  and  justi- 
fies the  noble  sketch  drawn  by  the  Quaker  poet,  Whittier,  in  The 
Pennsylvania  Pilgrim. 

It  is  possible  that  the  following  anagram,  which  Melchior 
Adam  Pastorius  dedicated  to  his  son,  Francis  Daniel,  belongs  to 
this  period : 

Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius. 

Anagramma : 


Si  peccatori  mortemque  necemque  minari, 
Numinis  est  proprium  ?    lustitiaeque  Dei  ? 

Parcas  quseso  div  iesv  fons  alme  SALutis, 
Venturse,  misero  quae  subeunda  neci. 

Passus  enim  pro  me,  Peccatum  Daemona,  Mortem 
Strauisti,  inque  tuo  sanguine  tutus  ouo.^'^ 

The  devotion  of  Pastorius  to  the  great  proprietor  is  further 
expressed  in  a  poem  dedicated  to  Penn  upon  his  third  arrival  in 
the  Province  of  Pennsylvania: 

Epibateriuni,  Or  a  hearty  Congratulation  to  William  Penn,  Chief 
Proprietary  of  the  Province  of  Pennsilvania  &c.  Upon  his  third 
Arrival  into  the  same, 

For  which  good  Patriots  these  sev'ral  years  did  long, 
And  which  Occasions  this  his  German's  English  Song, 
Who'f  old  could  talk  with  him  but  in  the  Gallic  Tongue. 

'  Cf.  Itinerarium,  p.  232. 
Cf.  Itinerarium,  p.  115. 

88  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Ter  Fortunatus,  Felix,  et  Faustaus  ad  Jndos  Tertius  Adventus  sit, 

Guiliellme,  tuus ! 
Let  Heroic  Poets  Tote  of  War  and  warlike  Men, 
My  Reed  (shrill  Oaten-Straw!)  does  Welcome  Wm.  Penn, 
A  man  of  Love  &  Peace,  abominating  Strife, 
To  him  its  Welcome  sound,  and  to  his  dearest  Wife, 
And  to  his  hopeful  Son,  his  Daughter  and  all  His, 
With  Cordial  Wishes  of  God's  everlasting  Bliss. 
The  third  time  welcome  Penn!    Of  good  things  (as  we  see 
Jn  Sacred  History,)  there  have  been  often  three. ^* 
Thrice  Balaam's  Ass  would  turn  &  thrice  the  Prophet  smites,*^ 
And  three  times  blesses  he  the  blessed  Jsraelites.-" 
Thrice  every  year  the  Jews  must  keep  their  Solemn  Feasts,^^ 
And  Solomon  the  Wise  thrice  sacrifices  Beasts.-- 
His  Father  David  thrice  (an  exercised  man,-^ 
According  to  God's  heart,)  bows  down  to  Jonathan.-* 
Elijah  stretches  him  upon  the  Widow's  Boy 
No  less  than  thrice,  &  thus  death's  Power  does  destroy.-^ 
Thrice  to  his  windows  goes  my  Name  Sake  op'ning  them, 
And  ev'ry  day  prays  thrice  toward  Jerusalem.-^ 
Three  times  a  Voice  was  heard,  Rise  Peter,  kill  &  eat,-^ 

*"  I  wittingly  omit  to  speak  of  the  holy  &  transcendent  Three,  who  bear 
Record  in  Heaven  &  in  Earth  i  John  5,  7  as  also  of  the  three  Angels,  whom 
Abraham  entertained  in  the  plains  of  Mamre,  Gen.  iS:2,  Hebr.  12:2. 

Neither  do  I  quote,  that  three  men  of  each  Tribe  were  to  describe  the 
promised  land,  Josh.  18  '.4,  nor  that  all  the  Males  were  three  times  in  the 
year  to  appear  before  the  Lord  God,  Exod.  23:17;  nor  that  divers  goodly 
persons,  having  many  Sons,  had  but  three  Daughters,  i  Chron.  25 :  S,  Job  i  :  2. 
Jtem  what  J  concerning  this  mystical  Number  might  have  allegorized 
out  of  Deut.  14:  28,  29;  Ezek.  14:14;  Dan.  3:24  and  10:2;  Matt.  13:33;  Mark 
9:5;  Luke  10:36,  &c.,  and  from  Natural  Philosophy,  how  all  elementary 
things  consist  of  three,  viz:  Sal,  Sulphur  and  Mcrcuris.  But  only  add  the 
ancient  Latin  Proverb,  in  no  more  than  three  words,  Omne  Trinum  Per- 
fectum ;  /.  e.,  Of  all  good  things  there  must  be  three. 

"  Numb.  22 :28,  32,  33. 

^  Numb.  24 :  10. 

"'Deut.  16:16. 

'^  I  Kings  9  -.25. 

"M  Sam.  24:5,  I  Kings  11  -.4,  Acts  13:22. 

^I  Sam.  20:41. 

-'I  Kings  17:21. 

=*Dan.  6:  10,  13.   Add  Psal.  55:  17. 

*'  Acts  10:13,  16,  and  11:7,  10. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  89 

Wild  Beasts  &  creaping  things  make  lawful  Gospell-Meat.-^ 

Paul's  suff'rings  threefold  were,  on  this  &  th'  other  wise,^^ 

For  Satan's  Buffeting  he  sighs  to  Heaven  thrice.^" 

Thrice  therefore  Welcome  Penn!  (is  my  repeated  cry,) 

The  third  time  to  the  land  of  thy  Propriety ! 

Thy  Province,  into  which  these  thirty  one  years  past 

My  Lot,  by  Providence,  most  happily  was  cast. 

Here  in  its  Infancy  thy  Face  J  first  did  see 

The  one  and  twenti'th  of  the  Sixth  Month,  Eighty-three.  1683. 

When  the  Metropolis  (which  Brother-Love  they  call,)^^ 

Three  houses,  and  no  more,  could  number  up  in  all. 

No  Fulness  then  of  Bread,  no  Jdleness,  no  Pride, 

Where  into  Belial  since  did  many-ones  misguide.^^ 

There  in  thy  company  J  with  my  iioul's  delight 

At  Intervals  might  sit  till  mid-time  of  the  night. 

Then  (as  the  Chearing  Sun)  thou  visitedst  poor  Caves,^^ 

Pray!  let  us  not  forget  those  Emblems  of  our  Graves, 

But  ever  mindful  of  the  Mercies  of  the  Lord, 

Thank  Him  for  what  He  did  so  graciously  afford, 

In  our. first  Meeting-Tent  of  Pine  and  Chest-nut  boord.^* 

'''I  Cor.  10:25.    Tit.  1:15.    Matt.  15:11. 

^2  Cor.  11:25.     Acts  ch.  14,  &  16  &  27. 

'"2  Cor.   12:8. 

"  In  Greek  Philadelphia,  Rom.  12 :  10,  by  reason  of  the  Brotherly  Affec- 
tion &  Kindness,  which  therein  should  abound,  and  not  Philargyria,  or  Love 
of  Money,  as  it  is  Englished,  i  Tim.  6:  10  and  Juxta  Ovidinm :  crescit  Amor 
Nummi,  &c.,  Qu.  Argenti  Studium  vestra  dum  regnat  in  Urbe,  Cura  Fraterno 
Nomcn  Amore  trahit.  Resp.  Romulus,  Abimeleck,  EsaCt,  Cain  atq:  Jehoram 
Fratres  Frater  habet :  Gratia  rara  tamen. 

^^  Ezech.  16 :  49. 

The  Pit  without  a  Bottom 
Brought  forth  these  sins  of  Sodom; 
Ye  who  Comit  the  same, 
Are  guilty  of  its  Flame. 

^  The  caves  of  that  time  were  only  holes  digged  in  the  ground,  covered 
with  Earth,  a  matter  of  5.  or  6.  feet  deep,  10.  or  12.  wide  and  about  20.  long; 
whereof  neither  the  Sides  nor  the  Floors  have  been  plank'd.  Herein  we 
lived  more  Contentedly  than  many  nowadays  in  their  painted  &  wainscotted 
Palaces,  as  J  without  the  least  hyperbole  may  call  them  in  comparison  of  the 
aforesaid  subterraneous  Catatumbs  or  Dens.  Vide  Hel)r.  11:38.  J  myself 
purchased  one  of  the  old  Tho.  Miller  for  5i.  then  Currt.  Silver  Money  of 
Pennsylvania  in  the  midst  of  the  Front-street  at  Philada.  whenas  the 
Servants,  J  had  along  with  me,  could  have  made  a  far  better  in  less  than 
two  days,  had  they  but  known  how  to  handle  the  spade 

^  Our  first  Meeting-house  in  the  sd  City  was  nothing  else  than  a  Lodge 

90  Francis  Daniel  Pastoritis 

How  be't  thy  Presence  was  withdrawing  from  us,  ere 

We  understood  what  things  in  Pensilvania  were 

Of  good  or  evil  use,  to  follow,  or  t'  avoid, 

The  wisest  of  us  all  was  honest  Thomas  Lloid.^^ 

Some  lent  their  itching  Ears  to  Kuster,  Keith  &  Budd, 

And  miserably  fell  into  the  ditch  of  Mud, 

Where  they  may  stick  and  stink ;  For  as  a  sightless  whelp, 

So  stark  blind  Apostates  do  grin  at  profer'd  help : 

They  spend  their  Mouths,  and  fain  with  vain  words  would  ensnare, 

Or  if  this  will  not  do,  scold,  back-bite,  bug-bear,  scare; 

Hereof,  brave  William  Penn,  me  thinks,  thou  hadst  thy  share. 

And  yet  the  second  time  cam'st  Safe  to  this  thy  Land, 

Dogs,  who  at  distance  bark,  bite  not  when  near  at  hand. 

Now  J  thought  all  was  well,  the  Country  full  of  Folks, 

The  City  stately  built,  some  houses  's  tall  as  Oaks, 

The  Markets  stall'd  with  Beef,  whereof  we  nothing  knew. 

When  (as  aforesaid.)  Hutts  &  Wigg-wams  were  so  few. 

However,  feeble  things  we  are  below  the  Moon ! 

Change  upon  change,  alas!  befalls  us  very  soon, 

Till  she  with  other  Stars  &  Planets  (which  now  meet 

Above  our  heads,)  will  be  the  Pavement  for  our  Feet. 

Mean  while  away  again,  home  to  Great  Britain  thou 

Downward  th'  Atlantic  Sea  must  sail,  ascend'st  the  Prow 

Of  that  unlucky  Ship;  unlucky,  why?    Because 

Jn  her  a  harmless  Lamb  is  carried  to  the  Claws 

Of  Tygers,  Bears  and  Wolves,  who  since  they  can't  devour, 

Shut  him  up  in  the  Fleet,  as  form'rly  in  the  Towr, 

Old  Baily's  Bale-dock,  and  such  Dungeons,  apt  to  scour,  &c. 

Ay,  sorry  Turky  quill !  stop,  stop,  &  say  no  more, 

Make  not  afresh  to  bleed  a  newly  healed  Sore. 

This  World  thou  knowst,  has  been  most  troublesom  to  the  Best, 

And  so  will  always  be :  Jn  Christ  they  find  their  Rest,^^ 

or  Cottage,  nailed  together  of  Pine-boards,  Imported  from  New-York,  and 
sold  a  hundred  foot  at  lo  Schill.  And  never  the  less  the  LORD  appeared 
most  powerfully  in  that  Tabernacle  of  Shittim  wood,  (  :See  mine  Onomastical 
Observations,  Num.  1606).    Glory  be  to  His  Name  for  ever  and  ever. 

^^  This  my  well  beloved  Ship-mate  has  been  no  less  conspicuous  for 
his  Integrity  &  irreprovable  Life,  than  for  his  singular  Learning,  Prndence 
&  great  Knowledge  in  things  Physical,  Civil  &  divine,  whereby  (tho'  Deputy 
Governr.  of  this  Province,)  he  was  not  puffed  up  at  all.  Out  of  an  affable, 
mild  &  Truly  Christian  Temper,  yet  zealous  for  the  Truth,  and  undaunted  in 
its  defense,  his  Charity  still  being  greater  than  his  Intellect,  and  his  Love 
towards  GOD  the  greatest  of  all  three. 

^John  16:33.     Hebr.  11:36,  &c. 

wj  idiercL  -^ihfi . 


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mi  f^ntutl. .. , 

Title  Page  of  Pastor  i us'  Voluptates  Apian^. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  91 

The  wch  suffices  them.    Job's  Motto  (  :  Jf  God  would 

Ev'n  slay,  J'ld  trust  in  Him,)  remains  their  strongest  Hold." 

They  can  Forget,  Forgive  &  render  good  for  Bad,^'^ 

Bless  &  Jntreat  when  wrong'd ;  both  sorrowful  &  glad.^" 

Rejoicing  in  the  LORD,  continually  rejoice,"'* 

Laugh  at  their  Enemies  and  at  the  cackling  noise  • 

Of  their  Persecutors,  whom  (scornful  Brats!)  God  scorns,*^ 

And  in  His  fiery  Wrath  at  last  cuts  off  their  Horns. 

For  after  he  has  Try'd  the  Patience,  Faith  &  Hope 

Of  this  Espoused-Ones,  and  they  do  not  Elope, 

But  firmly  cleave  to  Him,  He  crowns  &  comforts  them 

With  Kisses  of  his  Mouth :  No  Cross,  No  Diadem.''^ 

God  proves  first,  then  approves;  first  wounds,  then  heals;  first  kills 

Then  quickens  by  his  WORD :  first  empties,  and  then  fills. 

With  Pleasures,  which  none  dare  Compare  to  any  thing:  ' 

Prais'd  &  extolled  be  the  Name  of  Zion's  King! 

But  why  do  J  rehearse  these  Truths  to  thee  dear  Friend, 

Who  hast  experienc'd  them  beyond  what  J  intend 

To  mention  in  my  Rime  except  that  thread-bare  Lie 

[  :Penn  in  America  a  Jesuite  did  Die?] 

No  sure!  the  self-same  Man,  whom  Gazetteers  have  slain 

So  many  Years  agoe,  lives  still,  or  lives  again : 

Loves  JESUS,  and  abhors  the  Jnsects  of  the  Sect 

Wherewith  black  Loyol  did  this  latter  Age  infect' 

J  say  thou  liv'st,  dear  Penn.  Thanks  be  to  GOD  on  high, 

That  to  the  Prince  of  Life  thou  art  yet  very  nigh  • 

Yea  nearer,  J  believe,  than  thou  hast  ever  been, 

Before  this  Province  was  by  thee  the  third  time  seen 

The  third  time  and  the  last,  J  question  not.  He  will 

Grant  our  Petition,  and  abundantly  fulfill 

"Job  13:15. 

""i  Pet.  1:9.     F.  D.  P.  acer  Eremi  Pcnniaci  Cttltor,  Te  Colo  Pcnne  bend 

CjOcI  Almighty  pleas  to  bless 

Penn,  and  Penn's  brave  Wilderness. 
"'  I  Cor.  4:13.    2  Cor.  6 :  10. 
*"Phil.  4:4. 
"  Psal.  2 :  4. 

"  Psal.  75  :  8,  TO.    2  Cant,  i :  2,  Hebr.  12 :  5,  &c. 

W.  P.  Veritas  Vincit,  Prsevalet.    D.  L.  Diabohis  Latrat. 

,r  .    Tr         ^^^  Devilish  Lyars  delight  in  Lurking-holes. 

Vult  Vertus  Patere  :    Dolus  Latere. 

.,r  ,      .        Whenas  Plaindealing  Truth  Will  shine  to  both  the  Poles 

Wahreit :   Dir  der  Palm-baum  steht, 

Wann  Dir  Liigen  undergeht. 

92  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

The  Number  of  thy  Days,  that  when  thou  art  to  lay 

Thy  Body  once  aside,  Jt  undisturbed  may 

Sleep  fast  at  Pennsberry ;  thy  Soul  Return  &  stay 

With  Him,  from  whom  she  came,  as  those  do  who  are  gone 

Already,  and  their  Task  here  faithfully  have  done, 

Tho'  younger  than  we  both.    In  French  now  Je  conclus, 

Jcy,  et  au  Ciel  Penn  est  le  Bien-Venu ! 

Pour  en  avoir  de  Tout  il  faut  aussi  un  peu  d'Allemand, 

Whereas,  Loving  and  dearly  Esteemed  Friend,  in  thy  Travails 
in  Holland  and  Germany  thou  hast  heard  &  learned  somewhat  of 
my  Mother-tongue  J  hereby  make  bold  to  subjoin  a  few  lines  in  the 
same  as  followeth : 

Penn  heiszt  auf  Welsch  ein  Haubt,  auf  Nieder  Teutsch  ein  Feder, 

Die  man  zum  schreiben  braucht ;  das  Haubt  ersinn't  entweder 

Gut  Oder  Bos,  womit  die  Konigin  paar  Geldt, 

Durch  Hiilf  der  Feder  Zwingt,  die  Gross  und  Kleine  Welt. 

Nein,  wans  hier  Wiinschens  gait,  so  wolt  ich,  dasz  mein  Feder 

Ein  solches  Nach-druck  hatt,  damit  sich  Ja  Ein  Jeder 

Als  ein  geborsam  Glied  ergabe  Jesu  Christ, 

Der  da  das  Einzig  Haubt  der  wahren  Kirche  ist ; 

So  ware  weder  Heid,  noch  Jud ;  audi  kein  Papist. 

Griffith  Owen. 

Next  to  Thomas  Lloyd  and  William  Penn,  Griffith  Owen 
seems  to  have  occupied  the  warmest  place  in  Partorius'  heart.  It 
was  to  Owen  that  he  turned  for  medical  aid  after  the  death  of 
Thomas  Lloyd.  The  following  testimonial  to  the  efficacy  of 
Owen's  medicine  are  quaintly  phrased  in  the  Beehive: 

Dearly  Esteemed  Friend  Griffith  Owen.     Germantown,  the  i6th  of 
the  3d  mo.  1714. 

My  last  Climaterick  (nine  multiplied  by  Sev'n) 
May  be,  will  bring  me  home,  to'r  long  home  even  Heav'n. 
Where  God  our  Father  dwells  in  everlasting  Bliss, 
Where  we  his  Children  then  shall  see  Him  as  He  is, 
And  where  the  Holy  Ghost  our  Spirits  shall  inflame 
Eternally  to  praise  and  Celebrate  his  Name. 
However,  by  Neglect  we  must  not  kill  ourselves. 
Therefore  pray  Doctor  look  for  me  upon  thy  Shelves 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  93 

A  gentle  Purge  which  can  (as  I  do  think)  expell 
My  Fever's  burning  heat :  So  no  more  now,  Farewell. 

F.  D.  P." 

Adde  supra  Num.  352.  Anno  1714.  the  19th  of  November  J  acci- 
dentally came  at  a  little  Book  Intitled :  Tractatus  dc  Sails  Cathartici 
a)nari  in  aquis  Ebcsshamensibus  &  hujus  modi  ali]s  contcnti  Naturd 
et  Usu.  Authore  Nehemid  Green  M.  D.  iitriusq.  Regiae  Societatis 
Socio.  Londini,  1695.  in  12°  and  presented  it  to  my  good  friend 
Griffith  Owen,  scribbling  on  the  first  page,  as  followeth : 

Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius  huncce  Libellum — 
Qui  Salis  Eb'shamij  Virtutes  prodit  et  Usus, 
(Leniter  hoc  Alvus,  quoties  adstricta,  movetur, 
Mota  graves  morbes  ex  Corpore  projicit  agro,  &c) 
Dilecto  Medico,**  Griffitho  donat  Oweno, 
Cui  debere  nihil  vult,  gratus,  praeter  Amorem. 
What  J  had  twice  of  Thee,  this  Author  does  exalt, 
And  Satisfy  my  debt,  my  rend'ring  Salt  for  Salt. 
In  Case  that  clears  thy  Book,  'tis  well,  till  I  want  more, 
Jf  not,  be  pleas'd  to  put  (or  keep)  it  on  my  Score ; 
For  J  intend  to  Pay  the  Salt  &  all  the  Rest, 
Which  J  Dear  Owen  owe :  These  Lines  are  but  a  Jest. 
Talibus  innocuis  Salibus  licet  hactenus  uti, 
Ut  similis  similem  dilectet  Amicus  Amicum. 

When  after  the  general  or  yearly  Meeting  at  Philada.  (17th  of 
the  ist  mo :)  was  ended,  my  beloved  Physician  Gr.  Ozven  prepared  for 
his  journey  towards  New  England,  the  Adversary  of  Men's  Eternal 
happiness  would  Jmpudently  Suggest  some  distrustful  Thoughts, 
the  which  never  the  less  by  the  immediate  Jnspiration  of  our  heavenly 
Comforter,  J  answered  by  way  of  Paradox,  as  well  the  better  to 
Confound  the  Wicked  One,  as  also  the  more  firmly  to  fix  and  fasten 
the  Anchor  of  my  hope  on  Jehovah,  the  Rock  of  Ages,  who  alone  is 
able  to  Save  to  the  utmost,  &  to  restore  to  a  State  of  former  health 
( :  if  it  be  his  good  Will  &  Pleasure,)  even  with  a  Word.    Matt.  8 :  8. 

Advers.    Thy  Doctor  goes  his  ways.  To  Check  New  England's  Ills, 
Answ.      No,  no!  he  ever  stays.  My  Soul  with  good  things  fills. 

"This  footnote  is  added  by  Pastorius: 

"Thy  Spaw  water's  Salt  did  me  much  good  these  two  years  agoe.     Sal 
Cathariticum  sive  mirabile,  Epson  Salt." 

■**  Vid.     Coloss  4,  14. 

94  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Advers.    He  surely  thither  goes,  And  there  will  teach  and  preach. 

Answ.      No,  no !  his  hands  &  Toes  Are  always  within  Reach, 

Advers.  Behold,  Asides  he  Starts,  And  Just  now  takes  his  horse, 

Answ.      What  then  ?  tho'  he  departs.  It  is  not  for  the  worse. 
God  sometimes  hides  his  Face,  And  still  is  very  near: 
His  wholsom  Saving  Grace  Soon  does  again  appear. 

Advers.     What  strange  thing  now  is  this.  At  once  to  go  and  stay  ? 

Answ,      Did  not  the  Son  of  Cis  Among  the  Prophets  play? 

Advers.     J  mean  that  Mortal  Man,  Who  Medicine  to  thee  gives. 

Answ.       /\nd  J  th'  Physician,  By  whom  each  Creature  lives. 

Advers.    Say !  Art  thou  not  afraid.  That  One  goes,  whilst  thou'rt  ill  ? 

Answ.      No,  No !  For  as  I  said.  My  Soul  has  yet  her  Fill. 
By  him  who  is  all  Love,  And  present  ev'ry  where : 
Whose  Will  does  move  above  My  low  and  trembling  sphere. 

James  Logan. 

These  to  my  Esteemed  Friend  James  Logan  at  Philada.  Quae  de 
Fraterno  Nomen  Amore  trahit. 

Jf  we  did  reason  right  &  perfect  Logick  chop, 

Endeavoring  day  &  night  To  get  to  Wisdom's  Top 

We  should  instead  of  Glass,  Meet  with  the  precious  Gem, 

To  do  to  Others  as  We  would  be  done  by  them. 

This  was  Christ's  doctrine  and,  if  fully  understood, 

Js  the  eternal  Band  of  Peace,  the  noblest  Good. 

With  this  ruiis  parallel  what  holy  Prophets  taught. 

To  shun  the  Sin  as  hell ;  Be  Virtuous,  &  not  nought. 

Old  Pagan  Epictet  on  two  words  (as  J  hear) 

Did  all  his  Groundwork  set,  to  wit.  Bear  and  Forbear. 

But  nowadays  the  chief  and  usual  Business 

Js  to  be  large  not  brief;  An  Hour's  Task,  seldom  less. 

And  after  we  compare  The  Writings,  Surely  't  looks. 

That  new-ones  (neotericks)  Volumes  are,  the  ancient  Little  Books, 

Jn  these  which  have  been  first,  we  richly  find,  whereby 

To  satisfy  our  Thirst;  [the  latter  leave  us  dry] 

the  last  themselves  are  dry.  paucis  exceptis. 

Fides  Doctrinaq.  Prisca  Forti  (Fere)  Deliciosa  Palato. 

pastorius'  religious  beliefs. 

The  question  has  been  raised  whether  Pastorius  was  a 
Quaker,  and,  if  so,  at  what  time  he  became  such.  It  has  been 
stoutly  maintained  that  he  remained  at  heart  a  Lutheran. 

j|l%.t^c^^  /.^.Wc;  ^Sr^^jCf -i*TJl'  ^^>!^^-' ^^1'''''/"V<- 

yrana-ftJij  2 ante  i  i/a/f^tuv  Aunrn^^  iihii^tun,:    / /<5,  II    cjvi  tj\! 

,^, feu  7 ct'' ''*''*'% -^':^''/,^?''f'^  <^rn     ^  x-^ 


i^/«.  ^^i 


^'tit  f>u„^'' (IcrXj  (/It/Jc   fy  J\H   t^y   ^PJ^, 

Title  Pack  of  Pastorius'  Book  of  Forms,   "The  Young  Country 
Clerk's  Collection," 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  95 

As  we  have  seen,  Pastorius'  family  was  originally  Catholic, 
his  father,  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius,  having  gone  over  to  the 
Evangelical  faith  (Augsburg  Confession),  after  his  arrival  in 
Sommerhausen,  making  confession  of  faith  and  partaking  of  the 
sacrament  with  Count  Georg  of  Limpurg  on  Christmas  Day, 
1649.  The  marriage  of  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  with  the 
widow  Magdalena  Johm,  was  the  beginning  of  an  Evangelical 
Lutheran  household  in  this  branch  of  the  Pastorius  family.  Fran- 
cis Daniel  was  baptized  and  reared  a  Lutheran.  Although  he 
associated  himself  with  the  Pietists  of  the  Spener  circle  in  Frank- 
furt-on-the-Main  and  was  on  friendly  terms  with  the  Quakerized 
Mennonites  in  Crefeld,  Kriegsheim  and  other  places  in  Germany, 
there  is  no  positive  evidence  that  he  had  renounced  his  allegiance 
to  the  Lutheran  faith  upon  his  arrival  in  America.  Pastorius 
refers  to  the  confessions  in  Pennsylvania  a  number  of  times  in 
the  Bcschreibung,^^'  but  gives  no  clear  statement  as  to  his  own 
sectarian  attitude  as  between  Lutheran  and  Quaker. 

In  the  chapter  "Concerning  the  Religions  of  the  Province," 
Pastorius  mentions  four  forms  of  religion : 

1.  That  of  the  Indians,  which  is  entirely  heathen,  although 
monotheistic  and  evidently  sincere. 

2.  That  of  the  English  and  Hollanders,  most  of  whom  are 

3.  The  Quakers,  who  are  with  William  Penn  in  Philadel- 

4.  That  of  the  Swedes  and  High  Germans,  who  belong  to 
the  Evangelical  (Lutheran)  confession. 

Having  enumerated  these  confessions  he  mentions  the  fact 
that  a  little  church  had  been  built  in  1686  in  Germantown  for 
the  community,  thus  implying  that  all  worshipped  together.  That 
this  church  was  considered  as  community  property  is  further  seen 
from  the  fact  that  the  court  was  held  in  it.'*** 

"  Cf.    Beschreibtmg,  p.  34-35- 

"  O.    Seidensticker,    Bezichungcn    der   Deutschcn    an    den    Schwcdcn    in 
Pennsylvanien  {Der  Deutsche  Pronier,  VI,  427). 

g6  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

In  this  same  chapter  Pastorius  takes  the  opportunity  of  com- 
menting upon  the  Lutherans  in  particular,  showing  that  he  was 
still  enough  interested  in  them  to  regret  their  shortcomings  and 
indifference : 

"The  Swedes  and  High  Germans  are  Evangelical  and  have  their 
own  Chirch,  whose  minister  is  called  Fabricus,  of  whom  I  must  say 
with  regret,  that  he  is  much  given  to  drink  and  still  almost  blind  in 
the  inward  man.  *  *  *  *  Xhe  Evangelical  ministers  would  have 
had  a  good  opportunity  to  follow  the  command  of  Christ:  "Go  ye 
into  all  the  world  and  preach  the  Gospel."  If  they  were  willing  to 
be  the  followers  of  Christ  rather  than  the  servants  of  their  body  and 
if  they  were  more  devoted  to  Theologia  Interna,  than  to  literal 
recitation."  *'' 

In  another  letter  to  his  father,  dated  March  30,  1694,  Pas- 
torius gives  an  interesting  account  of  his  religious  life  in  the  new 
province : 

"Myself  and  family  are  still  in  good  health,  as  reported  in  my 
preceding  [letter]  and  [living]  a  quiet  pieceful  private  life,  and 
although  I  am  still  charged  with  Inspection  of  Justice  [the  ofifice  of 
Justice  of  the  Peace]  both  in  Germantown  and  Philadelphia,  yet 
such  outside  official  affairs  do  not  disturb  the  inner  consciousness  of 
the  gentle  humble  private  life  of  Jesus  Christ.  =1=  *  *  *  *  *  An 
intimate  friend  wrote  me  from  Frankfurt  recently,  how  the  apathetic 
Lutheran  Ministers  had  been  attacked  and  disturbed  by  the  Quietists 
and  the  Papal  apostles  of  works  by  the  Pietists,  which  I  regard  as 
unmistakable  forerunners  of  the  approaching  appearance  (God  grant 
it  may  be  soon)  of  his  dear  and  only  begotten  Son.  Happy,  eternally 
happy  they  who  have  oil  in  their  lamps  and  are  ready  to  meet  this 
blessed  bridegroom  and  go  with  him  to  the  wedding  feast."  *® 

"  Num.  12,  Lutherans.  Solafidians  are  so  taken  up  with  Faith,  they  have 
no  room  for  charity.  They  think  to  perform  all  their  duty  to  God  in  hearing, 
and  to  shew  the  Fruits  of  it  in  talking.  Justified  by  faith  alone ;  whereas 
that  Faith  wch  is  alone,  doth  not  justifie.  2.  Luther,  Calvin,  Champions  in 
their  day.  They  use  their  Mother's  (  :the  Church  of  Rome:)  weapons,  & 
yet  cry  (:whore:)  against  her.  They  are  called  by  the  name  of  M.  L.  as 
Christians,  by  J.  C.  Ubiquitarians.  Cochley's  lies  against  Luther,  Barel  615. 
M.  Luther  being  offended  at  his  Master  the  Pope,  set  up  for  hiniself,  as  the 
only  Apostle  of  that  age,  Mamiet  [  ?]  Vol.  8,  p.  234,  he  staggered  many 
wise  &  honest  men  &  overthrew  whole  thousands  of  fools  &  knaves,  Jbid. 
Sola  fide,  a  short  &  compendious  Cut  to  be  saved,  the  Lutheran  Reforma- 
tion. Those  of  the  Augustan  Confession,  falling  into  the  odium  of  the  more 
rigid  L.  vid.  Evangelium  (  :  Evangelicorum.)  in  And.  Menip.  tit.  82.  brave 
Luther  acted  nobly  &  heroically  in  separating  from  Rome. 

^  Cf.    Beschreibung.  p.  64-65  and  86ff  88. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastoriiis  97 

In  almost  every  letter  Pastorins  manifests  his  personal  con- 
cern for  the  spiritual  welfare  of  his  kinsmen  and  friends  beyond 
the  sea,  as,  for  example,  in  his  exhortation  to  his  godchild  Meck- 
lein  to  make  good  the  vow  which  his  godfather  had  made,  and  in 
his  admonition  joined  to  congratulation  upon  his  father's  election 
as  Superior  Judge  of  Windsheim,  calling  his  father's  attention 
to  the  account  he  must  give  at  the  last  judgment.  All  this  "con- 
cern" is  quite  in  keeping  with  the  spiritual  awakening  of  the 
time,  found  both  among  the  Pietists  and  the  Quakers,  but  there 
is  not  a  word  about  his  personal  doctrinal  attitude  toward  any 
specific  sect  in  the  first  year  in  Germantown. 

It  seems  quite  likely  that  matters  of  creed  did  not  seriously 
disturb  the  little  community  of  the  German  town  during  the  first 
years  of  their  communal  life.  They  were  practically  one  in 
spirit,  whether  Pietists  from  Frankfurt,  or  Mennonites  or  Ger- 
man or  Dutch  Quakers  from  Crefeld  and  the  Lower  Rhine.  The 
spirit  of  the  little  Quaker  meeting  at  the  house  of  Tiines 
Kunders  doubtless  pervaded  the  whole  community. 

The  actual  affiliation  of  Pastorius  with  the  Quakers,  appears 
clearly  from  the  minutes  of  the  Monthly  and  Quarterly  Meet- 
ings of  Philadelphia  and  Abington.  The  items  in  these  minutes 
relating  to  Pastorius'  connection  with  the  Friends  are  here  given 
in  chronological  order.  Those  referring  to  Pastorius'  teaching 
in  the  Friends'  School  in  Philadelphia  have  been  given  already, 
and  need  not  be  repeated  here  : 

The  Records  of  the  Abington  Monthly  Meeting  of  the 
Friends  contain  the  following  entries. 

Record  of  Marriages  and  Births  of  the  Abington  Monthly 
Meeting : 

"Witness  of  Marriage  of  Peter  Shumaker  Jun  and  Margaret 
Op  de  Graeff  both  of  Germantownship  Frances  Daniell  prestoreys" 
"The  Children  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorious. 

1.  Jno  Saml  Pastorious  Born  ye  30th  of  ye  i  mo  1690. 

2.  Henery  Pastorious  Born  ye  ist  of  ye  2  mo  1692." 

"At  our  Monthly  Meeting  ye  28.   12  mo.   1703  Daniel  Walton 

98  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Edmond  Orphood  Everard  Balton  &  Daniel  Pastorius  are  appointed 
to  attend  ye  Quarterly  Meeting." 

"At  our  Monthly  Meeting  ye  29  6  mo.  1715  : 
William    Preston    Daniel    Pastorius    Richard    Lewis    &    Ryner 
Tyson  are  appointed  to  attend  ye  Quarterly  Meeting." 

The  Minutes  of  the  Philadelphia  Monthly  Meeting  contain 
the  following  entries : 

"Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  29  d.  8m.  1697. 
Samuel   Carpenter  &  James   Fox   are   desired   to   speak   with 
Francis  Daniel   Pastorius   in   order  to   write   for   Friends  of  this 


"Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  29  d.  iim  1697: 
It  being  proposed  to  this  meeting  that  a  printing  press  would  be 
very  serviceable  to  friends  belonging  to  the  Yearly  Meeting,  Daniel 
Pastorius  of  Germantown  is  willing  and  thinks  he  may  be  Capable  of 
managing  the  same,  therefore  the  meeting  requests  Samuel  Carpen- 
ter or  any  other  friends  to  send  to  England  for  a  press  and  letters  or 
such  things  thereunto  belonging  as  cannot  be  gotten  here  and  this 
meeting,  if  the  Yearly  meeting  doth  not  approve  thereof,  doth  prom- 
ise to  see  him  or  them  paid  for  the  same." 

"Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  29.  2  mo  1698: 
A  paper  from  the  last  Yearly  Meeting  of  London  was  directed 
to  the  monthly  &  quarterly  meetings  in  Pensylvania,  East  &  West 
Jersey,  for  the  Collecting  of  all  George  Fox's  books  &  writings  in 
these  parts.  In  order  thereto,  It  is  agreed  that  Daniel  Pastorius  write 
Copies  of  the  above  said  papers,  and  that  one  of  them  be  sent  to  each 
monthly  meeting  in  this  County,  and  also  one  to  Bucks,  one  to 
Chester  and  one  to  New  Castle  Counties  to  their  particular  Quarterly 
meetings,  that  so  the  service  thereof,  .may  be  answered,  there  being 
Copies  already  sent  to  East  &  West  Jersey.  And  for  this  monthly 
meeting  it  is  left  to  the  care  of  James  Fox  to  make  diligent  Enquiry 
therein  &  whosoever  hath  any  of  the  said  books  and  papers  are 
desired  to  bring  them  unto  our  next  monthly  meeting." 

"Monthly  Meeting  Philadelphia  27th  3  mo  1698: 
Daniel  Pastorius  acquaints  this  meeting  that  he  wrote  Copies  of 
the  papers  from  the  Yearly  Meeting  of  London,  about  the  Collection 
of  Geo.  Fox's  writings  &  delivered  them  to  Anthony  Morris,  in  order 
to  be  sent  to  the  several  meetings  as  desired,  and  friends  are  still 
desired  to  bring  into  the  next  meeting  or  at  any  time  to  James  Fox, 
an  account  of  what  of  his  books  or  writings  they  have. 







:;  ^ 

tL-K4a4x/n^ , 



xotjff  maMmt  iA^Ae^  her  9i4UMff^o^- 

Title  Page  of  Pastorius  Book  on  Medicini 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  99 

"Monthly  Meeting  Philadelphia  30.  4m  1699: 

Whereas  there  is  a  Book  wanting  for  recording  marriages 
amongst  friends,  James  Fox  is  to  buy  a  Good  Book  for  that  purpose, 
and  pay  for  it  of  tlie  meeting  Stock,  and  deliver  it  to  Francis  Daniel 
Pastorius  who  is  appointed  to  Record  all  marriages  in  it.  Reese 
Peters  and  Robert  Burrough  are  desired  to  acquaint  friends ;  to 
bring  in  their  Certificates  that  it  may  be  done." 

"Monthly  Meeting  Philadelphia  25.  6.  1699: 

An  Epistle  from  lames  Dickinson  on  being  read,  Francis  Daniel 
Pastorius  was  ordered  to  write  12  Copies  thereof,  and  to  deliver 
them  to  Sam.  Carpenter  &  James  Fox  who  are  desired  to  dispose  the 
same  as  desired  by  James  Dickinson,  which  is  accordingly  done." 

"Monthly  Meeting  Philadelphia  29.  i.  1700: 

Griffith  Owen  having  recommended  John  Cadwallader  as  a 
person  very  fit  for  an  assistant  in  the  School.  (Francis  Daniel  Pas- 
torius being  gone)  [ref.  here  to  former  neglects']  Anthony  Morris, 
David  Lloyd,  lohn  Jones  &  Samuel  Carpenter  are  desired  to  see  what 
Daniel  Pastorius  hath  done  upon  the  meetings  accts.  and  to  pay  him 
for  the  same." 

"Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  26.  2.  1700: 
The  friends  appointed  to  consider  what  Daniel  Pastorius  hath 
done  for  friends,  Report  that  they  think  he  should  have  Ten  pounds, 
which  this  meeting  approves  of,  and  orders  Samuel  Carpenter  to  pay 
the  same." 

"Monthly  meeting  of  Philadelphia  30.  i.  1705: 

Daniel  Pastorius  &  Arnett  Clinken  from  Germantown  requests 
the  assistance  of  this  meeting  towards  their  building  a  new  meeting- 
house, which  friends  seems  very  ready  and  willing  to  do,  and  it  is 
agreed  that  a  subscription  may  be  begun  at  the  beginning  of  the 
next  monthly  meeting." 

"Monthly  Meetimg  of  Philadelphia  26.  4.  1713  : 
The  minute  relating  to  David  Lloyd  ancl  the  letter  sent  this 
meeting  by  John  lawert  being  under  consideration,  and  David  still 
continuing  his  request  for  a  Certificate,  the  sence  of  this  meeting  is, 
that  David  Lloyd  should  appear  at  our  monthly  meeting  to  give  them 
Satisfaction  in  relation  to  the  Complaint  of  Daniel  Pastorius  and 
John  Jawert,  the  meeting  being  informed  that  the  Controversy  be- 
tween Humphrey  Murray  &  the  said  David  is  ended." 

"Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  30.  8.  1713: 
The  friends  appointed  to  hear  David  Lloyd  &  Daniel  Pastorius, 
five  of  them  met  &  heard  what  they  had  to  say."    '•'    *    *    *     [All 

lOO  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

were]  "with  the  assistance  of  Samuel  Preston,  or  any  six  of  them 
are  yet  desired  to  labour  further  with  David  Lloyd,  and  endeavoi"  to 
convince  him  that  there  is  a  fraud  in  the  recovering  of  the  said  Ger- 
mans lands,  whether  he  was  then  appraised  of  it  or  not." 

[There  are  other  entries  of  the  hearing  of  this  case.] 

It  seems  quite  likely  that  Pastorius,  like  all  the  seriously 
minded  of  the  Germantown  community,  was  spiritually  affiliated 
with  the  Friends'  meeting  in  Germantown,  held  first  in  the  house 
of  Tiines  Kunders,  and  after  1686  in  the  little  church  built  that 
year.  The  condition  of  affairs  is  well  reflected  by  the  fact  that 
he  was  one  of  those  who  laid  the  protest  against  slavery  before 
this  meeting  in  1688.  This  protest,  which  will  be  considered  in 
a  later  chapter,  shows  signs  of  differences,  which  were  already 
arising  in  Germantown,  and  were  soon  to  assume  more  definite 
sectarian  expression. 

In  1690  the  Mennonites  were  reinforced  by  new  arrivals 
and  had  a  meeting  of  their  own  in  the  house  of  Issac  Jacobs  van 
Bebber,  with  William  Rittenhouse  as  their  preacher. 

A  Dutch  account  of  Hendrick  Pannebecker  by  Jacob  Gow- 
schalks,  gives  a  good  description  of  the  attitude  of  the  Men- 
nonites toward  the  Quaker  meeting  at  this  time : 

"The  beginning  or  the  origin  of  the  Community  of  Jesus  Christ 
here  in  Germantown,  who  are  called  Mennonites,  took  its  rise  in  this 
way,  that  some  friends  out  of  Holland  and  other  places  in  Germany, 
came  here  together,  and  although  they  did  not  agree,  since  at  this 
time  the  most  were  still  Quakers,  nevertheless  they  found  it  good  to 
have  exercises  together,  but  in  doing  it  they  were  to  be  regarded  as 
sheep  without  a  shepherd,  and  since  as  yet  they  had  no  preachers, 
they  endeavored  to  instruct  one  another.  In  the  year  1690  more 
Friends  from  Crefeld  and  elsewhere  came  into  the  land,  who  were 
also  of  our  brethren  and  added  themselves  and  attended  our  exer- 
cises in  the  house  of  Isaac  Jacobs."*" 

About  the  same  time  the  Reformed  appear  in  and  about 
Germantown,  among  whom  were  William  Dewees,  who  arrived 

Cf.  S.  W.  Pennypacker,  Germantown,  p.  220. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  loi 

in  New  York  in  1689,  James  Delaplaine  who  eame  from  New 
York  to  Germantown  about  1692. 

At  this  juncture  the  religious  strife  of  the  German  Colony 
breaks  out  in  earnest,  and  gives  opportunity  for  Pastorius  to 
define  more  clearly  his  attitude  to  the  Quakers. 

While  the  unrest  may  have  begun  with  the  cold  reception 
which  the  Quakers  gave  the  German  protest  against  slavery  in 
1688,  the  first  great  religious  disturbances  was  the  Keithian  Con- 
troversy. In  1692,  George  Keith,  a  Quaker  preacher  and  school- 
teacher in  Philadelphia  since  1685,  went  to  New  England,  where 
he  made  a  defense  of  Quaker  doctrines  in  a  controversy  with 
Cotton  Mather  and  his  son  Increase  Mather.  After  his  return  to 
Philadelphia,  Keith  accused  the  Quakers  of  teaching  deistic  doc- 
trines. The  attitude  of  Pastorius  in  this  controversy  was  strongly 
anti-Keithian,  as  the  following  drastic  rime  with  its  coarse  pun 
will  show : 

"Jt  seem'd  to  me,  he  would  his  Master  Equalize, 
And  suffer  wretched  Fools  his  Station  to  despise, 
Especially  George  Keith,  well  nigh  devour'd  by  Lice." 

(To  be  Continued.) 


The  following  brief  account  of  the  colors  of  the  German 
troops  which  served  against  us  in  the  Revolution  may  be  of  inter- 
est to  students  of  American  history : 

Hessian  Flags. 

The  flags  carried  by  the  Hessian  troops,  as  far  as  is  known, 
were  all  of  the  same  model,  but  the  colors  of  the  silk  of  which 
the  flags  were  made  varied  very  much  indeed.  The  flags  of  no 
two  regiments  were  exactly  alike  in  color. 

The  general  design  was  a  flag  about  four  feet  square,  with 
a  centrepiece  of  blue,  on  which  was  painted  a  red  and  white 
striped  lion  (the  lion  of  Hesse)  standing  on  a  green  base,  but, 
curiously  enough,  looking  backwards.  The  lion  holds  in  one 
paw  a  short  sword,  and  is  crowned.  The  wreath  around  the 
centerpiece  is  of  laurel,  and  is  almost  exactly  on  the  same  lines 
as  the  wreaths  which  surrounded  the  centrepieces  of  the  flags  of 
Frederick  the  Great.  It  is  very  similar  in  design  to  the  wreaths 
which  are  still  used  on  the  Prussian  colors. 

With  few  exceptions,  the  flags  had  a  wavy  triangular  piece 
running  from  the  corners  to  the  centrepiece,  thus  producing  the 
effect  of  a  large  cross  on  the  flag.  These  cornerpieces  (called 
in  German,  "Eck-Flammen"),  are  a  very  common  style  of  design 
on  flags  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  are  still  to  be  found  on 
some  of  the  Prussian  cavalry  standards.  A  few  Hessian  flags 
had  plain  fields,  without  the  cornerpieces. 

In  each  corner  of  the  flags  is  a  small  wreath,  over  which  is 
a  crown,  and  in  the  wreath  is  the  monogram,  "F.  L."  (Frederick 
Landgraf).     Over  the  blue  centre  is  a  large  crown  of  similar 


Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution      103 

design,  and  under  this  crown  a  white  ribbon  with  the  inscription 
"Nescit  Pericula."  In  the  middle  of  the  two  sides  and  in  the 
middle  of  the  lower  part  of  the  flag,  is  a  small  flame,  painted 
in  gold,  as  are  the  wreaths,  crowns  and  monograms. 

A  very  accurate  description  of  one  of  the  flags  captured  at 
Trenton,  is  given  in  a  letter  from  William  Ellery  to  the  Governor 
of  Rhode  Island,  written  from  Baltimore,  just  after  the  battle 
at  Trenton,  in  which  he  describes  a  green  flag  captured  at 
Trenton,  which  he  says  was  then  hanging  before  him.  He  calls 
the  corner  triangles,  "blazes,"  and  the  ornamentations  in  the 
middle  of  the  sides  which  I  have  called  flames,  he  also  designates 
as  "blazes." 

Another  equally  curious,  and  even  more  interesting,  con- 
temporary representation  of  the  flags  will  be  found  on  Peak's 
portraits  of  Washington,  one  of  which  (dated  1781)  was,  until 
recently,  at  Independence  Hall,  in  Philadelphia;  it  is  now  in  the 
hands  of  its  owner,  Mr.  Thomas  E.  Kirby,  of  this  city.  There 
are  many  replicas  of  this  picture.  There  is  one  in  the  Metropoli- 
tan Museum,  and  there  is  one  in  the  Capitol  at  Washington,  which 
is  dated  1779.  It  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  first  painted  by 
Peale.  In  the  right-hand,  lower  corner  of  these  pictures 
are  painted  four  flags,  two  of  which  are  black  with  white  corners, 
and  two  of  which  are  green  or  greenish.  In  some  of  the  copies 
of  this  picture,  the  lower  of  the  two  green  flags  is  painted  very 
much  lighter  than  in  the  older  pictures ;  and  the  upper  one  seems 
to  have  one  brownish-pink  corner.  But  on  the  one  in  Washing- 
ton, which  is  dated  1779,  and  on  the  one  in  the  Metropolitan 
Museum,  the  two  flags  are  distinctly  green,  with  a  suggestion  of 
a  white  corner.  Peak's  son  is  quoted  as  saying  that  his  father 
painted  these  trophies  from  nature.  Therefore,  these  pictures 
show  two  kinds  of  flags,  whicli  must  have  been  captured  at 
Trenton,  for  Peale,  in  1779,  could  have  had  no  other  Hessian 
flags  before  him.  It  is  evident  that  the  green  flag,  described  by 
Ellery,  and  the  green  flag  shown  on  Peak's  pictures,  are  one  and 

I04      Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution 

the  same.  From  Mr.  Kirby's  picture,  which  is  in  particularly  fine 
condition,  almost  all  of  the  details  of  the  flags  appear  clearly — 
the  crown,  the  motto,  the  blue  centre,  the  lion,  portions  of  the 
wreath,  portions  of  the  monogram,  etc.  Ellery,  unfortunately, 
does  not  give  the  color  of  the  corner  blazes. 

There  are  preserved  at  the  Historical  Society  at  Philadel- 
phia, two  green  Hessian  flags,  and  a  small  piece  of  a  black  flag, 
all  of  which  the  society  says  (and  I  believe  correctly)  came  from 
Trenton.  These  flags  correspond  exactly  with  Ellery's  descrip- 
tion, and  Peak's  picture,  but  they  are  unfortunately  badly  muti- 
lated, the  lion  being  almost  entirely  torn  out,  and  the  painting  of 
the  motto  and  the  gold  of  the  large  crown  having  worn  off.  The 
shape  and  position  of  the  ribbon,  on  which  the  motto  appeared, 
and  the  outline  of  the  crown,  however,  can  be  distinctly  traced. 
The  green  silk  is  much  faded.  The  wavy  corner  triangles  are 
there  in  part,  and  are  of  a  dirty  white.  On  one  of  the  flags  the 
upper  half  of  one  of  the  corner  wreaths  and  crown  and  the  mono- 
gram are  visible.  H  the  small  piece  of  the  black  flag  is  placed 
on  the  green  flag,  on  which,  as  I  say,  a  portion  of  the  monogram 
appears,  the  monogram  will  be  seen  in  almost  complete  form. 
The  small  flames  in  the  middle  of  three  sides  are  also  there  on 
one  flag ;  on  the  other  but  two  are  left. 

There  is  in  the  Museum  Friedericianum,  in  Cassel,  a  small 
book  containing  water-color  drawings  of  the  flags  of  the  regi- 
ments which  were  not  captured  here.  These  drawings  corre- 
spond in  design  exactly  with  the  flags  of  the  Historical  Society 
at  Philadelphia,  with  Peale's  pictures,  and  with  Ellery's  descrip- 
tion, except  in  two  particulars.  The  spearhead  drawn  in  the  book 
is  an  openwork  lance  head,  with  a  small  crown,  and  the  mono- 
gram "F.  L.,"  as  appears  on  the  flags,  whereas  Peale  has  painted 
(I  think  in  this  instance  fancifully),  a  very  peculiarly  shaped 
spearhead,  the  like  of  which  I  have  not  seen  anywhere,  here  or 
abroad.  The  only  other  difference  between  the  flags  and  the 
pictures  in  the  Cassel  book,  is  that  the  monogram  in  the  corners 

Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution      105 

of  the  pictures  is  not  "F.  L.,"  but  the  monogram  of  a  later  prince; 
but  it  clearly  appears,  from  examination,  that  the  later  monogram 
has  been  painted  over  the  "F.  L.,"  which  would  indicate  that 
when  the  drawings  were  made  the  flags  bore  the  monogram 
"F.  L.,"  but  were  altered  to  suit  the  whim  or  fancy  of  a  subse- 
quent monarch. 

We  captured  at  Trenton  three  regiments,  Knyphausen,  Rahl 
and  Lossberg,  and  our  returns  show  that  we  captured  four  flags. 
General  Heister  reports  the  loss  of  fifteen  (five  to  each  regiment 
would  be  correct),  but  our  troops,  apparently,  only  took  four. 
What  became  of  the  other  eleven  at  the  time  is  unknown.  It  is 
stated  in  a  Hessian  soldier's  diary  that  the  flags  of  Rahl's  regi- 
ment were  found  on  a  vessel  which  was  captured  by  the  Hessians 
at  Stono  Ferry  several  years  afterwards.  How  they  came  to  be 
on  that  vessel,  nobody  knows.  It  is  further  claimed  that  Rahl's 
flags  were  taken  back  to  Cassel.  All  of  the  flags,  however,  which 
may  have  been  returned  to  Cassel,  were  taken  by  Napoleon  to 
Paris,  with  other  loot,  and  were  destroyed  in  18 14,  when  so 
many  other  trophies  were  burned  in  the  courtyard  of  the  Inva- 
lides,  the  spearheads  and  other  metal  parts  being  thrown  in  the 
river.  Subsequently,  some  of  these  metal  parts  were  fished  out, 
and  there  are,  in  the  Invalides,  some  spearheads,  more  or  less 
perfect,  which  evidently  came  from  these  flags,  as  they  show  the 
crowned  monogram  "F.  L." 

Inasmuch  as  Knyphausen's  regiment  had  black  facings,  and 
as  it  was  quite  customary  to  have  the  colors  of  the  flags  follow 
the  facings  of  the  regiment,  it  is  probable  that  the  black  and 
white  flags,  captured  at  Trenton,  belonged  to  that  regiment.  As 
Rahl's  flags  are  said  to  have  been  recovered  by  the  Hessians,  the 
green  flags  must  have  belonged  to  the  Lossberg  regiment. 

We  captured  at  Yorktown  two  regiments,  Erbprinz  and 
Bose.  As  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  ascertain,  the  colors  of  the 
flags  of  these  regiments  are  at  present  unknown.  There  are, 
however,  in  Germany,  quite  a  number  of  old  books  of  flags  (one 

io6      Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution 

especially  famous  book  is  at  Darmstadt),  in  which  the  flags  of 
these  regiments,  as  well  as  the  three  captured  at  Trenton,  may 
have  been  drawn.  I  have  not  had  access  to  the  Darmstadt  book. 
Inquiries  made  by  me  of  a  number  of  historical  societies  in  Ger- 
many and  of  various  museums,  "Staats-Archive"  and  libraries, 
have  not  resulted  in  my  obtaining  any  satisfactory  information 
about  the  flags  of  the  three  regiments,  the  flags  of  which  disap- 
peared entirely,  Rahl,  Erbprinz  and  Bose. 

In  the  book  at  Cassel  there  are  two  kinds  of  flags  represented, 
one  known  as  the  "Leib-fahne,"  being  the  flag  of  the  first  com- 
pany, the  others  being  "ordinary  flags,"  belonging  to  the  other 
four  companies  in  each  regiment.  Each  company  had  a  flag.  The 
following  table  gives  the  colors  of  these  flags,  as  they  are  drawn 
in  the  book  at  Cassel,  the  first  color  being  that  of  the  field,  the 
second  that  of  the  corners.    The  centres  are  always  blue : 




Prinz  Karl 




"Leih"  Flag.  Ordinary  Flags. 

Field  Corners  Field  Corners 

Dark  Red    Light  Blue    Light  Blue    Dark  Red 
Yellow  Wine  Red     Wine  Red      Yellow 

Green  Wine  Red  All  Green 

All  Light  Yellow      Light  Yellow    Light  Blue 

Dark  Yellow    Brick  Red    Dark  Yellow  Light  Blue 

All  Orange  Orange        Light  Blue 

It  will  be  seen  that  there  was  the  greatest  variety  in  the  colors 
of  the  flags. 


Equally  brilliant  in  coloring  were  the  flags  of  the  four  Bruns- 
wick regiments  which  surrendered  at  Saratoga.  None  of  these 
flags  was  delivered  to  us.  They  were  saved  by  Madame  Riedesel, 
and  have  since  been  destroyed. 

Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution      107 

The  Ducal  Museum  in  Brunswick  has,  however,  supph'ed  me 
with  a  drawing  of  one  of  these  flags,  and  they  were  on  the  follow- 
ing design : 

The  flags  were  about  four  feet  square,  and  had  a  red  centre 
on  which  was  the  white  horse  of  Brunswick.  This  centre  was 
surrounded  by  a  gold  wreath,  not  unlike  that  of  the  Hessian  flags. 
Over  the  horse  was  a  ribbon,  with  the  inscription  "Nunquam 
Retrorsum."  Over  this  was  a  crown.  In  the  corners  were  four 
wreaths  with  crowns  over  them,  and  the  monogram  "C.  C."  The 
same  monogram  appears  on  the  spearheads.  In  the  middle  of 
the  sides  were  flaming  bombs.    The  ornamentation  was  all  in  gold. 

The  design  of  these  flags  is  a  narrow,  vertical  cross,  with 
wavy  sides  (called  in  German,  "Flammen  Kreuz,"  still  appearing 
on  a  number  of  German  xA.rmy  flags)  on  a  field  of  color.  The 
fields  of  the  flags  and  the  crosses  were  of  different  colors ;  that  is 
to  say : 



The  Brunswick  Dragoons  had  small  guidons  or  standards 
of  blue,  but  did  not,  according  to  the  information  I  have  received 
from  Brunswick,  take  them  from  Canada  into  the  field,  as  the 
regiment  fought  on  foot. 


I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  the  design  of  the  flags  of 
this  regiment.  It  appears  from  a  copy  of  the  return,  which  is  in 
the  Congressional  Library  in  Washington,  that  with  Burgoyne's 
main  army  there  were  four  German  regiments  of  five  companies 



Prince  Frederick 








io8      Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution 

each,  with  twenty  flags.  The  other  regiment  was  left  at  Ticon- 
deroga,  according  to  the  report.  I  have  said  that  Mme.  Riedesel 
saved  the  Brunswick  flags;  what  became  of  the  Hanau  flags  I 
have  not  been  able  to  ascertain.  It  is  not  known  at  Marburg 
what  became  of  them,  nor  what  they  were  like. 

Waldeck  Flags. 

The  colors  of  the  Waldeck  regiment  were  taken  by  the 
Spaniards  at  Pensacola,  the  Waldeck  records  admitting  the  loss 
of  two  flags.  Where  they  are  in  Spain  I  have  not  been  able  to 
find  out,  although  the  American  Embassy  there  has  made  careful 
research  for  me.     They  very  likely  are  in  private  hands. 


There  are  three  Anhalt-Zerbst  flags  at  Dessau,  dating  from 
the  eighteenth  century,  but  it  is  not  known  by  the  authorities 
which,  if  any,  of  these  regiments  was  in  America.  The  flags  are 
quite  elaborate  in  design.  I  have  been  endeavoring  to  find  out 
which  of  the  flags  was  here,  as  the  authorities  have  promised  me 
a  photograph  of  any  or  all  of  them,  if  I  wish  them.  The  Anhalt- 
Zerbst  Regiment  did  not  serve  actively  against  us. 

Ansbach-Bayreuth  . 

There  are  three  Ansbach-Bayreuth  flags  at  West  Point  in 
fine  condition.  Two  of  them  still  have  their  spearheads.  These 
flags  are  embroidered  on  white  brocade,  an  unusual  thing  for  a 
regimental  flag  of  those  days.  They  are  totally  different  from 
any  flags  existing  in  Munich,  or  elsewhere,  as  far  as  I  have  been 
able  to  ascertain,  and  none  of  the  flags  in  Munich  (where  a  num- 
ber of  Ansbach-Bayreuth  colors  are  still  preserved)  or  Berlin 
belonged  to  regiments  which  served  here. 

Of  these  flags  we  captured  ten  at  Yorktown.  What  became 
of  the  other  seven,  no  one  seems  to  know.     Briefly  described,  they 

Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution      109 

are  as  follows:  On  one  side  there  is  a  large  flying  eagle  (origi- 
nally red,  now  quite  dark  and  dull),  of  very  grotesque  design  (a 
modified  Brandenburg  eagle),  holding  a  short  staff  in  one  claw 
and  a  branch  of  laurel  in  the  other.  Over  him  is  a  ribbon  in  bul- 
lion, on  which  is  embroidered  the  inscription  "Pro  Principe  et 
Patria."  On  the  other  side  is  a  large  monogram,  "S.  E.  T.  C.  A.," 
which  is  explained  as  being  the  motto  of  the  order  of  the 
Red  Eagle,  "Sinceriter  et  Constanter,"  followed  by  the  initial 
"A,"  of  the  reigning  Prince  Alexander.  Over  this  is  a  crown 
and  below  are  the  letters  "M.  Z.  B."  (Markgraf  zu  Branden- 
burg). On  two  flags  is  the  date  1775,  and  on  the  third  the  date 
1770.  On  one  side  of  the  monogram  there  is  a  palm  branch,  and 
on  the  other  a  laurel  branch,  embroidered  in  what  is  now  pale 
green  silk.  The  monogram  and  crown  are  partly  in  silk  and  partly 
in  bullion.  Attached  to  one  of  the  flags  is  a  narrow  ribbon  of 
black  and  silver,  with  a  tassel.  The  spearheads  are  quite  orna- 
mental, and  contain  an  openwork  monogram,  "C.  F.  C.  A.,"  with 
a  crown  over  it.  The  "C.  F.  C.  A."  stands  for  "Christian  Fred- 
erick Charles  Alexander." 

There  are,  as  appears  from  the  above,  five  German  flags 
still  in  existence  here,  and  a  piece  of  a  sixth,  and  there  can  be 
no  question  about  the  identity  of  the  flags,  as  Hessian  and  Ans- 
bach-Bayreuth.  It  is,  however,  puzzling  to  know  what  became 
of  the  other  trophies  captured  from  the  Germans.  I  have  made 
very  extensive  inquiries  on  the  subject  and  have  been  unable  to 
obtain  any  information  at  all.  They  seem  simply  to  have  dis- 
appeared, but  no  doubt  some  exist  in  private  hands  or  possibly 
in  some  historical  society,  and  have  been  forgotten.  The  United 
States  Government  does  not  know  of  any  except  those  existing 
at  West  Point,  and  I  have  not  found  any  historical  society  which 
has  been  able  to  trace  any  Ansbach-Bayreuth  flags  or  any  Hessian 
flags,  other  than  those  at  Philadelphia.  The  existence  of  the  latter 
had  been  pretty  well  forgotten,  when  Mr.  Jordan  showed  them 
to  me  a  year  ago. 

I  lo      Colors  of  German  Mercenary  Troops  in  the  Revolution 

In  my  book,  Regimental  Colors  in  the  War  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, I  have  had  reproduced  photographs  of  all  the  German  flags 
still  existing  in  this  country. 

New  York,  February  27,  1908. 



By  Richard  E.  Helbig. 


IN  NEW  YORK,  OCTOBER  4-7,  1907. 

(Translated  for  "German  American  Annals"    from   the   published   proceedings   of 
the  convention  by  R,  E.  H.) 

The  motion  of  Delegate  Scholtz  of  Baltimore,  to  embody  the 
article  about  the  "New  York  Public  Library"  in  the  proceedings,  is 


According  to  paragraph  11  of  its  constitution  and  principles  the 
"National  German  American  Alliance  of  the  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica" recommends  a  systematic  investigation  of  the  share  Germans 
have  had  in  the  development  of  their  adopted  country,  in  war  and  in 
peace,  in  all  kinds  of  German  American  activity,  from  the  earliest 
days,  as  the  basis  for  the  founding  and  continuance  of  a  German 
'American  history. 

What  has  the  "National  German  American  Alliance"  as  such 
done  so  far  in  this  direction?  This  question  should  by  all  means  be 
discussed  at  the  convention  now  in  session.  I  take  the  liberty  on  this 
occasion  to  inform  the  delegates  and  all  others  interested  in  the 
subject  about  the  following.  In  addition  to  my  regular  work  in  the 
library,  I  have  exerted  myself  for  many  years  to  build  up  a  large 
German  American  collection  for  the  "New  York  Public  Library." 
Already  on  March  17,  1902,  prompted  by  the  visit  of  Prince  Henry 
of  Prussia  to  this  country,  a  comprehensive  exhibition  of  books,  man- 
uscripts, illustrations,  etc.,  relating  to  the  German  element  in  the 


H2  The  German  American  Collection 

United  States,  was  opened  in  the  spacious  entrance  hall  of  the  Lenox 
Library  Building,  in  order  to  draw  public  attention  to  this  collection. 

As  no  special  fund  is  at  our  disposal  yet  to  buy  everything  in 
this  field,  many  of  my  recommendations  for  purchase  could  not  be 
considered.  For  this  reason  the  growth  of  the  collection  appeared 
too  slow  to  me.  So  I  began  in  October,  1903,  to  solicit  donations  of 
books,  pamphlets  and  other  material  for  the  collection,  by  way  of 
correspondence.  This  attempt  proved  to  be  very  auspicious,  as  I 
could  report  in  an  article  published  in  the  "New  Yorker  Staats- 
Zeitung"  of  April  10,  1904,  the  receipt  of  293  volumes  and  pamphlets 
from  15  States,  between  November,  1903,  and  February,  1904.  Now 
I  pressed  vigorously  forward  in  this  path.  The  steadily  growing 
work  and  correspondence  compelled  me  to  give  up  all  my  own  time, 
often  at  the  sacrifice  of  hours  of  sleep,  to  this  labor  of  love. 

October  3,  1905,  I  sent  a  latter  to  the  third  convention  of  the 
"National  German  American  Alliance"  in  Indianapolis,  explaining 
the  scope  of  the  collection,  the  progress  made  so  far,  also  asking  for 
the  official  support  of  our  aims  and  efforts.  The  letter  was  read 
before  the  convention,  then  it  was  published  in  the  "New  Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung"  October  9.  By  mistake  it  was  omitted  from  the 
printed  minutes  of  the  convention,  published  in  "German  American 
Annals,"  November,  1905,  but  appeared  in  the  December  issue. 

March  11,  1906,  the  "New  Yorker  Staats-Zeitung"  printed  an 
abridgment  of  my  report  on  the  progress  of  the  collection  during  the 
years  1904-1905.  It  was  published  in  full  in  "German  American 
Annals,"  May,  1906,  pp.  147-157.  As  this  report  is  of  far-reaching 
interest  to  German  American  research,  many  German  papers  printed 
it  verbatim  or  gave  extracts  with  editorial  comments.  At  that  time 
the  collection  amounted  to  over  20CX)  titles.  During  the  two  years 
about  225  works,  including  some  rarities,  had  been  purchased.  By 
gift  1332  volumes  and  pamphlets  from  301  donors  in  iii  cities,  dis- 
tributed over  31  States  of  the  Union,  had  been  received.  The  report 
contains  also  a  list  of  about  125  names  of  German  American  authors 
of  belles  lettres,  represented  in  the  collection.  Since  then  the  works 
of  more  than  40  such  authors  have  been  acquired. 

After  January  i,  1908,  a  new  report  upon  the  growth  of  the  col- 
lection and  its  use  for  the  time  1906-1907  will  be  issued.  For  the 
present  we  can  say  only  that  the  results  surpass  those  of  1904- 
1905.     The  foremost  benefactor  has  been  the  Rev.  John  Rothen- 

The  German  American  Collection  113 

steiner,  pastor  of  a  large  German  parish  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.  He  has 
donated  over  360  vohimes  and  pamphlets  between  May,  1905,  and 
June,  1907.  Of  great  importance  is  also  the  gift  of  40  volumes  of  a 
New  York  weekly,  entitled  "Belletristisches  Journal,"  established  in 
1852,  from  the  present  publisher.  Dr.  H.  E.  Schneider.  The  series 
has  almost  been  completed  from  other  sources.  Mr.  Henry  Feld- 
mann,  of  New  York,  presented  the  rare  vols.  13-15,  1864/65-66/67. 

I  repeat  what  I  stated  already  in  my  letter  to  the  convention  in 
Indianapolis :  "The  advantages  to  German  American  research  offered 
by  a  special  collection  in  a  large  public  library  are  so  important 
and  evident,  that  our  efforts  not  only  deserve,  but  that  we  may 
reasonably  lay  claim  to  the  support  of  all  German  Americans."  I 
have  repeatedly  called  attention  in  the  press  to  the  fact,  that  the 
publications,  reports  and  smaller  printed  matter  of  churches,  societies 
and  institutions  have  a  positive  value  as  source  material  for  research. 
The  "National  German  American  Alliance"  could  facilitate  and 
hasten  our  arduous  work  by  the  passing  of  resolutions,  wherein  the 
local  federations  of  societies  are  requested  to  collect  material  in  their 
respective  districts  and  to  send  the  same,  if  possible,  collectively,  to 
our  address.  Such  action  has  already  been  taken  by  the  German 
American  State  Alliance  of  New  York  at  its  convention  in  Troy, 
June  23,  1907. 

German  American  Newspapers  and  Periodicals. 

All  publishers  and  editors  are  respectfully  requested  to  send  us 
their  publications  regularly.  Complete  volumes  are  bound  and  care- 
fully preserved  for  the  purpose  of  research.  Volumes  of  past  years 
are  especially  desired.  As  it  is  practically  impossible  to  obtain  com- 
plete files  of  all  German  newspapers  ever  published  in  this  country, 
I  have  determined  to  find  out  the  existence  of  files  in  the  libraries  of 
other  cities  and  in  private  possession.  The  result  will  be  published 
later,  whereby  a  great  service  will  be  done  to  historical  research. 
How  often  it  has  happened,  that  old  newspaper  volumes  have  been 
sold  for  a  few  cents  as  waste  paper,  or  been  destroyed  outright! 
Let  us  rescue  therefore  all  we  can.  Due  acknowledgement  will  be 
given  to  all  who  assist  in  this  important  piece  of  work.  The  new 
grand  structure  of  our  library  at  Fifth  avenue,  between  Fortieth  and 
Forty-second  streets,  will  be  the  largest  library  building  in  the  world. 

114  ^'^^  German  American  Collection 

It  is  planned  to  hold  four  and  a  half  millions  of  volumes.    There  will 
be  plenty  of  room  for  German  American  material. 

German  American  Bibliography. 

In  an  article  in  the  "New  Yorker  Staats-Zeitung"  of  April  lo, 
1904,  I  have  already  called  attention  to  my  German  American  bib- 
liography. At  present  it  embraces  over  10,000  titles,  including  contri- 
butions to  periodicals  and  the  publications  of  historical  societies. 
For  the  sake  of  accuracy  every  conscientious  bibliographer  makes  it 
a  point  to  see  all  material  himself.  My  plan  is  to  include  also  the 
titles  of  books  which  are  not  yet  in  the  possession  of  the  "New  York 
Public  Library."  This  will  require  visits  to  the  libraries  of  other 
cities.  In  1904  I  sacrificed  three  weeks  of  my  vacation  for  the  pur- 
pose of  research  at  the  "Library  of  Congress"  in  Washington,  in 
1905  a  shorter  time  at  libraries  in  Philadelphia.  Economy  of  time 
and  expenditure  out  of  my  own  pocket  make  it  prudent  to  postpone 
the  publication  of  my  bibliography  until  after  the  books  in  the  Astor 
and  Lenox  Libraries  have  been  united  in  the  new  building,  which 
present-day  prophets  say  will  take  place  in  about  two  to  three  years. 
The  great  mass  of  our  German  Americans  has  little  comprehension 
of  the  gigantic  task  of  such  a  bibliographical  undertaking.  I  am  well 
aware  of  the  difficulties  of  the  work,  but  I  must  necessarily  finish  it 
alone  to  insure  uniformity.  As  a  member  of  the  "American  His- 
torical Association"  and  the  "Bibliographical  Society  of  America"  I 
am  in  touch  with  competent  persons  and  reach  at  the  same  time  those 
circles,  whose  interest  should  be  won  for  German  American  his- 
torical research. 

Our  dear  fellow-citizens  of  German  origin  may  be  assured,  that 
much  more  is  effected  by  our  collection,  than  by  the  senseless  asser- 
tions of  certain  "speakers,"  who  vehemently  try  to  impress  their 
hearers  on  every  occasion,  that  American  historians  willfully  ignore 
the  merits  of  the  German  element.  The  principal  thing  is  to  gather 
the  source  material  and  to  make  it  available  for  systematic  scientific 
research.    The  whole  apparatus  is  already  in  our  library. 

Richard  E.  Helbig, 
Lenox  Library  Building, 
5th  Ave.  and  70th  St.,  New  York. 


Emil  Mannhardt,  secretary  of  the  committee,  reads  the  follow- 
ing report,  upon  which  verbal  elucidations  are  made  by  Dr.  Kern 
and  Prof.  Goebel : 

The  committee  on  historical  research  was  organized  by  electing 
Dr.  Kern  as  chairman  and  E.  Mannhardt  as  secretary.  The  follow- 
ing recommendations  were  agreed  upon : 

Each  delegate  to  the  convention  shall  make  it  1  is  duty  to  aim  at 
the  formation  of  historical  societies  in  each  county,  city  and  smaller 
locality,  who  shall  take  up  research  into  the  German  element  in 
their  respective  districts.  The  following  facts  should  be  ascertained : 
Names  of  the  first  German  settlers  and  dates  of  their  arrival ;  the 
share  Germans  and  their  descendants  have  in  the  holding  of  real 
estate  and  the  paying  of  taxes,  also  their  percentage  to  the  total  pop- 
ulation ;  the  part  Germans  have  born  in  the  agricultural,  industrial 
and  commercial  development  of  the  various  localities ;  their  services 
in  the  wars  of  the  United  States ;  number  and  strength  of  German 
religious  congregations ;  number  of  pupils  in  German  schools ;  num- 
ber and  membership  of  German  societies,  including  dates  of  organi- 
zation and  time  of  duration  of  their  existence. 

Such  data  shall  be  published  under  the  auspices  of  the  State 
federations  of  German  societies.  "German  American  Annals,"  the 
organ  of  the  German  American  Historical  Society,  edited  by  Prof. 
M.  D.  Learned  in  Philadelphia,  and  "Deutsch  Amerikanische 
Geschichtsblatter,"  the  organ  of  the  German  American  Historical 
Society  of  Illinois,  edited  by  Emil  Mannhardt  in  Chicago,  will  publish 
contributions  about  the  German  element  of  any  section  of  the 

It  is  the  opinion  of  the  committee,  that  it  is  absolutely  necessary 
to  have  a  history  of  the  United  States  written,  which  will  convinc- 
ingly show  the  part  Germans  have  had  in  the  development  of  the 


Ii6  Committee  on  Historical  Research 

country,  as  compared  with  the  other  elements  of  the  population,  in 
order  to  give  the  American  people  a  proper  conception  of  the  subject. 
The  National  German  American  Alliance  should  undertake  to  have 
such  a  work  published  and  see  to  it,  that  it  is  used  as  a  basis  for  the 
teaching  of  American  history  in  the  public  schools. 

The  committee  recommends  the  preparation  of  a  history  of  the 
immigration  of  the  so-called  Palatines,  to  be  published  by  the 
National  German  American  Alliance  in  commemoration  of  the  bi- 
centenary in  1909  of  the  coming  of  the  Palatines. 

A  sub-committee,  consisting  of  Messrs.  Detreux,  Prof.  Learned, 
Mannhardt,  Dr.  Kern  and  Helbig,  shall  be  authorized  to  carry  out 
the  foregoing  recommendations.  Delegate  Trumpold,  of  the  Law- 
rence, Mass.,  branch.  New  England  Alliance,  submitted  the  following 
recommendation :  The  National  Alliance  shall  resolve  to  have  written 
and  published  a  German  American  history,  in  a  style  to  make  it 
suitable  as  a  reader  in  the  German  American  schools  of  this  country. 

New  York  Public  Library. 

The  committee  recommends  that  the  German  American  collec- 
tion of  the  New  York  Public  Library  receive  the  official  support  of 
the  National  German  American  Alliance  by  the  adoption  of  the  fol- 
lowing resolutions : 

Resolved,  That  the  public  and  the  press  be  requested  to  support 
the  German  American  collection  in  the  New  York  Public  Library  to 
the  best  of  their  ability  and  to  send  material  to  the  address  below. 

Resolved,  That  the  State,  local  and  other  organizations  be  re- 
quested to  gather  printed  and  other  documents  in  their  respective 
districts  and  to  send  the  same,  if  possible  collectivefy,  to  the  "New 
York  Public  Library,  care  of  Richard  E.  Helbig,  5th  Ave.  and  70th 
St.,  New  York." 

Passed  unanimously  by  the  convention. 

The  committee  recommends  that  the  National  Alliance  continue 
its  support  of  "German  American  Annals."  The  committee  recom- 
mends furthermore,  that  the  National  Alliance  appoint  a  committee 

Committee  on  Historical  Research  117 

of  trained  historians  to  execute  the  recommendations  of  the  com- 
mittee concerning  the  three  historical  works. 

Albert  J.  W.  Kern, 

Emil  Mannhardt, 


M.  D.  Learned, 
Richard  E.  Helbig, 
Henry  Detreux, 
Emil  Schneider, 
GusTAV  Bender, 
Friedrich  Baare. 

Adopted,  after  the  paragraphs  had  been  re-read  upon  motion  of 
Delegate  Mankiewicz,  of  Pennsylvania.  The  following  delegates 
participated  in  the  discussion :  Dr.  Schneider,  Trumpold,  J.  B. 
Mayer,  who  insists  upon  the  right  of  non-professional  historical  in- 
vestigators to  gather  data  for  German  American  history,  and  Heins, 
who  calls  attention  to  the  financial  side  of  the  whole  question.  Re- 
solved to  grant  $200  to  "German  American  Annals." 

(5crman  Ctmcrtcan  Ctnnals 




Historical,  Literary,  Linguistic,  Educational   and    Commercial    Relations 


Germany  and  America 


The  German  American  Historical  Society 
The  National  German  American  Alliance 
The  Union  of  Old  German  Students  in  America 



University  of  Pennsylvania. 


H.  C.  G.  Brandt,  Julius  Goebel, 

Hamilton  College.  University  of  Illinois. 

W.  H.  Carpenter,  j.  t.  Hatfield, 

Columbia  University.  Northwestern  University. 

W.  H.  Carruth,  W.  T.  Hewett, 

University  of  Kansas.  Cornell  University. 

Hermann  Collitz,  A.  R.  Hohlfeld, 

Johns  Hopkins  University.  University  of  Wisconsin. 

Starr  W.  Cutting,  Hugo  K.  Schilling, 

University  of  Chicago.  University  of  California, 

Daniel  K.  Dodge.  H.  Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University  of  Illinois.  University  of  Chicago. 

A.  B.  Faust,  Hermann  Schoenfeld, 

Cornell  University.  Columbian  University. 

KuNO  Francke,  Calvin  Thomas, 

Harvard  University.  Columbia  University. 

Adolph  Gerber,  H.  S.  White, 

Late  of  Earlham  College.  '    Harvard  University. 
Henry  Wood,  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

New  Series,  Vol.  6.  1908.  Old  Series,  Vol.  10. 

published  by 


Chas.  H.  Breitbarth,  Business  Manager, 


JBerlln  :                               IRew  Ifforft  :  Xclp3ffl  : 

MAYER  &  MOLLER                  CARL  A.  STERN  F.  A.  BROCKHAUS 

jtonDon  :  parte  • 








in  Incluto  Noribetgenfium  Atlienseo , 


Summos  in  UtroqVe  Jure  Honores  ac 

Privilegia  Doctor  alijv,  piore  Majomm, 

rite  capcfTcntU,' 

Tuhlico  Lrudjtorum  Examint 

Franxiscus  Daniel  Pastorius, 

7).  i;.  Novcmbr.  A.  ah  incarnatione  J.  C. 

do  Idc  LXXVI.       

Literis  Henri ci  Mailri,  Univ.  Typogr. 

Title  Page  ok  Francis  Daniel  Pastorus'  Dissertation  or  Disputation. 

(Photographed  from  a  Copy  in  the  possession  of 

Ex-Governor  S.  W.  Pennypacker. ) 

(5crman  Qmcrican  Qnnals 



New  Series,  May  and  June  Old  Series, 

Vol.  VI.     No.  3.  1908.  Vol.  X.     No.   3. 


The  Founder  of  Germantown. 

By  Marion  Dexter  Learned. 

(Copyrighted.    All  rights  reserved.) 



The  pioneers  of  the  little  German  colony  of  Germantown 
formed  a  community  to  themselves  and  conducted  their  affairs  in 
their  own  way,  during  the  first  seven  years  of  the  settlement. 
While  they  adapted  themselves  to  the  general  form  of  govern- 
ment established  by  Penn  for  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania,  they 
nevertheless  incorporated  many  European  features  into  the  details 
of  township  legislation.  One  acquainted  with  the  municipal  and 
village  life  of  Germany  and  Holland  will  easily  detect  the  alien 
elements  of  town  legislation  in  the  early  laws  and  court  procedure 
of  Germantown.  In  looking  over  the  sanitary  regulations  of 
Frank furt-on-the-Main,  the  present  writer  was  impressed  with 
certain  striking  resemblances  to  the  sanitary  ordinances  of  early 
Germantown.  It  is  quite  likely  that  Crefeld  and  other  cities  of 
the  Lower  Rhine  contributed  precedents  for  the  procedure  of  the 
little  group  of  Crefelders,  who  cast  their  lot  with  Pastorius  in  the 
colony  of  Germantown.  In  reading  the  Laws  or  Ordinances  of 
Germantown,  one  feels  the  traditions  and  atmosphere  of  a  Ger- 
man town  with  its  long  experience  in  matters  of  town  legislation, 


122  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

modified  and  adapted  to  the  English  forms  of  provincial  govern- 

It  is  interesting,  even  if  pathetic,  that  Pastorius'  legal  train- 
ing could  not  enable  him  to  cope  with  the  crafty  practitioners  at 
the  then  infant  Philadelphia  Bar.  His  code  called  for  honesty  and 
consistency  in  the  practice  of  law,  but  made  no  provision  for  the 
casuistry  and  trickery  of  David  Lloyd  and  his  associates  at  the 
Philadelphia  Bar.  The  consequence  was  that  Pastorius  appeared 
in  unfavorable  light  as  "der  deutsche  Michel,"  when  he  found 
the  Philadelphia  lawyers  had  all  been  "feed"  and  retained  by 
Sprogel  to  cheat  the  German  Society  out  of  its  lands. 

The  chief  legal  service  of  Pastorius  is  to  be  found  in  his 
work  as  a  scrivener.  Here  he  was  without  a  peer  in  the  Province, 
if  not  in  the  Colonies.  His  clear,  concise,  legal  style;  his  wide 
knowledge  of  legal  forms  both  in  German  and  English  practice 
(in  the  collection  of  which  he  spared  no  pains),  his  mastery  of 
minute  particulars  and  his  beautiful,  easily  legible  hand,  made  him 
a  favorite  both  in  Germantown  and  Philadelphia.  He  was  Clerk 
of  Germantown  the  greater  part  of  the  period  of  its  existence  as 
a  chartered  municipality ;  he  was  employed  during  his  two  years 
in  Philadelphia  to  write  for  the  Friends'  Meeting,  for  which  he 
not  only  copied  works  of  George  Fox  and  others,  but  kept  also  the 
Register  of  Marriages  for  a  considerable  time. 

A  considerable  collection  of  legal  documents,  drafted  by  Pas- 
torius, could  be  gathered  from  the  collections  of  the  Historical 
Society  of  Pennsylvania,  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  ex-Gov- 
ernor S.  W.  Pennypacker  and  others  in  and  around  the  city  of 
Philadelphia.  The  most  considerable  of  his  official  work  as 
scrivener  is  the  Grund-und  Lager-Buch,  containing  the  land 
records  of  Germantown.  These  works  by  Pastorius  will  be  dis- 
cussed later. 


The  German  Pioneer  and  Founder  of  Germantown  was  a 
typical  exponent  of  the  learning  of  his  age,  and,  in  spite  of  the 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  123 

untoward  conditions  of  his  lot  in  the  wilds  of  Pennsylvania, 
became  the  most  many-sided  literary  man  in  America,  far  out- 
classing Cotton  Mather,  his  famous  Puritan  contemporary  in  the 
Bay  Colony  of  Massachusetts.  The  range  of  Pastorius'  literary 
activity  has  scarcely  found  a  parallel  in  America  from  that  time 
to  the  present  day.  In  every  field  he  touched  he  applied  the  same 
conscientious  effort  and  skill,  whether  he  was  drafting  a  private 
document  or  writing  a  finished  poem  to  his  great  friend,  the  Pro- 
prietor, William  Penn,  himself.  It  can  be  said  truly  of  him,  even 
of  his  prose  writings  as  found  in  the  unpretentious  form  of  an 
encyclopedic  dictionary  of  the  Beehive: 

"Nil  tetigit,  non  ornavit." 

He  touched  nothing  that  he  did  not  adorn. 

He  was  jurist,  scrivener,  teacher,  moralist  and  poet  all  in 
one.  He  never  let  an  opportunity  pass  without  pointing  a  moral 
or  teaching  a  useful  lesson.  It  is  perhaps  not  too  much  to  say 
that  he  has  never  had  a  superior,  if  indeed  an  equal,  as  moralist 
in  the  three  hundred  years  of  American  history. 

Then,  too,  the  ceaseless  activity  of  his  pen  is  a  marvel  even 
to  the  machine-producing  writer  of  the  present  time.  Day  and 
night,  by  the  light  of  the  sun  and  the  flickering  lard-lamp  alike, 
he  was  plying  his  busy  pen  in  writing  down  all  the  good  thoughts 
of  himself  and  others  for  the  generations  to  come  after  him.  It 
is  interesting  that  George  Sandys  should  have  begun  to  translate 
his  Vergil  on  the  banks  of  the  James  in  the  first  years  of  the 
Colony  of  Virginia,  but  it  would  have  been  far  more  signifi- 
cant if  he  had  given  the  first  Virginians  the  best  thoughts  of  all 
times  as  Pastorius  did  his  two  native-born  American  sons  in 

It  is  difficult  to  treat  the  writings  of  Pastorius  in  strictly 
chronological  order,  because  some  of  them  extend  over  a  period 
of  years.  In  the  following  chapters  the  works  which  can  be  dated 
with  certainty  will  be  discussed  first  and  those  of  uncertain  date 
will  follow. 

124  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

I.  Printed  Works. 

The  first  work,  which  Pastorius  published,  was  his  Disputa- 
tion or  Dissertation,  as  we  should  now  call  it,  printed  in  1676  with 
the  title : 

I.     Disputation. 

Disputatio  Onauguralis  |  De  |  Rasura  Docu  |  mentorum,  &c. 
The  full  title  and  a  discussion  of  this  are  given  above.  ^ 

2.     Letters. 

Two  important  letters  of  Pastorius,  dated  March  7,  1684, 
were  published  with  the  following  titles : 

Copia,  eines  /  von  einem  Sohn  an  seine  Eltern  aus  America, 
abgelassenen  Brieffes  /  |  sub  date  Philadelphia,  den  7.  Martii 

Sichere  Nachricht  auss  America,  wegen  der  Landschafft  |  Penn- 
sylvania /  von  einem  dorthin  gereissten  Teutschen  /  ]  de  dato 
Philadelphia,  den  7.  Martii  1684. 

3.     Tractates. 

The  next  known  published  work  of  Pastorius  was  issued  as 
from  Germanopoli  (Germantown)  in  1690,  with  the  following 
title : 

Vier  kleine  |  Doch  ungemeine  |  Und  sehr  nutzliche  |  Tractatlein 
I  De  omnium  Sanctorum  Vitis  |  &c  [The  full  title  can  be  seen 
in  the  photographic  reproduction.] 

This  work  was  dedicated  to  Tobias  Schumberg,  Pastorius' 
old  preceptor  in  Windsheim,  and  seems  to  have  been  intended  for 
a  German  or  European  public.  The  work  was  evidently  compiled 
in  large  part  in  Europe  and  represents  the  best  fruits  of  the 
author's  literary  labors  before  he  entered  upon  his  career  in 

^  Cf.  previous  chapter. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  125 

America.  The  misprints,  especially  on  the  title-page,  would  seem 
to  indicate  that  the  author  did  not  read  the  proof-sheets.  The 
misprint  Pastoriun  for  Pastorium  is  particularly  striking  and 
would  leave  us  to  believe  that  the  printer  or  the  proof-reader  had 
only  the  MS.  before  him  and  that  this  MS.  had  the  Pastorius' 
name  written  with  one  of  his  peculiar  "m's"  which  often  look  like 
"n's."  Furthermore,  the  Latin  numerals  of  the  chapters  men- 
tioned on  the  title  page  do  not  agree  with  the  German  divisions. 

The  Latin  dedication  to  Schumberg  is  followed  by  a  German 
preface,  in  which  the  author  states  his  reasons  for  writing  the 
book.    The  contents  of  the  book  are  briefly : 

( 1 )  Brief  outlines  of  the  lives  of  the  Saints  arranged  in 
alphabetical  order  (pp.  1-117). 

(2)  A  short  account  of  the  Roman  bishops  and  also  the 
other  popes,  &c.     (pp.  11 8- 184). 

(3)  Concerning  the  church  councils,  which  are  treated  in 
chronological  order  (pp.  185-214).  At  the  close  of  this  chapter 
the  word  "Ende"  is  printed.     This  is  followed  by 

(4)  An  appendix,  treating  of  the  bishops  and  patriarchs  of 
Constantinople  (pp.  215-244).  The  work  is  for  the  most  part  a 
simple  compilation  from  then  accessible  sources.  Occasionally  the 
author  has  a  thrust  at  the  Catholics,  particularly  in  his  reference 
to  the  Pope,  where  he  notes  the  fact  that  for  over  five  hundred 
years  the  early  Christians  had  no  popes. 

4.     Missive  to  the  Pietists. 

At  least  two  works  of  Pastorius  were  printed  in  the  year 
1697.  Oiic  of  these  was  issued  as  a  missive  to  the  Pietists  in 
Germany  with  the  following  title : 

Ein  I  Send-Brieff  |  Offenhertziger  Liebsbezeugitng  an  die  |  so 
genannte  Pietisten  in  Hoch-  |  Teutschland.  |  Zu  Amsterdam  /  | 
Gedruckt  vor  Jacob  Claus  Buchhandler  /  1697. 

The  authorship  and  date  are  learned  from  the  colophon  on 
page  15: 

126  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

"Von  Eurem  liebgeneigten  Freund  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius. 
Germantown  in  Pennsylvania,  den  letzten  December,  1696." 

This  pamphlet  growing  out  of  the  Keithian  controversy 
appeared  with  the  following  English  title,  and  was  directed 
against  Henry  Bernhard  Koster  (Koster),  William  Davis, 
Thomas  Rutter  and  Thomas  Bowyer,  "Boasting  Disputers"  of 
the  Keithian  ilk : 

Henry  Bernhard  Koster,  William  Davis,  |  Thomas  Rutter  & 
Thomas  Bowyer,  |  four  |  Boasting  Disputers  |  Of  this  World 
briefly  |  Rebuked,  |  And  Answered  according  to  their  Folly,  | 
which  they  themselves  have  manifested  in  a  |  late  Pamphlet, 
entituled,  Advice  for  all  Pro  |  fessors  and  writers.  |  By  Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius.  |  Printed  and  Sold  by  William  Bradford  at 
the  I  Bible  in  New- York,  1697. 

At  the  end  of  the  last  printed  page  the  following  is  printed : 

"Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  | 
The  End 
Printed  and  Sold  by  William  Bradford  at  the  |  Bible  in  New- 
York,  1697." 

There  are  fifteen  printed  pages  in  the  pamphlet.  The  text 
be;gins  in  the  middle  of  the  titlepage. 

This  pamphlet  is  evidently  a  reply  to  an  account  or  report 
which  Koster  sent  to  Germany  tnider  the  title :  Advice  for  all 

The  pamphlet  treats  the  following  five  cardinal  points,  in  the 
exact  words  of  the  work  itself,  as  follows: 

I.     Of  some  swelling  words  of  these  vain  Braggards. 

H.     Of  the  Unreasonableness  of  their  Challenge. 

HI.    Of  their  abusing  and  traducing  W.  P.  in  particular. 

IV.  Of  their  Slandering  and  misrepresenting  the  People 
called  Quakers  in  general ;  & 

V.  Of  their  selfguiltiness  of  what  they  charge  us  withal.^ 

'That  is,  denial  of  the  divinity  of  Christ. 


,   -i>  /  /«  oV"l    /i^  VtV     (^*-'"  «'^    f  tr.  cY  »  /  ♦-  /<  -*  / 
./fi.M    ^c<<f^iuMi   lfy\  f!oL^     Jrntc.^   .V 


t^  v^m/z/t?///-'!^  I'tJ^tHVi  A  '>Kh/ii\>t\Tna'ft 






Title  Page  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius'  "  F.  D.  P."  ok  Common 

Place  Book. 
(Manuscript  in  the  possession  of  Ex-Governor  S.  W,  Pennypacker. ) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  127 

Internal  evidence,  especially  some  Germanisms,  would  con- 
firm the  view  that  the  English  pamphlet  is  based  upon  the  Ger- 
man text,  as  for  example :  "in  the  pages  above  quoted  and  more 
others"  (p.  3),  "they  need  not  travel  farther  than  tozvards  this 
Theater  of  the  World"  (p.  5),  "the  publick  Theater  of  Church 
and  World"  (p.  5),  where  the  article  is  omitted  after  the  German 
fashion,  although  the  word  "besides"  in  one  passage  might  argue 
for  the  priority  of  the  English  version  it  may  just  as  well  mean 
here  "in  addition  to" :  "Printed  in  the  high  Dutch  tongue,  be- 
sides the  English"  to  be  read  by  "some  silly  Women  in  Germany." 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Pastorius  writes  as  a  Quaker  and 
sides  with  the  Anti-Keithians,  as  he  uses  the  pronoun  "we"  in 
referring  to  "Friends"  and  "Quakers,"  and  "our"  in  the  expres- 
sion "our  Friends  beyond  Sea"  (p.  3). 

A  few  characteristic  passages  will  exhibit  the  spirit  and 
temper  of  the  pamphlet,  and  also  serve  as  speciments  of  Pastor- 
ius's  trenchant  controversial  style : 

"Though  this  their  said  Pamphlet  doth  not  set  forth  the  place 
where  it  was  printed,  yet  mentioning  so  many  things  of  Babylon; 
for  Example,  The  Councils,  and  Clergies,  and  Universities  of  Baby- 
lon, page  2.  The  Babylonian  Churches,  page  4.  The  Babylonian 
Beasts,  page  7.  The  four  chief  Quarters  of  Babylon,  page  8:  And 
being  it  self  thoroughly  full  of  Babel,  or  Confusion,  it  thereby  plainly 
discloseth,  that  it  was  hatched  in  the  very  Centre  of  that  great  City, 
whose  wise  and  learned  men  most  able  (in  their  own  Conceit)  to 
advise  others,  can  not  write  but  thus  sinisterly,  even  with  their  right 

"He  the  said  H.  B.  Koster  arriving  here  in  Pensylvania,  his 
heart  and  head  filled  with  Whimsical  and  boisterous  Imaginations, 
but  his  Hands  and  Purse  em [p]  tied  of  the  Money,  which  our  Friends 
beyond  Sea  imparted  unto  him,  and  some  in  his  Company,  was  as 
cunning  as  to  intice  and  induce  four  or  five  to  a  Commonalty  of  good, 
and  so  settled  a  Plantation  near  German  Tozvn,  upon  a  Track  of 
Land  given  unto  them,  calling  the  same  Irenia,  that  is  to  say.  The 
House  of  Peace,  which  not  long  after  became  Erinnia,  The  House 
of  raging  Contention,  and  now  returned  to  the  Donour,  the  Brethren 
in  America  being  gone  and  dispersed,  and  the  Church  of  Philadelphia 
(falsely  so  called)  proving  momentary,  and  of  no  moment,  Mark 
3- 25." 

128  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

"The  Church  of  these  disputers  and  the  World  are  very  close 
one  by  the  other;  and  if  the  ignorant  Babes,  Pietists  and  Millen- 
ists  will  take  the  Counsels  given  them  by  these  advisers,  p.  8. 
and  seek  this  Church,  they  need  not  to  travel  farther  than  towards 
this  Theater  of  the  World,  where  they  may  be  sure  to  find  her.  But 
ours  being  in  God,  and  the  members  thereof  chosen  out  of  the  world, 
and  redeemed  from  the  Contentiousness  and  other  vain  Customs  of 
the  same,  will  never  engage  in  such  a  stage  play  or  Theatrical  Jang- 
ling and  Wrangling  with  these  Bablers  and  Mountebanks  of  Babylon  ; 
In  whose  four  chief  Quarters  we  are  not  so  well  acquainted  as  to  find 
out  their  respective  houses  and  lodgings,  where  they  like  Milstones 
having  no  grist  to  grind,  set  themselves  on  fire ;  on  fire  of  hell,"  &c. 

5.     A  New  Primer. 

There  was  for  many  years  only  a  tradition  coming  down 
from  the  founders  of  the  Philadelphia  Monthly  Meeting  of 
Friends,  that  Pastorius  published  an  English  Primer,  but  recently 
a  copy  of  this  remarkable  book  has  been  discovered.  It  has  the 
following  title : 

A  New  Primmer  or  Methodical  Directions  to  attain  the  true 
spelling,  reading  &  writing  of  English.  Whereto  are  added, 
some  things  necessary  &  useful  both  for  the  young  of  this 
Province,  and  likewis^i  for  those,  who  from  foreign  countries 

and  nations  come  to  settle  amongst  us.  By  F.  D 

Printed  by  William  Bradford  in  New- York,  and  sold  by  the 
Author  in  Pennsylvania  1698.^ 

6.     Description  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  original  form  of  Pastorius'  Beschreihung,  based  upon 
the  early  letters  and  reports  sent  to  Germany,  was  published  as 
an  Appendix  to  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius'  Kurtsc  Beschreihung 
Der  H.  R.  Reichs  Stadt  IVindsheim  in  1692  with  the  following 
title : 

Francisci  Danielis  Pastorii  |  Sommerhusano-Franci  |  Kurtze 
Geographische    Beschreihung    |    der    letztmahls    erfundenen    | 

'  The  only  known  copy  is  in  Birmingham,  England. — Evans. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  129 

Americanischen  Landschafft  |  Pensylvania,  |  Mit  angehenckten 
einigen  notablen  Bege-  |  benheiten  und  Bericht-Schreiben  an 
dessen  Hrn.  |  Vattern  /  Patrioten  und  gute  Freunde. 

The  relation  of  this  form  of  the  Beschreibung  to  the  early 
letters  on  the  one  hand  and  the  fuller  form  of  the  Umstandige 
Gcographische  Beschreibung,  published  in  Frankfurt  and  Leipzig 
in  1790,  on  the  other  hand,  will  be  discussed  below. 

The  most  important  printed  work  of  Pastorius  is  this 
Detailed  Geographical  Description  of  Pennsylvania,  published 
in  its  full  form  in  1700,  with  the  following  title: 

Umstandige  Geogra-  |  phische  |  Beschreibung  |  Der  zu  allerletzt 
erfundenen  |  Provintz  |  Pensylva-  |  niae,  |  In  denen  End- 
Grantzen  |  Americae  |  In  der  West- Welt  gelegen  /  |  Durch  | 
Franciscum  Danielem  |  Pastorium,  [  J.  V.  Lie.  und  Friedens- 
Richtern  |  daselbsten.  |  Worbey  angehencket  sind  eini-  |  ge 
notable  Begebenheiten  /  und  /  |  Bericht-Schreiben  an  dessen 
Herrn  |  Vattern  |  Melchiorem  Adamum  Paste-  I  rium.  |  Und 
andere  gute  Freunde.  |  Franckfurt  und  Leipzig  /  [  Zufinden  bey 
Andreas  Otto.  1700. 

This  book  is  printed  on  paper  6^  x  3^  inches  and  contains 
12  unnumbered  preliminary  pages,  120  numbered  pages,  and  an 
Appendix  of  2  unnumbered  pages  and  pages  123-140  numbered. 
In  the  front  is  a  "Map  of  Pennsylvania  and  West  Jersey." 

The  second  edition  was  published  four  years  later,  with  the 
following  title : 

Umstandige  Gcographische  |  Beschreibung  |  Der  zu  allerletzt 
erfundenen  [  Provintz  |  Pensylva-  |  nias,  |  In  denen  End- 
Grantzen   |  Americas  |   In  der  West-Welt  gelegen  /  |   Durch  | 

Franciscum  Danielem 
Richtern  I  daselbsten 

Pastorium,  |  J.  V.  Lie.  und  Friedens- 
Worbey  angehencket  sind  einige  no-  | 
table  Bebegenheiten  /  und  Bericht-  )  Schreiben  an  dessen  Herrn 
I  Vattern  |  Melchiorem  Adamum  |  Pastorium,  |  L^nd  andere 
gute  Freunde.  |  Franckfurt  und  Leipzig  /  |  Zufinden  bey  An- 
dreas Otto.  1704. 

The  second  edition  of  1704  is  uniform  in  size  with  that  of 
1700.  But  in  the  copy  in  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania, 
Friedrich  Kapp's  copy,  the  following  are  added: 

130  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Zum  Beschluss  |  Folget  des  Eigen-Herrns  |  unci  Ober-Haupts 
(lieser  Provintz  |  selbst  concepirte,  und  an  seine  Freun-  |  de 
iibersandte  |  Beschreibnng  /  |  Deren  Umstande  notabel  zu 
lesen  |  sind.     [Pp.  120-140.] 

Then  follows  a  second  work  entitled : 

Continuatio  |  Der  |  Beschreibung  der  Landschafft  |  Pensylvanise 
I  An  denen  End-Grantzen  |  Americce.  |  Uber  vorige  des  Herrn 
Pastorii  |  Relationes.  |  Jn  sich  haltend :  |  Die  Situation,  und 
Fruchtbarkeit  des  |  Erdbodens.  Die  Schiffreiche  und  andere  | 
Fliisse.  Die  Anzahl  derer  bisshero  gebauten  Stadte.  |  Die 
seltsame  Creaturen  an  Thieren  /  Vogeln  und  Fischen.  Die 
Mineralien  und  Edelgesteine.  Deren  Eingebohrnen  wil-  den 
Volcker  Sprachen  /  Religion  und  Gebrauche.  Und  |  die  ersten 
Christlichen  Pflantzer  und  Anbauer  |  dieses  Landes.  |  Beschrie- 
ben  von  |  Gabriel  Thomas  |  15.  Jahrigen  Jnwohner  dieses  | 
Landes.  |  Welchen  Tractatlein  noch  beygefiiget  sind :  |  Des.  Hn. 
Daniel  Falckners  |  Burgers  und  Pilgrims  in  Pensylvania  193.  | 
Beantwortungen  uiT  vorgelegte  Fragen  von  |  Guten  Freunden.  j 
Franckfurt  und  Leipzig  /  |  Zu  finden  bey  Andreas  Otto  /  Buch- 
handlern.  |  Jm  Jahr  Christi  1702. 

This  part  contains  four  unnumbered  and  forty  numbered 
pages.     Then  follows : 

Curieuse  Nachricht  |  Von  |  Pennsylvania  |  in  |  Norden-x^mer- 
ica  /  I  welche  /  |  Auf  Begehren  guter  Freunde  /  |  Uber  vorge- 
legte 103.  Era-  I  gen  /  bey  seiner  Abreisz  aus  Teutsch-  |  land 
nach  obigem  Lande  Anno  1700.  |  ertheilet  /und  nun  Anno  1702. 
in  den  Druck  |  gegeben  worden.  |  Von  |  Daniel  Ealknern  /  Pro- 
fessore,  |  Burgern  und  Pilgrim  allda.  |  Franckfurt  und  Leipzig  / 
I  Zu  finden  bey  Andreas  Otto  /  Buchhandlern.  |  Jm  Jahr 
Christi  1702. 

Contains  six  unnumbered  and  fifty-eight  numbered  pages. 
Then  follows : 

Beschreibung  einiger  orter  |  in  Canada  |  aus  des  B.  de  la 
Hontan  Reise. 

Contains  eighty-five  manuscript  pages  and  one  blank  page. 
As  was  usually  the  case  with  the  earlier  prints,  the  second 

Manuscript  of  Pastorius'  "  Beehive. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  131 

edition  seemed  to  have  been  reset,  to  some  extent  at  least,  for 
the  lines  do  not  correspond  in  the  two  texts.  Then,  too,  the 
vignettes  dififer  in  the  two  prints.  The  title-page  even  is  differ- 
ently divided,  as  the  following  specimens  will  show. 

Title  Page. 
1700  1704 

Umstandige  Georgra-  |  Umstandige  Geopraghische  | 


Worbey  augehencket  sind  eini-  |  Worbey  augehencket  sind  einige  no-  | 

ge  notable  begebenheiten  /  und  |  table  Begebenheiten  /  und  Bericht-   | 

Bericht-Schreiben  an  dessen  Herrn  |  Schreiben  an  dessen  Herrn  | 

Melchiorem  Adamum  Pasto-  |  Melchiorem  Adamum  | 

rium   I  Pastorium   | 

An  den  geneigtcn  Leser. 
gelegten  Staden  und  Kauffmafi-  | Kaufifmann-  j 


auf  den  Wege auf  dem  Wege     .     .     .     . 

keit  meinen   Lebens   Lauf  gegen  die   |  gegen    die    fro-    | 

frohe       he    &c 

und  seine  unergijndliche  Giit  und  Barm-  |  Giite 

der  I  der  frey-  | 

freyen en 

1700  1704 

gelehr-  |  gelehrten  | 

P-  2  ten so  man-   | 

so    I  cherley 

mancherley     .... 

Religio-  I 

nen Religionen  und   | 

Sinnen  |  Sinnen  und  spitzige  j 

_es  I  es  war  von 

ein   I  ein  so  grosses  | 

von   I  von  welchen  der 

War   I  War  ra- 

p.  3    •     •     •     •      latitirende latirende 

P-  4 Marseille  |  Marseil 

denen    I  le de- 

also    I  nen also  dasz 

An  English  translation  of  Pastorius'  Bcschreihung  by  L.  H. 
Weisz,  was  published  in  1850  in  the  Memoirs  of  the  Historical 
Society  of  Pennsylvania  (Vol.  4,  part  2),  and  reprinted  in  Old 
South  Leaflets  (Gen.  Ser.  No.  95,  Boston,  1898.     A  new  trans- 

132  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

lation  has  been  made  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  J.  F.  Jameson 
for  his  series :  Original  Narratives  of  Early  American  History. 

The  year  after  the  two  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  landing 
of  the  Crefelders,  Friedrich  Kapp  pubHshed  a  reprint  of  the 
Beschrcibnng  of  1700,  with  an  introduction.  The  book  has  the 
following  title : 

Franz  Daniel  Pastorius'  |   Beschreibung  von  Pennsylvanien.   | 

Nachbiklnng  |  der  in  Frankfurt  a./M.  im  Jahre  1700  erschie- 
nenen  Original-Ausgabe  |  [Cut:  Vinum  Linum  et  Textrinum.] 
I  Herausgegeben  |  vom  |  Crefelder  Verein  fiir  wissenschaftliche 
Vortrage.  |  Mit  einer  Einleitung  |  von  |  Friedrich  Kapp.  | 
Crefeld.  |  Druck  von  Kramer  &  Baum.  |   1884. 

The  original  edition  of  1700  was  reviewed  quite  at  length 
the  same  year  in  Monatlicher  Aussug  aiis  allerhand  neu-her- 
aiisgegebenen  /  niitdichen  und  artigen  Bilchern.  December 
MDCC.  Zii  findcn  Bey  Nicol.  Forstern  /  Buchhdndl,  in  Hano- 
ver [pp.  495-500].  In  a  footnote  the  reviewer  remarks:  "Man 
kan  nicht  sehen  /  was  fiir  ein  Printz  von  York  seyn  soil." 
This  "Printz  von  York"  is  mentioned  by  Pastorius  as  having  at 
that  time  [1665]  "viel  Volck"  mostly  Swedes,  whom  he  com- 
manded to  build  on  the  Delaware.  The  reference  is,  of  course, 
to  the  Duke  of  York,  who  represented  the  English  King  after 
the  English  occupation  in  1664  and  before  the  arrival  of  Penn  as 
Proprietor  of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania. 

II.     Unprinted  Works. 

A  great  many  of  Pastorius'  writings  remain  unpublished 
in  the  original  manuscripts.  Although  a  number  of  these  manu- 
scripts seem  to  have  been  lost,  enough  have  survived  to  make  a 
long  series  of  volumes,  if  they  were  all  printed.  The  great  folio 
MS.  of  the  Beehive  contains,  after  all,  the  best  of  his  unprinted 
writings,  and  would  be  a  great  monument  to  German  scholarship 
if  it  could  be  published.  A  number  of  the  works  given  as  sepa- 
rate books  in  Pastorius'  own  catalogue  of  his  manuscripts  seem 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  133 

to  have  been  incorporated  entire  or  in  part  in  the  Beehive,  as  will 
be  indicated  in  the  remarks  accompanying  this  catalogue,  which 
is  printed  below  from  the  original  source. 

The  following  unprinted  manuscript  works  of  Pastorius  are 
known  to  be  still  in  existence  and  have  been  seen  consulted  in  the 
preparation  of  this  work.  They  are  discussed  here  in  chronolog- 
ical order,  as  far  as  the  dates  could  be  determined. 

I.    F.  D.  P. 

F.  D.  P.  I  Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius.  |  Fortunante  Deo  Pietas 
Fert  Deniq.  Palmam.  |  Fideliter  |  Deus  Providebit.  |  &c.'* 

This  MS.  is  of  paper  4x65-16  inches  in  size  and  contains 
620  numbered  pages  and  28  pages  of  index.  Four  hundred  and 
twenty-two  of  these  620  pages  are  devoted  to  a  kind  of  dictionary 
of  phrases,  etc.,  while  the  rest  contains  poems  and  sentiments 
in  German  and  English,  intended,  evidently,  as  the  beginnings 
of  a  large  collection,  and  so  preliminary  to  the  Beehive,  and 
hence  antedating  it.  Indeed,  some  of  the  entries  in  the  MS.  would 
seem  to  point  to  the  period  before  Pastorius'  arrival  in  America. 
This  is  corroborated  by  the  fact  that  what  is  evidently  the  original 
contemporaneous  draft  of  the  poems  relating  to  the  Keith  Con- 
troversy, 1692,  and  the  poems  addressed  to  Jacob  Tellner  on  his 
departure  for  Europe  antedate  the  Beehive,  which  was  written  on 
paper  that  Tellner  gave  Pastorius  before  his  departure  for 
Europe.  The  original  title-page  seems  to  be  wanting,  evidently 
having  been  torn  out.  The  pages  423-424  contain  a  list  of 
"Nomina  Propria"  (52  in  all).  Page  424  has  this  interesting 
note  on  a  work  of  Joachimus  Pastoridis : 

"50.  Joachimus    Pastorius    in   seinen   diflferentijs    interpolitica 

genuinam  et  Diabolica. 

J.  A.  Pastorius  in  dem  scharflfsinnigen  Adler." 

*  The  original  is  in  the  possession  of  Ex-Governor  S.  W.  Pennypacker, 
who  kindly  allowed  the  writer  to  examine  it  for  this  work. 

The  full  title-page  may  be  seen  in  the  photographic  reproduction. 

134  frauds  Daniel  Pastorius 

Page  431  has  what  we  may  regard  as  F.  D.  Pastorius'  ideal 
of  woman : 

"Beschreibung  eines  rechtschaffenen  Weibs. 
An   schonheit  des   leibes,  klugem   Verstand   u.    Freyheit   eines 
adeln.  gemiiths  keinem  Frauenbild  nichts  bevor  geben.     Dasz  sie 
auch  den  allerunempfindlichsten  zur  Hebe  bewegen  solte. 

Schon,  glimpflich,  angenehm  u.  hauszl  auch  zugleich, 
An  Weisheit  u.  gestalt,  an  adel,  gut  u.  reich. 
Die    leffzen    presilgen    roth,    hat    einen    halz,    wie    ein    glatt 
Venetianisches  bierglas." 

Pages  58off.  contain  the  German  and  Enghsh  poems  on  the 
Keith  Controversy  of  1692, 

2.     Medicine  Book. 

Medicus  Dilectus  vid.  Colos.  4:  14  &  |  Medicamina  delecta. 
Syrac.  38 : 4.  |  Das  ist  Auserlesene  Artzney  Mittel,  |  Deren 
Jngredientia  in  Pennsilvanien  und  |  dergleichen  neubegohenen 
Colonien  |  zu  bekomen  sind.  |  Vor  sicli  und  seinen  Nechsten  vid. 
Luc.  10:36.  Marc.  12:3.  |  aus  verschiedenen  Authoren  zusam 
getragen  |  von  Franco.  Daniele  Pastorio.  |  Anno  1695.  etc.  | 

A  variant  title  page  begins : 

Tolia  Qualia  |  Medicinalia,  Artificalia,  &  Naturalia,  &c.^ 

On  the  paper  back  is  written  the   following  in   Pastorius' 

hand : 



ist  all  umsunst 


Accipit  a  solo  Vim  Medicina  Deo" 

Si  Deus  tibi  non  est  curae 

Cur  te  curet  Incuriose? 

Cura  igitur,  non  tantum  ut  valeas, 

sed  etiam,  ut  bene  valeas, 

ut  aeternum  valeas. 

''  Written  vertically  on  right  margin. 

"  See  the  photographic  reproduction  for  full  text  of  the  page. 

ran0L5  Jktjiit  t 

t    1..  Ivt    ha 



"^  -VI-    ^  '     ■  *'t  )'  '         — I  Vl'  '1'  '       ■'    '  '^1  j 

f  Jf0ifjt  jle^tn  !»  <rti?  rt/ii/  j  I   -^  i  1 

fo    '\tflJ-  I 

'^^(Ut>Jii^rAn.c(f(iif  n^^nr.i'ti  P^t  fon1i.'  /tent 

A  Title  Page  of  Pastorus'  "Beehive." 


Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  135 


ut  sit 

in  Sano  Mens  Corpore  Sana. 


Muth  und  Blut. 

Geht  vor  Guth. 


Franz  Daniel  Pastorius. 

The  contents  of  the  MS.  include  not  only  a  treatise  of  dis- 
eases, but  also  of  their  remedies,  particularly  the  medicinal  herbs 
in  Pennsylvania  and  other  parts  of  America,  as  follows : 

Talia  Oualia,  &c.,  pages  1-26  (p.  23  blank). 

Medicus  Dilectus,  &c.,  title  and  other  matter,  2pp.  (unnum- 

"Inhalt"  (table  of  contents),  4pp.  (unnumbered). 

"Register  des  Artzney-Biichleins,"  &c.,  12  pp.  (unnum- 

The  text  of  the  "Artzney-Biichlein"  is  distributed  as  follows : 

Pp.  1-136,  Description  and  Treatment  of  Diseases." 

137-201,  "Treatise  on  the  Properties  of  Herbs  (1-16,  new 
numbering  [6-9  gone],  entitled  "Misch-Masch"). 

202-3,  list  of  authors  from  whom  the  book  is  compiled. 

202   (4  pp.  seem  to  be  numbered  "202"). 

202-261  (231,  239-246,  248-249  and  16  unnumbered  pp. 
are  blank)  a  list  of  remedies,  &c. 

262-270  "Out  of  Robert  Boyle's  Medicinal  Experiments." 

271-293  blank. 

The  authorities  mentioned  by  Pastorius  number  about  30 
in  all.    The  list  is  here  given : 

"Anzeigung  der  authoren,  aus  welchen  disz  biichlein  colligirt  ist. 

1.  Ein    klein     geschrieben    biichlein     meines     lieben    Vatters 

Melch.  Ad.  Postorij. 

2.  Staricij  Heldenschatz,  gedruckt  1658. 

3.  Johann  Tallat  Artzney  biichlein. 

4.  Leonhard  Thurneissers  Krauterbuch  in  fol.  1575. 

5.  Martin  Schmuckens  Schatzkastlein  in  ^°.  1652. 

136  hrancis  Daniel  Pastorius 

6.  L.  M.  S.  L.  de  occulta  Magico-Magnetica  morborum  quo- 

rundam   Curatione  natural!,   in   8""    1652.    ejusde   Lie. 
Martin  Scliniuckens  Lips. 

7.  Wolff  Helmhardt  Freyherrn  von  Hohberg  Georgica  Curi- 

osa  in  fol.  1682. 

8.  Lazari  Riverij  Observationes  Medicae  in  8°.  1646. 

9.  Het  Kleyn  i'roetzvyfs  Boeck,  gedruckt.  t'Amsterdani  in  8\ 

10.  Petri  Nylandts  Nederlandtse  Herbarius  in  12°.  1673. 

11.  NB.  Gulp,  oder  audi  nur  ein  gross.  G.  bedeut  Nic.  Culpep- 

per's English  Physician  enlarged,  Printed  at  London  in 
8".  1698.  Welches  treftlche  buch  ein  liberaus  schlect 
Register  hat. 

12.  Johahis  Coleri  Oeconomiae  Ruralis  &  Domesticae  Anderer 

Theil  oder  Haus-Artzney,  gedruckt  zu  Mayntz  in  fol. 
1645.  so  eben falls  vor  gemeine  unsturdirte  lent  sehr 
dienstig,  u.  in  diesem  biichlein  mit  Gol.  allegirt  ist. 

13.  Auch  ist  heirih  referirt  zu  meinem  Calendario  Calendar i- 
orum  in  8°. 

14.  Ghristopher  Wirsung  sein  Artzney  Buch  in  fol.  1568. 

15.  Balthasar  Schnurr  von  Lendsidel  sein  Kunst-  u.     W'under- 

buch  in  8°. 

16.  Johaii  Ghristoph  Thiemen  Haus-Feld-Artzney  &c  buch  in 

4°.  1700. 

17.  Vorstelick  Geschenck  dat  is  En  Medecyn  boeck,  &c.,  in 

grooter  weerden  gehouden  in  den  Vorstelicken  huyse 
van  Nassouwen  ende  Princen  van  Orangien  t'  Amstel- 
dam  in  8*^.  1662. 

18.  Georgij  Hornij  Area  Mosis,  in  12°.  1668. 

19.  Philippi   Theophrasti    Bombasts  Faracels  Opera   in   zwey 

theilen,  fol.  1603.  gedruckt  zu  Strassburg,  und  eod. 
anno  in  4".  zu  Franckfurt  am  Meyn. 

20.  William  Mather's  the  Young  Man's  Gompanion,  in   12'^. 


21.  Robert  Boyle's  Medicinal  Experiments,  in  12°.  1696  &  the 

third  Volume  1698.  he  was  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society. 

22.  James  Cooke's  Alellisicium  Ghirurgiae,  in  12°.  1648. 

23.  Wm.  Salmon's  Polygraphices,  Or  the  Arts  of  Drawing, 

Limning,  Painting,  Engraving,  Etching,  Dying,  &c.  in 
80.  1685. 

24.  Jeremiah  Love's  Glavis  Medicinae,  or  Practice  of  Physick 

reformed,  in  8°,  1674. 

Johanes  Golerus  p.  75.  recomendirt  denen  gemeinen  einfaltig 
luten  folgende  Antores  in  re  Medico  zu  lesen :  Opera  Gualtheri. 
Hermani  Ryfen.  Frisij  Speculum  Medicinae;  Hieronymi  Braun- 
schweigers   Haus   Apothecke,   Thesaurus   Pauperum   genannt.      D. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  137 

Joanis  Driandri  Artzney  u.  Practicier-biichlein,  Jacobi  Theod.  Taber- 
naemontani  neues  Artzneybuch.  Jt  sein  Krauterbuch.  D.  Oswaldi 
Gabelkovern  Artzney-bucb.  Remberti  Dodonsei  Cruyde-boeck,  in 
fol.  1554. 

Die  Natur  u.  art  aller  Krauter,  thier,  Edelgestein  erlernet  man 
aus  dem  Theophrasto ;  Bockio ;  Lonicero ;  Fucbsio ;  Dondona^o ; 
Dioscoride  mit  den  Comentarijs  Mattbioli.  Camerarij  horto  Medico. 
Mattkioli  Compendio  de  Plantis.  Level's  Compleat  herbal.  Culpep- 
per's English  Physician.   Thurneissers  Krauterbuch." 

3.     Beehive. 

It  is  safe  to  say,  that,  of  all  the  original  German  Ameri- 
can documents  representing  European  culture  in  the  Colonial 
period,  the  most  interesting  and  extensive  is  the  unicum,  the  folio 
manuscript  left  by  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  "the  Pennsylvania 
Pilgrim,"  the  founder  of  Germantown.  This  document,  contain- 
ing Pastorius'  Bee-Hive  or  Bee-Stock,  is  the  Magna  Charta 
of  German  culture  in  colonial  America  and  a  veritable  speculum 
scicntionnii  of  the  seventeenth  century — the  first  American  Ency- 
clopedia, antedating  the  epoch  of  the  French  Encyclopedists.  It 
has  a  number  of  title-pages  of  which  this  may  be  taken  as  one  of 
the  shortest : 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  |  his  |  Hive  or  Bee-stock  |  Containing 
above  two  thousand  little  Honey-Combs ;  |  Begun  in  the  year 
1696  I  And  continued  for  the  use  of  his  Children.^ 

The  origin  and  history  of  the  Beehive  of  Pastorius  are  sig- 
nificant, as  showing  the  intregity  and  loyalty  of  German  family 
tradition  in  America  in  colonial  times.  Pastorius,  evidently  pain- 
fully conscious  of  the  peril  of  cultural  deterioration  confronting 
his  descendants  in  the  wilds  of  the  west,  where  books  were  few 
and  the  love  of  them  scarce,  composed  this  Thesaurus  of  the 
useful  knowledge  of  his  time  as  a  heritage  to  his  children,  his  two 
sons,  and,  let  us  confess,  as  a  memorial  of  what  their  father  had 
known.  On  the  inside  of  the  parchment  cover,  in  his  own  hand, 
is  the  following,  referring  to  the  book: 

'  The  most  important  variant  title-pages  may  be  seen  in  the  photographic 

jog  Francis  Daniel  Pas  tortus 

"This  book  saith  thus  to  my  two  Sons : 

"Part  not  with  me!  J'm  excellently  good. 
If  rightly  read  and  rightly  understood." 

From  the  book  itself  we  learn  (p.  50)  the  purpose  of  the 

"At  the  first  undertaking  of  this  Book  my  mean  scope  was,  for 
the  future  Jmitation  of  my  two  Sons,  onely  to  collect  comnion 
Proverbs,  witty  Sentences,  wise  and  goodly  sayings,  with  the  like 
substantial  marrow  of  other  men's  writings,  etc."    See  page  55. 

And  again  (p.  51 )  he  states  the  same  fact,  speaking  of  him- 
self as  follows: 

"When  he  took  this  in  hand,  he  did  not  think 
To  show  any  man  his  Paper  and  his  Jnk. 
His  only  Purpose  was,  in  Black  and  White, 
With  his  two  Httle  ones  (departing)  to  abide. 

"Nevertheless,  this  may  live  when  he  is  dead ;  and  thus  he  leaves 
it  to  the  Perusing  of  his  Readers ;  not  caring  a  doit  whether  they  will 
like  it  or  dislike  it.  He  knows  that  it  will  not  please  all,  and  doubts 
if  it  will  please  some." 

Intimation  of  a  change  of  plan  is  given  on  p.  55  of  the  MS. : 

"But  afterwards  considering  the  copiousness  of  Words,  Phrases 
and  Expressions  in  the  English  (my  said  two  Sons'  Country-lan- 
guage; for,  seeing  J  and  my  wife  are  both  Germans,  J  dare  not  call 
it  their  mother-)  tongue,  which  they,  if  possible,  should  perfectly 
learn  to  read  and  write  and  to  indite." 

And  also  p.  51,  quoted  above,  and  in  revised  form,  p.  55 : 

"After  J  had  collected  two  V'olumes  of  delightful  Proverbs, 
witty  Sentences,  wise  and  godly  sayings ;  comprising  for  the  most 
part  necessary  and  profitable  caveats." 

The  history  of  the  Beehive  manuscript  is  similar  to  that  of 
most  old  manuscripts — a  succession  of  disappearances,  reappear- 
ances and  not  a  little  mutilation.  A  tradition  of  this  document 
(still  current  in  the  Pastorius  family)  says  that  Pastorius  directed 
that  it  should  be  kept  in  the  possession  of  the  male  descendant 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorins  139 

next  in  line  within  the  hmit  of  ten  miles  of  Germantown.  This 
wish  of  Pastorins  seems  to  have  been  heeded  by  all  the  heirs  of  the 
manuscript.  A  few  years  ago  the  document  was  loaned  to  the  late 
Professor  Oswald  Seidensticker,  through  the  medium  of  the 
Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania,  and,  after  being  duly  returned 
to  the  Pastorius  family,  disappeared  for  a  time.  Efforts  were 
made  by  persons  in  and  outside  of  the  State  to  rediscover  it,  but 
to  no  purpose.  Rumors  were  afloat  that  the  MS.  had  gone  with 
Washington  Pastorius'  family  to  Boston,  and  thence  to  Colorado 
Springs.  A  few  years  ago,  however,  late  in  1896,  the  present 
writer  was  given  a  clue  to  the  whereabouts  of  the  document,  by 
Julius  F.  Sachse,  Esq.,  and  finally  allowed  by  he  holder,  Mr. 
Daniel  Pastorius  Bruner,  of  Germantown,  to  make  use  of  it  for 
the  purpose  of  bringing  the  most  important  parts  of  it  before  the 
public  in  an  accurate  print  of  the  original  with  critical  treatment. 
It  seems  now  that  up  to  that  time  the  MS.  had  never  been  away 
from  Germantown,  except  during  the  period  in  which  it  was 
loaned  to  Professor  Seidensticker  in  Philadelphia.  Mr.  Bruner 
wrote  me,  under  the  date  of  April  13,  1897,  as  follows,  giving 
the  names  of  the  members  of  the  family  through  whom  the  MS. 
has  been  handed  down : 

"I  don't  know  positively  that  the  'Bee-Hive'  was  ever  taken  away 
from  Philadelphia.  Mr.  [Washington]  Pastorius  kept  a  quantity  of 
papers,  etc.,  in  the  Bank  in  Germantown,  and  he  stated  to  me  that  he 
intended  to  keep  it  there.  Hence  I  think  you  can  safely  state  that  it 
has  never  been  out  of  Philadelphia  county,  and  out  of  Germantown 
only  during  the  time  that  Mr.  Seidensticker  had  it.  The  Family  Rec- 
ord shows  pretty  well  in  whose  possession  it  has  been  since  the  death 
of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius.    The  writing  is  in  the  hand-writing  of 

"i.     Francis  Daniel   Pastorius. 

"2.     Henry  Pastorius,  his  son. 

"3.     Daniel  Pastorius,  grandson. 

"4.     Abraham  Pastorius,  great  grandson 

"4.     Daniel  Pastorius, 

My  great  grandfather. 

"5.     Washington  Pastorius. 

"6.     Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  son  of  Washington. 

"7.     Daniel  Pastorius  Bruner." 

140  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

After  the  death  of  D.  P.  Briiner  the  MS.  was  returned  to 
Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  of  Colorado  Springs,  who  placed  it 
on  exhibition  at  the  Library  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
with  special  permission  to  the  present  writer  to  make  use  of  it  in 
this  work. 

The  Beehive  manuscript  presents  the  external  appearance  of 
a  mediaeval  document.  It  is  written  on  thin  paper,  in  folio 
yYi  X  12  inches,  and  bound  in  a  parchment  cover,  taken  evidently 
from  still  older  books  or  other  documents  (one  contains  the  text 
of  an  old  writ  of  release)  and  the  whole  is  tied  together  with  two 
strips  of  faded  red  leather.  Upon  the  cover  is  found  the  follow- 
ing title : 

Alvearium  Apiculse  Germanopolitanse  Anglicanum. 

(written  on  the  edge  of  the  folding  cover,  also  on  the  back  of 
cover,  under  the  folding  edge,  and  in  apparently  older  form  on 
the  inside  reverse  of  the  cover).  Each  repetition  of  the  title 
represents  probably  a  rebinding  or  rearrangement  of  the  book. 

The  writing  itself  of  the  Beehive  is  in  the  very  regular,  fine, 
legible  hand  of  Pastorius,  whose  signature  and  handwriting  are 
so  familiar  to  those  acquainted  with  the  early  records  of  German- 
town  indited  by  the  jurist-scribe  while  agent  of  the  Frankfurt 
Company  and  afterwards.  The  first  few  pages  of  the  MS.  in 
its  present  form  have  crumbled  away  at  the  top  under  the 
corrosive  effect  of  the  ink,  which  was  black,  except  in  a  few 
instances  where  red  ink  was  used  for  underscoring.  The  German 
passages  are  written  in  German  script ;  the  rest  in  Latin  script. 

The  pages  of  the  MS.  are  ruled  along  the  margins  up  and 
down  and  across,  and  each  ruled  space,  containing  a  separate 
entry  is  numbered. 

Occasionally  a  pen-drawing  is  found  which  is  intended  for 
illustrating  or  ornamenting  the  text.  The  favorite  emblem  is 
a  heart,  a  pipe  or  some  geometrical  figure. 

The  fact  that  the  manuscript  is  slowly  disintegrating  and 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  141 

has  lost  some  folios  makes  it  desirable  to  place  the  contents  of 

the  surviving  folios  on  record.     The  contents  at  present  in  the 

order  of  the  MS.  are  the  following:^ 

Pages  I  ?-2  ?  contains  an  introductory  account  of  the  origin  of 
the  Beehive. 

3  ?-5  ?  The  title  of  the  Beehive  in  seven  languages  (Greek,  Latin, 
English,  Dutch,  German,  Italian,  French)  and  other  intro- 
ductory matter  in  prose  and  verse. 

5  ?  Address  to  different  classes  of  readers. 

6?  Blank. 

7  ?  A  second  title  page. 

8?-24.    Index  of  words  or  subjects  treated  in  the  book. 

24?  "An  alphabetical  register  of  the  names  of  those  who  [for- 
sooth] are  immortalized  by  Epitaphs  rehearsed  in  the  Manu- 
script from  p.  II,  etc." 

25-40.  "A  Peculiar  Judex  or  Table  to  Onomastical  Considera- 
cons  which  begin  page  63,  iii." 

41-45.     Blank. 

46-48.  "Symbola  Onomastica  vide  infra  pag.  55,  66,  67,  i,  quae 
hie  continuantur." 

49.  "Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  his  Book,  1696."  A  title-page. 

50.  "The  Contents  of  this  Portable  Volume  of  Jmportation." 

I?  (New  numbering.)  "Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  his  Alphabet- 
ical Hive."     A  title-page. 

2?-io?  "Tantum  Quantum  seu  Donum  Bonum  Jnscriptionum. 
Inscriptions  of  sundry  Sorts,  And  yet  the  most  in  Latin 

11-15.  "Some  Epitaphs  ex  Libello  Epitaphiorum  Olim  a  me 

16-17.     Blank. 

18-21.     Inscriptions  &c. 

*The  interrogation  point   (?)    after  numbers  indicates  that  the  number 
is  either  wanting  or  illegible. 

142  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

22.  A  copy  of  Verses  written  by  Thomas  Elwood. 

23.  Blank. 

24.  Gospel  of  Nicodemus  and  other  books  discussed. 
25-53.  "Emblematical  Recreations." 

54.   "Mellitotrophium  Apiculae  Germanopolitanae,  F.  D.  P." 

55  first.   "Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  His  Hive  or  Beestock,"  etc. 

55    second.      "Being  a   Supplement   to  the   next   three   Leaves, 


56-58  first.    "Quakers." 

58  second.  "Some  Treatises  of  God's  People  called  Quakers  in 


59  first-6i  first.     "No  Quakers." 

61  second.     "Quakers."     Collection  of  Friends  Writings,  &c. 

62  first-63  first.    "No  Quakers." 

63  second-64  first.     "Friends'  Writings." 

64  second.     "No  Quakers." 

65  first.     "No  Quakers." 

65    second.      "Some   more   Anonymous   Writings   published   by 

those  called  Quakers." 
66-67  first.     "A  few  Supplements  to  my  former  Emblematical 


67  second-67     fourth.       "Continuatio    Symbolorum    Onomasti- 


68  first-68  second.    Two  leaves  pasted  together,  containing  "sorry 

69-70  second.     "Index  sec|q.  Metrorum,"  to  the  following  poems. 
70  second-122  (59  pp.).     "Silvula  Rhytmorum  Germanopolitan- 

orum."    First  14  pp.  have  no  numbers  visible;  86  and  87  are 

two  leaves  pasted  together. 
1 23-13 1.     Blank,  except  at  the  bottom  of  131. 
1 31-133.    Epigrams  and  so  forth. 

134.  Blank. 

135.  More  Epigrams. 

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ii_.  iri 

A  Title  Page    of  Pastorius'  "  Beehive. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  143 

136-140.  "Continuatio  Symbolorum  Onomasticoriim,  adde  supra 

p.  55-" 
141  ?-i43?  Blank. 

144?  Loose  page. 

[     ].   I  page  containing  deed  of  Henry  Cassel  to  Thomas  Rutter. 

[      ].     One  unnumbered  page,  blank. 

86  third-87  second.   Blank  (evidently  confused). 

88-110.  "Genethliacum,  or  An  hearty  Congratulation"  and 
"Some  Onomastical  Considerations  occasioned  by  Our  dearly 
Esteemed  Name-Sake,  John  Penn,"  &c. 

(Six  unnumbered  pages.  Then  page  93  numbered,  followed  by 
eight  unnumbered  pages,  and  then  pp.  104,  105?,  106  to 

111-124.  "Plus  Ultra,  or  Some  Further  Onomastical  Considera- 

126?  Omitted. 

127-159.     Continuation  of  "Plus  Ultra." 

160-163.  "The  Tithe-Teacher  Plaintiff,  the  Poor  Man  De- 

164-252.  Continuation  of  Onomastical   Considerations   from  p. 

253-259?     Blank. 

[  ].  "Commemoratory  Poem  on  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius, 
Howell  Powell  fecit  31  mo.  3tii.  mensis  1720"  (In  another 
hand ) . 

220  second  ?-225  second.  Genealogical  Table  and  Sketch  of 
Pastorius  Family,  6  pp. 

226  second-227.     Blank,  2  pp. 

228  second-230?    The  Pastorius  Necrology,  3  pp. 

[     ]-2o8.     Unnumbered  pages — a  sort  of  Alphabetical  Encyclo- 
pedic Dictionary. 
82d  p.,  numbered  as  217).     "Additions,"  with  a  new  marginal 
numbering  (No.  1-1005,  149th- 150th  pp.  loose). 

375  (numbering  resumed).  "The  Writings  of  Some  called 
Quakers,  as  also  of  some  other  honest  men." 

144  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

376.  "The  Writings  of  Some  called  Quakers  and  other  good 
Authors."     (General  bibliography,  102  titles  in  all.) 

377-379?  4  pp.  "Those  that  will  read  may  read  the  following 
Folios,  Quartos,  etc."  List  of  facts  on  various  subjects, 
numbered  1 1 1  ff. 

3(So?  Bo(^ks  Published  by  those  of  the  Philadelphian  Society. 

381  (vide  Port-folio  48).  Continuation  to  Encyclopedic  Diction- 
ary (93  pp.,  with  the  94th  numbered  as  380). 

380-385.  Continuation  of  "Additions"  to  Encyclopedic  Diction- 
ary   (No.   1006-15 10). 

386.  "Catalogue  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  his  Manuscripts, 
besides  this  present  Alvearium  or  Alphabetical  Hive  (The 
Contents  whereof  are  speciled  above,  on  the  first  leaf.)" 

387-398  ( followed  by  ten  pp.  unnumbered,  and  then  by  409-41 1 
and  4ii?-542?)     Continuation  of  "Additions"   (No.  1511- 

[      ]    Two  loose  sheets. 

The  best  impression  of  the  Beehive  can  be  derived  from  a 
perusal  of  the  title-pages  as  they  stand,  in  each  of  which  some 
new  phase  of  the  work  is  elaborated ;  to  this  end  the  text  of  the 
title-pages  in  their  present  order  in  the  MS.  was  accurately 
printed  in  the  Americana  Germanica.^ 

The  apology  for  such  a  Common-Place-Book  and  the  chief 
sources  of  the  work,  are  given  by  the  author  himself  on  the  first 
page  as  follows : 

"For  as  much  as  our  Memory  is  not  Capable  to  retain  all  re- 
markable words.  Phrases,  Sentences  or  Matters  of  Moment,  which 
we  do  hear  and  read,  Jt  becomes  every  good  Scholar  to  have  a 
Common-Placc-Book,  &  therein  to  Treasure  up  whatever  deserves 
his  Notice,  &c.  And  to  the  end  that  he  may  readily  know,  both 
whither  to  dispose  and  Jnsert  each  particular,  as  also  where  upon 
Occasion  to  find  the  same  again,  &c.  he  ought  to  make  himself  an 
Alphabetical  Judex,  like  that  of  this  Bee-Hive,  beginning  infra 
page  10. 

Cf.    Americana  Germanica,  I  4,  p.  74ff. 

Francis  Daniel  Pas  tor  ins  145 

And  Seeing  it  is  the  largest  of  my  Manuscripts,  which  J  in  my 
riper  Years  did  gather  out  of  excellent  English  Authors,  whose 
Names  ye  may  see  pag.  56,  &c. 

My  Desire,  Last  Will  and  Testament  is,  that  my  Two  Sons  John 
Samuel  and  Henry  Pastorius  shall  have  &  hold  the  same  with  the 
Rest  of  my  Writings,  mentioned  infra  page  386.  to  themselves  & 
their  heirs  for  ever,  and  not  to  part  with  them  for  any  thing  in  this 
World  ;  but  rather  to  add  thereunto  some  of  their  own,  &c.  Because 
the  price  of  Wisdom  is  above  Rubies,  and  cannot  be  Valued  with  the 
precious  Onyx  or  Sapphire :  And  to  get  Understanding  is  rather  to 
be  chosen  than  Silver  and  Gold.  &c. 

Prov.  16:16.    Job.  28:16,  18.  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius. 

1.  In  this  Volume  J  only  collected  the  Best  out  of  English  (or 

Englished)  Books,  as  you  may  see  from  foil.  55  to  64. 
Excepted  never  the  less  some  few  lines  out  of  the  Dntch 
Writings  of  Sebastian  Franck,  a  honest  &  notable  man 
in  his  Time,  Vid.  fol.  59,  num.  114,  115,  118. 

2.  Item  out  of  Georgji  Hornij  Area  Mosis ;  Ejusdemq.  Orbe 

Jmperante  &  Politico,  vid.  fol.  60,  num.  138. 

3.  Item  out  of  Henrici  Cornelij  Agrippae  libello  de  Vanitate 

Scientiarum,  vid.  fol.  59,  num.  31. 

4.  Item  out  of  Johannis  Valtini  Andreae  Menippo  sive  Dia- 

logis  Satyricis,  vid.  fol.  59,  num.  32. 

5.  Item   out   of   the   high-German    Medicinal    &   Chirurgical 

Works  of  Theophrastus  Paracelsus,  fol.  60,  num.  219; 
whereof  these  are  printed  in  the  same  Year,  viz.  i6o^i 
both  in  folio  at  Strassburg  &  in  4°.  at  Frankfort,  j' 
quote  them  only  Parac.  fol.  &  Parac.  4°.  where  in  their 
very  Compleat  Jndexes  or  Tables  you  may  look  for  the 
pages,  as  also  in  mine  Alvearialibus^"  (a  small  Mscript 
in  8°. )  from  page  170  to  274. 

Of  these  writings  I  further  carried  a  deal  into  my  Col- 
lectanea Theologica,  and  into  my  Talia  Qualia  Medici- 
nalia,  &c. 
6.     Item  out  of  Nehemise  Crew's  Tractatu  de  Sale  Cathartico 
Ebeshamensi,  Vide  fol.  59,  num.  125. 

7.  Item  Petri  de  Vege  Medici  Gratianopolitani  Tractatus  duo, 

I.  Pestis  prsecavendae  &  curandae  Methodus  certissima. 
II.     Per  Dogmaticorum  cum  Spagiricis,  in   12°.   1628.    Petrus 
de  Vege  sive  Vegceus. 

8.  Item  Cornelij  Drebelij  Belg?e  Tractatus  duo.  i.  de  Natura 
Elementorum;  11  quinta  Essentia  in  12°.  1628. 

Cf.    The  table  contents  of  Alvearialia. 

146  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

9.     Item  Jan  Loets  Wintersche  Avonden.  gedruckt  tot  Utrecht, 

in  12°.  1650. 
10.     Item  Guldene  Annotatien  van   Franciscus  Hecrman;  den 
vyfthiende  Druck,  t'  Amsterdam,  in  12°.  1676.^^ 

The  author  himself  calls  the  book  an  encyclopedia  in  the 
following  verses  taken  from  one  of  the  several  title-pages : 

"A  Encyclopady  of  all  that  can  be  known,  |  Those  very  well  may 

make  by  Common  placing  do   *   *   *    | 
The  better  sort  of  things,  out  of  the  best  of  Books,  ]  Who  happily 

their  Spears  beat  into  Pruning  hooks.  |  " 

The  further  history  of  the  MS.  is  seen  from  the  following: 

"At  the  first  undertaking  of  this  Book  my  mean  Scope  was,  for 
tile  future  Jmitation  of  my  two  Sons,  onely  to  collect  Common 
Proverbs,  witty  Sentences,  wise  and  godly  Sayings,  with  the  like 
substantial  Marrow  of  other  Men's  Writings,  &c.     See  pag.  55. 

But  afterwards  Considering  the  Copiousness  of  Words,  Phrases 
&  Expressions  in  the  English  (  :  my  said  two  Sons  Country-lan- 
guage; For  seeing  J  and  my  wife  are  both  Germans,  J  dare  not  well 
call  it  their  Mother :) -Tongue,  which  they,  if  possible,  should  per- 
fectly learn  To  Read  &  Write,  and  to  Jndite,  J  took  as  much  pains  & 
patience  as  to  Jmport  into  this  Alphabetical  Alvearium  all  &  Singular 
Terms,  Jdioms,  Maners  of  Stile  &  Speech  used  in  the  same.  Now 
Jnasmuch  the  former  is  to  supply  the  place  of  honey,  so  these  latter 
J  would  have  to  be  accounted  if  not  for  Wax,  yet  for  hive  dross.  &c. 
See  pag.  seq." 

"When  he  took  this  in  hand,  he  did  not  think  To  shew  to  any 
man  his  Paper  and  his  Jnk ;  His  only  Purpose  was  in  black  and  white 
With  his  two  little  ones  (  :  departing:)  to  abide.  Nevertheless  this 
may  live  when  he  is  dead  ;  And  thus  he  leaves  it  to  the  perusing  of  his 
Readers ;  not  caring  a  doit,  whether  they  will  like  or  dislike  it." 

"  In  this  Hive  there  are  also  alledged  a  few  notable  Sentences  of  the 
primitive  Fathers,  viz.  Ignatius,  Polycarpus,  Dionysius,  Justinus  Martyr, 
Irenaeus,  Tertullianus,  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  Origenes,  Gregorius  Tha- 
cem[?],  Cyprianus,  Arnobius,  Lactantius,  Eusebius  Csesariensis,  Athanasius, 
Hilarius,  Cyrillus,  Ephraem  Syrus,  Basilius  Magnus,  Gregorius  Nazianzenus, 
Epiphanius,  Ambrosius,  Gregorius  Nyssenus,  Theotoretus,  Hieronymus, 
Chrysostomus,  Augustinus,  Petrus  Chrysologus,  Prosper,  Fulgentius,  Gre- 
gorius Magnus,  Isidorus,  Beda,  Johanes  Damascenus,  Nicephorus,  Theophy- 
lactus,  Anselmus,  Rupertus,  Bernardus,  Petrus  Lombardus,  Alexander  Hales, 
Bonaventura,  Thomas  Aquinas.  N.  B.  Those  of  Thomas  a  Kempis  you'll 
find  in  my  Collect.  Theolog.  in  4°. 


H'H^  l/'t.'itr  '•"•'t  i^Uf.    U<<iy    ml  lt?iiC'.-   T^/Ty    • 





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Title  Page  ok  Fkancis  Daniel  1'astorius'  "Beehive". 

[Manuscript   temporarily  deposited  by  a  lineal  descendant  of  Francis 

Daniel  Fastorius  in  the  Library  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  147 

The  genesis  of  the  book  and  the  mode  of  procedure  are  given 
in  what  seems  to  be  the  earHest  form  of  the  title-page.^-  Here 
we  find  the  interesting  statement  that  the  original  form  of  the 
Beehive  was  written  on  a  quire  of  paper  which  Jacob  Tellner  gave 
Pastorius  before  leaving  for  Europe : 

"After  J  had  collected  Two  Volums  of  delightful  Proverbs, 
witty  Sentences,  wise  and  godly  Sayings ;  Comprizing  for  the  most 
part  necessary  &  profitable  Caveats,  Advises,  Doctrines  &  Jnstruc- 
tions ;  out  of  many  Authors  of  many  minds  &  different  Opinions,  not 
only  in  my  Mother-Tongue,  but  likewise  in  the  Low-Dutch,  French, 
Jtalian  and  Latin  which  both  Books  in  4°  are  still  with  me.  For  the 
better  learning  of  the  English,  and  that  my  two  Sons  (  :  who  prob- 
ably will  never  attain  to  the  Understanding  of  the  said  Languages:) 
might  hereafter  have  some  of  their  Fathers  Steps,  thereby  to  be 
guided  to  the  same  Diligence  &  Assiduity  of  Picking  the  Best  out  of 
Good  Writings,  J  endeavoured  at  Spare-times  to  make  this  present 
Hive  on  a  Quire  of  fine  Paper,  which  a  Friend  of  mine  [  :  Jacob 
Tellner:^  departing  for  Europe  did  give  me;  And  when  allover  filled 
up  with  honey-combs,  J  was  Constrained  to  enlarge  my  Hive  with 
more  courser,  homely  or  home-spun  Stuff  of  this  Country-Product. 
Thus  J  leave  it  for  the  Perusing  of  those  for  whom  it  was  contrived 
in  the  first  beginning  thereof;  Nevertheless  Jf  any  other  besides 
them  should  happen  to  be  benefitted  by  these  Miscellanies,  Jt  will  not 
sad,  but  glad  my  heart. 

Nam  Prodesse  volo  cunctis,  nulliq.  Nocere :  ) 

Semper  amare  bonos,  et  tolerare  malos.  )  r.  U.  r". 

As  for  my  performance  herein  J  could  heartily  wish  it  might 
prove  to  all  honest  people's  good  liking. 

The  final  fullest  form  of  the  title  seems  to  be  that  in  seven 
languages,  which  runs  as  follows  :^^ 

[Folio  3?] 

'H  Tov  (f>pav^iaxov  ^avLrj\t<i  Haaropiov  K.v(f)€Xi}  MeXiTToyv 

Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius  Alvear  istud 

Jure  sibi  proprio  vindicat  atj.  suis. 

'-  Cf.  the  title-page  in  seven  languages,  especially  the  English  form  of 
the  title: 

"Francis  Daniel  Pastorius'  Papcr-HiW. 
Whose  Beginning  once  was  in  Page  Fifty-five." 
"  Cf.  the  photographic  reproduction. 

148  Francis  Daniel  Pastorins 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius's  Faper-Hive, 

Whose  Beginning  once  was  in  page  Fifty-five 

adde  pag.  54-51.  49.  9.  8,  &  7- 

Franz  Daniel  Pastorius  syn  Bie-Stock. 

Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  sein  Immen-korb. 

L'Avia  (Albio  o  Cupile)  di  Francesco  Daniele  Pastorio. 

La  Ruche  (Auge,  Panier  on  Catoire)  de  Francois  Daniel  Pastorius. 

Jn  these  Seven  Languages  J  this  my  Book  do  own,  vide  infra  p.  7  num 

Friend,  if  thou  find  it,  Send  the  same  to  Germantown ; 

Thy  Recompense  shall  be  the  half  of  half  a  Crown : 

But,  tho'  it  be  no  more  than  half  the  half  of  this. 

Pray !  Be  Content  therewith,  &  think  it  not  amiss. 

Yea  and  if,  when  thou  com'st,  my  Cash  perhaps  is  gone, 

(For  Money  is  thus  scarce,  that  often  J  have  none) 

A  Cup  of  Drink  may  do :  Or  else,  alas !  thou  must 

Trust  unto  me  a  while.  As  J  to  Others  Trust, 

Who  failing  make  me  fail :  A  thing  extreme  unjust ! 

To  which  J  have  no  lust ;  But  must  per  Force,  poor  Dust. 

Freund,  Was  dii  findest,  wiedergieb, 

Sonst  halt  man  dich  vor  einen  Dieb 
In  diesem;  und  in  jenem  Leben 

Folgt  anders  nichts  als  Hollen-pein. 
Gott  Selbst  hat  disz  Gesetz  gegeben 

Zu  thun,  wie  man  Gethan  will  seyn. 

Quod  Tibi  vis  fieri,  hoc  facias  Alijs. 

2.     My  Brains  J  may  not  longer  break,  When  now  the  Hive  itself 
docs  speak. 

Come  Friend !  Be't  Gentleman  or  Groom, 

Peruse  me  in  my  Master's  Room ; 

But  never  talk  of  Borrowing, 

He  mightily  dislikes  the  Thing.  &c, 

J  once  was  lent,  and  almost  lost ; 

Henceforth  J'll  keep  at  home, 

And  thus  attending  on  my  Post, 

Fear  nothing  that  may  come. 
F.  D.  P. 

Fretus  Dei  Prsesentia, 

Fatigabo  Difficultates  Patientia, 

Frustraborq.  Dolos  Prudentia. 
Fortunante  Deo  Pietas  Fert  Denique  Palmam,  vide  infra  pag. 
55  &  67. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  149 

And  to  my  Hvo  Sons  Jt  saith: 

Part  not  with  me!  J'm  excellently  good, 
If  rightly  iis'd  &  rightly  understood. 
You  full  well  know,  your  father  never  would 
Have  sold  this  Hive  for  7  lbs.  of  Gold 
Or  462  sh.^Currt.  Silver  Money 
of  Penn  Silvania.^* 
Vohov  MeXtcrcrat?  /xeV  yXvKr]  crrd^et  MeXt, 
Kvdev  8'  Kpd'xye'i  aiavov  ' lov  ttUl.    Adde  infra  pag.  54,  §  3. 
Rosa  quidem  Apibus  Mel  dulce  stillat, 
Sed  inde  Aranea  grave  efficit  Venenum. 
From  that  Rose,  whence  the  Bees  their  sweetest  honey  pluck, 
The  Spiders,  Tarantuls,  the  worst  of  Venom  suck. 
Besser  bringt  man  Honigseim 
/7»;»^n-gleich  von  fernen  heim, 
Als  dass  man  nach  art  der  Spinnen 
Selbst  was  giftigs  solt  ersinnen. 
'A'yaTvd  MeXL  "  A/3/CT0<f.     Mel  diligit  Ursus. 
Ursus  Ego :  laetor  liquidi  dulcedine  Mellis, 
Inq.  meis  Nectar  dispono  dapsile  Cellis. 
M.r)  ve/xeaa  ^aiolai;  ^dpi<;  ^aiolaiv  OTrijSel. 
Ne  parviducas  Parva,  est  sua  Gratia  Parvis. 
J  with  Demochares,  small  Things  to  scorn  forbid  : 
Oft  in  a  little  Place  great  Treasures  may  be  hid. 
A  Nightingale  is  better  than  a  kite.    Levit.  1 1 :  14. 
No  Alms,  nor  Gift  above  the  Widows  Mite.    Mark.  12:42. 
A  small  Diamond  is  of  more  worth  than  the  largest  Brick. 
In  kleinen  Sacken  ist  das  best  Gewiirtz. 

4.     Index  to  the  Beehive. 

Several  thousand   |   Crannies   |   of   |    F.  D.   P.s   |   Alphabetical 
Hive  I  in  Folio,  |  Jnto  which  he  collected  | 
I.  Variety  of  Words,  Phrases  &  Anglicisms,  | 
II.  Variety  of  Comon  Sayings  &  Proverbs  | 
III.  Rarity  of  more  Jmportant  Matters.  &c.^''' 

The  MS.  is  ^^  x  6  inches  in  size  and  contains  53  written 
pages,  3  blank  pages  and  one  fly-leaf  in  the  front,  upon  which  is 

Written  vertically  on   right  margin. 

For  the  detailed  title-page  see  the  photographic  reproduction. 

150  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

"Presented  Aug.  18.  1859 

To  Mrs  Ann  Eliza  Schuster 

by  Charles  M.  Wagner, 

Presented  to  Washington  Pastorius 

by  his  cousin  Ann  Eliza  Pastorius  Schuster" 

(lone  in  the  handwriting  of  the  respective  donors.  The  book  is 
bound  in  boards,  on  the  inside  of  which  is  pasted,  front  and  back, 
a  sheet  of  the  same  paper  as  that  upon  which  the  book  is  written. 
Back  of  these  inside  pages  and  on  the  last  page  of  the  MS.  are 
mottoes  and  sentiments  written  in  Pastorius'  hand.  The  first 
inside  cover  page  contains  the  following  anagram  and  verses : 

"F.  D.  P.     Favos  Diligentia  Parat 
Studium  et  Constantia, 
Labor  &  Tolerantia 
Colligunt  ab  Infantia, 
Lectorem  Delectantia. 
Et  Finem  Coronantia. 
Jf  we  not  exercise  our  Wit, 
A  short  Time's  Sloth  corrupteth  it. 

Jgnavus :  Jgnarus. 
Neglectis  urenda  Filix  innascitur  Agris. 
Wie  in  syn  Lant  geen  Koren  saeyt ; 
'Tis  seeker,  dat  hy  Distels  maeyt. 
An  Encyclopedy  of  all  what  can  be  known. 
May  very  Well  be  made  by  Comon-placing  down 
The  Better  Sort  of  Things  out  of  the  Best  of  Books ; 
And  such  a  Work,  no  doubt,  the  Best  of  men  would  own, 
Some  Better  lay  aside  their  Surplis  &  their  Gown, 
Yea  and  Good  Captains  beat  their  Spears  to  Pruning-hooks. 
Fac  Deus  Providebit." 

5.     Alvearilia. 

Alvearialia,  |  Or  such  Phrases  and  Sentences,  |  which  in  haste 
were  Booked  down  here,  |  before  J  had  Time  to  Carry  them  to 
their  respective  proper  Places  in  my  |  English-Folio-Bee-hive. 
Francis  Daniel  Pastorius.  |  Fac  bene  Dum  vivis.  Post  |  mortem 
vivere,  si  vis.  |  Finis  Dabit  Praemium.  | 

On  the  left  margin  of  the  title-page  is  written:  "Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius."  As  will  be  seen  from  the  photographic  half- 
tone, the  title-page  is  decorated  with  leaves  done  in  colors,  which 
are  much  dimmed  with  age  and  use. 








'  io  fiTi 








Wily  U^mcrt  ^f/aJjatioAi   /Vi«^1t«^*^^ 

'tf   r 


hcv  '■^ve.. 

^luxAcr/  a^^*^i 


>cicncc^f  vi£ 







Index  to  Pastorius'  "Beehive.' 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  151 

The  size  of  the  MS.  is  a  small  8°  of  the  time,  containing  359 
written  and  1 7  numbered  blank  pp.  bound  in  vellum,  covered  with 
brown  paper.  On  the  vellum  and  paper  cover  is  written  on 
margin  and  top  Alvcarialia.  On  the  inside  of  the  cover,  on  the 
right  margin,  is  a  faint  but  partially  legible  Latin  inscription: 
"Me  juvat  Innumeros." 

A  kind  of  explanatory  title  preface  follows  the  title  proper : 

"F.  D.  P. 

Looking  over  of  late  my  Rejectanea  or  Waste-papers,  |  among  a 
great  heap  of  others  J  met  also  with  |  these  here  partly  Jnclosed  & 
partly  stitch'd  together,  |  which  making  (as  you  see)  a  pretty  Little 
Book,  I  deserve  (methinks)  a  Frontispiece  or  Title-page  |  and  for- 
asmuch as  all  whats  cancell'd  is  Jnserted  |  in  mine  English  Bee-Hive 
in  folio,  I  J  thought  convenient  to  call  them  ]  Tatum  Quantum  Lac 
Infantum,  Or  \  Talia  Qualia  Alvcarialia,  \  What  others  did  contrive 
J  carry  to  my  Hive.  \  desiring  those,  to  whose  hands  they  may  come, 
I  that  perhaps  shall  never  have  the  Opportunity  |  to  behold  mine 
abovesd  Alphabetical  Hive  to  |  make  good  Use  of  these  hasty  Pud- 
dings or  Schediasms,  |  minding  always  the  h:  Apostles  wholsom 
Admonition  |  i.  Thess.  9:  20.  | 

Omnia  explorantes  Bonum  tenete.  \  the  ear  trieth  words,  &c. 
Job.  34.  3.  1 

Read  Reader,  read  Judiciusly,  | 
Shun  Jmplicit  Credulity:  | 
Prove  first  and  then  Approve  what's  Good:  | 
Judge  not  of  things  not  understood.  | 
These  foregoing  few  Lines  are  in  lieu  of  a  Preface,  |  And  if  any 
would  have  me  dedicate  it  to  some  Body,  |  I  herewith  Complement- 
ally  consecrate  the  same  |  To  himself,  \  of  what  Quality  Soever;  | 
provided  nevertheless  he  be  One  of  the  Excellent  |  Spirited  in  this 
New  English  World,  &c.   \   Or  a  True  English   Soul,  as  the 
Athenia  Oracles  phrase  is.  | 

NB.   Post  haste  did  write  these  Sheets:  S  Zoilus,  the  Nibbler, 
Says  well,  he  can't  read  all,  &  therefore  calls  me  Scribbler : 
But  if  he  can  not  and  other  can ;  Whom  J  dare  call  a  Better  man. 
The  Authors,  zvhereout  J  \  after  the  manner  \   of  Bees  have 
gather'd  the  little  Honey  &  Wax  \  which  you  find  in  the  following 
sheets,  are  \ 

1.  the  first  Volume  of  the  Athenian  Oracle,  p.      i 

2.  Reginald  Scot's  discovery  of  Witchcraft  p.    35 

152  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

3.  The   Rights   of   the   Christian   Church   asserted   agt   all 

priests  who  claim  an  Jndependent  Power  over  it. 
Anonymous  p.    41 

4.  E.  IV.  the  husbandman's  Manual  p.  53 
R.  B.  nine  worthies  (sic) 

5.  fF'"  Temples  two  Volumes  of  Letters  and  his  Observa- 

tions on  the  United  provinces  of  Netherland  p.  57 

6.  Edward  Cocker's  Arithmetick  p.  72 

7.  Poor  Robins  Almanack  1686  p.  73 

8.  Francis  Quarles  Emblems  &  hieroglyphicks  p.  yy 

9.  the  Trueborn  Englishman  D'Foe  p.  85 

10.  Henry  Sackever ell's  Sermon  p.    91 

11.  Ainszvorth's   Quotations    upon    the    5    books    of    Moses, 

Psalms  p.    93 

12.  Mauint  or  the  Turkish  Spy's  first  volume.  p.  103 
Ejusdem  Seventh  and  Eighth  Volumes                                p.  125 

13-  P-   113 

14.  William  Penn's  divers  Treatises  p.  147 

15.  Don  Diego  Saavcdra's  100  Emblems  p.  157 

16.  Still  Ainsworth's  Quotations  upon  the  Song  of  Songs       p.  169 

17.  Theophrasti  Paracelsi  Opera  in  Fol°.  two  Volumes  p.  170 

18.  Don  Francesco  de  Quavedo's  Visions  p.  181 

19.  Pietae     Hallensis,     concerning     the     Orphan-house     at 

Glencka  p.  197 

20.  Ashhnrst's  Remarks  on  Nath.  Heywood's  Life  p.  201 

21.  Henry  Coley's  Almanack  1698  p.  205 

22.  Geo.  Parker's  Almanack  1699  agt  John  Partridge  p.  206 

23.  John  Partridge's  Almanack  1699  p.  211 

24.  Jane  Lead's  Message  to  the  Philadelphian  Society  &c         p.  212 

Bundle  of  Revelations  untied  &c 

25.  Jacobi  Vivcrij  Werelt's  Beschryvinghe  p.  213 

26.  N.  H.  the  husband  forced  to  be  Jealous  p.  216 

27.  Culpepper's  Physician's  library  or  ye  London  Dispensa- 

tory p.  221 

28.  le  Febure's  Compleat  Body  of  Chymistry  p.  224 

29.  Edxvard  Phillip's  Theatrum  Poetarum  p.  230 

30.  An  account  of  the  Success  of  the  two  Danish  Missionaries 

in  Malabar,  1709  p.  233 

31.  Out  of  divers  Writings  J  know  not  which.     However 

from  p.  235  to  p.  242  much  is  taken  out  of  the  Life 
of  Ambrosius  Merlin,  written  by  Thomas  Heywood 
in  4°  quem  merito  Valem  dixeris  atq  Magum — a 
prophetical  poet  p.  234 

31.  John  Tomkins  Piety  promoted,  Second  part  p.  250 

32.  More  out  of  Jane  Lead's  Writings  p.  252 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  153 

More  out  of  Theophr.  Paracelsi  Operibus  p.  255 

33.  Concerning  the  repealing  Penal  Laws  and  Test  p.  274 

34.  John  Beaumont's  Treatise  of  Spirits  1705  p.  281 

35.  John  Tomkin's  Piety  promoted,  first  part  p.  291 

36.  Reflections  upon  a  Book  called  Pax  Vohis  p.    75 
Tf'j.  Mass  Aurello's  history,  the  second  part  p.  275 

38.  the  Life  of  Cornifie,  Count  of  Ulfeld  Great  Master  of 

Denmarck  1695  p.  276 

39.  John  Hepburn's  Essay  agt.  Negro-Slavery  p.  278 

40.  Arthur  Dent's  Path-Way  to  Heaven  p.  292 

41.  The  Secret  Amours  of  M.  de  Maintenon  &c  p.  329 

42.  Tho.  Creeck's  The  Life  of  Alexander  the  Great  p.  278 

43.  Will.  Chandler's  brief  Apology  p.  312 

44.  Culpeper's  Astrological  Judgmt.  of  Diseases  p.  312 

45.  Free-holder  begun  the  23th  day  of  December  171 5  p.  333 

46.  A  Dream  at  Woodstock  p.  297 

47.  Gazettes  or  News-Letters.    Ibid.  p.  330 

48.  Joseph  Glanvil's  Saducimus  Triumphatus              '  p.  335 

48.  Robert  Boyle's  Medicinal  Experiments  3  parts  p.  316 

49.  John  Tomkin's  Piety  promoted,  third  part  p.  300 

50.  Reflections  upon  the  book  Pax  Vobis  p.    75 

51.  The  Loyal  Americans  Almanack  1715  P-    76 

52.  Z.  Jiaivkins  the  Life  of  Gilbert  Lateys  p.  303 

53.  Anth.   Will.  Bohm's  the   faithful  Steward    (Hen.   Will. 

Ludolf)  P-3i6 

54.  Religuiae  Ludolfianae  p.  318 

55.  W^^^  Pen's  &  Geo.  Whithead's  Serious  Apology  p.  154 

56.  Frances  Shaf  toe's  Narrative  p.  345 

57.  Ralph  Winterton's  Consid""^  upon  Eternity  p.  eodem. 

58.  London  Yearly  Meeting's  Epistle  1718  p.  303 

59.  Dr.  Stoughton's  Elixir  Magnum  p.  Jbid. 

60.  Geo.  Wither's  Abuses  Stript  &  Whipt  p.  304 

61.  The  Spectator  Vol.  i  p.  156:  5th  Vol.  2^  p.  156 

62.  Abr.  Cozvley's  Works  in  fol.  1688  p.  292 

63.  W^'^  Hughes  Flower  Garden  &  Compleat  Vineyard,  p.  319 

64.  Julian  the  Apostate  ./.  n.  8*^  1682  p.  320 

.  .         .        .  .  rs?] 

05.  Fra.  Bacon  s  Resuscitatio  ./.  in  fol.  1647  p.  321 

66.  The  Life  &  death  of  Lasarillo  de  Tormes  in  which  book 

was  a  defect  from  p.  5.  to  21*  p.  156 
*  and  from  p.  74.  to  95.  &  from  100.  to  117 

67.  John  NichoU's  hourglass  of  Jndian  News  p.  353 

68.  Francis  Faii-weather's  pleasant  prognostication  p.  326 

69.  Rich^  Peeke's  Three  to  One:  An  English-Spanish  Com- 

bate  p.  327 

154  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 





the  pleasant  history  of  Jack  of  Newberie  p.  353 

JV.  Kempe's  the  Education  of  Children  in  Learning  p.  327 

the  Secret  history  of  Q.  Elisabeth  &  the  E.  of  Essex  p.  354 

Sir  David  Lindsay's  Works  in  12''  1714  at  Belfast  p.  357 

the  history  of  Genesis  in  8°  1708  p.  358 

75     A  New  Academy  of  Complements  in  12°  1717  p.  296." 

6.     The  Young  Country-Clerks  Collection. 

The  young  Country-Clerk's  Collection  |  of  the  best  Presidents 
of  Bills,  Bonds,  Conditions,  Acquittances,  Releases,  |  Jndentures, 
Deeds  of  Sale,  Letters  of  Attorney,  Last  Wills  &  Testaments, 
&c.  I  With  many  other  necessary  and  useful  Forms  of  such 
like  Writings  |  as  are  vulgarly  in  use  between  Man  and  Man.  | 
An  Alphabetical  Table  whereof  is  thereunto  prefixed.  |  by 
Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  &c.  ^^ 

The  MS.  is  6  3-16  x  7  11-16  inches.  It  begins  with  page 
200  and  continues  to  page  383  (pp.  372-381  apparently  missing). 
As  regards  the  first  199  pages,  the  compiler  gives  this  informa- 
tion at  the  Cope  of  the  title-page : 

"Where  is  the  Rest,  One  hundred  ninety-nine?^"^ 
Within  some  Sheets  (  :  most  like  to  these:)  of  mine." 

The  book  was  a  most  indispensable  handbook  for  the 
scrivener  of  that  day.  The  forms  are  in  English  for  the  most 
part,  but  occasionally  in  German.  The  MS.  bears  the  marks  of 
other  and  later  hands,  into  which  it  came ;  for  example,  on  one 
of  the  original  blank  pages  (266)  is  written: 

"The  Property  of  Charles  Macknet  Pastorius,  the  great  great 
Grandson  of  the  Author  of  this  Book.  Presented  by  his  Uncle,  his 
best  friend,  and  Adopted  Father: 

January  ist  1812." 

On  page  315  is  found  a  Deed  of  Sale  with  the  following 
heading,  and  the  name  of  the  famous  English  scrivener,  Charles 
Brockden : 

*•  For  full  detail  of  the  title-page  see  the  photographic  reproduction. 
"  The  last  half  of  the  first  verse  almost  entirely  gone. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  155 

"Short  Deed  of  Sale.    Ch.  Brockden." 

7.     Deliciae  Hortenses,  &c. 

Francisci  Danielis  Pastorij  |  Deliciae  Hortenses,  |  Or  |  Garden- 
Recreations.  | 

Honest  Country-man,  Cultor  virentis  Agelli  | 
Thy  Garden,  Orchard,  Fields, 
And  Vineyard  being  planted 
With  what  good  Nature  yields, 

Brave  things  to  thee  are  granted ; 
Besides  the  Gifts  of  Grace. 

Therefore  go  on,  and  gather, 
Use  each  kind  in  its  place: 

And  our  God  &  Father, 
Who  gives  thus  liberally. 

What's  needful  for  our  Living; 
And  would  us  have  reply 

Jn  bowed-Down  Thanksgiving, 
To  HIM,  to  Whom  belongs 
All  Praise,  in  Prose  and  Songs.    Adde  pag.  12. 
Halle-Lu-Jah ! 
Halle-Lu-Jah ! 
Soli  Deo  Gloria ! 
Jn  Sempiterna  Secula. 

The  above  is  the  title-page  proper.  Around  all  four  margins 
are  written  sentiments  in  English  and  Latin,  as  may  be  seen  in 
the  half-tone  reproduction  of  the  title-page.  The  size  of  the  book 

8.     Res  Propriae, 
Francisci  Danielis  Pastoij  /  Res    Propriae. 

A  small,  neatly  written  manuscript,  bound,  measuring 
from  margin  to  margin  6^  x  3%  inches,  and  cotnaining: 

P.  I   Epitome  of  his  life  till  20  of  June,  1715. 

P.  2  Genealogical  chart. 

P.  3-9  Kurtzer  Lebens  Lauff ,  &c. 

P.  10  Blank. 

156  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

P.   1 1 -14  Additamenta  zu  vorgehen,  &c. 

P.  14 (Repeated)  30  Inventory  of  effects  brought  to  Amer- 
ica, Book,  &c. 

P.  31.  Blank. 

P-  32-39    Account  Ennecke  Klostermann's  land. 

P.  40-41  and  two  unnumbered,  giving  an  account  of  his  two 

The  terminus  ad  quern  is  171 5,  as  is  to  be  seen  in  the  fact 
that  Pastorius  gives  an  epitome  of  his  life  till  June,  171 5,  when 
we  may  suppose  the  book  was  finished.  This  manuscript  is  inval- 
uable for  data  relating  to  the  early  life  of  Pastorius  and  has  been 
freely  drawn  upon  in  this  biography. 

(To  be  Continued.) 



The  early  immigration  of  Germans  to  Philadelphia  increased 
to  such  an  extent,  that  before  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century 
the  English  colonists  became  alarmed  for  fear  that  Pennsylvania 
might  be  alienated  from  the  English  crown,  and  be  dominated  by 
the  German  immigrants.  Indeed,  throughout  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury the  greater  part  of  the  German  immigrants  landed  at  Phila- 
delphia, and  from  there  were  distributed  into  other  States.  We 
should  naturally  expect  with  so  great  a  population  of  Germans 
in  Philadelphia  and  the  surrounding  country,  that  these  people 
would  continually  extend  their  influence,  and  constantly  spread 
abroad  their  ideas  of  art,  religion,  music  and  literature. 

Let  us  consider  for  a  moment  the  condition  of  the  Germans 
who  landed  in  this  country.  In  1683,  moved  by  William  Penn's 
alluring  proclamations  of  the  glorious  new  world,  as  well  as  by 
the  fact  that  freedom  of  conscience  was  granted  in  Pennsyl- 
vania to  all,  a  band  of  German  immigrants  arrived  in  Philadel- 
phia and  founded  Germantown.  With  the  exception  of  the 
scholar,  Francis  Daniel  Pastorious,  there  were  no  highly  cultured 
men  or  women  among  them.  These  people  were  of  the  middle 
class,  and  were  more  interested  in  weaving  and  agriculture  and 
religious  salvation,  than  in  the  cultivation  of  the  fine  arts.  The 
conditions  in  Germany  were  not  conducive  to  culture. 

The  country  was  just  recovering  from  the  Thirty  Years' 

War,   and  the  strength  of  the  people  was  being  expended  in 

building  up  the  homes,  and  improving  the  land  made  desolate 

during  that  fierce  struggle.    At  this  time,  too,  the  German  people 


158  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

had  little  liberty,  but  rather  were  under  the  thumb  of  absolutism, 
which  was  at  that  time  the  great  force  in  European  countries.  It 
was  not  an  epoch  favorable  to  the  cultivation  of  the  fine  arts. 
There  was  no  great  literature,  no  great  art,  no  great  music.  There 
was,  however,  a  strong  religious  spirit,  which  is  often  the  result 
of  hardship  and  suffering.  It  is  in  the  field  of  religion,  too,  that 
we  find  the  best  music  during  the  seventeenth  century,  although 
it  was  not  original  in  style,  but  simply  a  continuation  of  Luther's 
music. ^  The  hymn  writers  of  that  time,  both  Catholic  and  Protes- 
tant, are  not  to  be  despised,  and  we  need  mention  but  a  few 
whose  songs  have  lived  even  to  the  present  day :  as  Paul  Fleming 
(1609- 1 640)  and  Paul  Gerhardt  (1606- 1676)  Protestant;  Fried- 
rich  Spee  (1591-1635)  and  Johann  Scheffer  (1624-1677),  Catho- 
lics. It  can  be  said,  then,  with  some  degree  of  surety,  that  the 
performance  of  music  by  the  early  German  settlers  in  Philadel- 
phia was  confined,  in  the  province  of  music,  to  hymns. 

In  this  department  the  Germans  hold  an  important  position ; 
not  only  was  their  church  music  an  essential  part  of  their  serv- 
ices, but  the  number  of  hymn-writers  and  the  many  editions  of 
German  hymn  books  published  in  Philadelphia  testify  to  the  love 
which  these  new  settlers  had  for  church  music. 

It  is  only  necessary  to  mention  a  few  of  these  hymn-writers 
to  recall  to  mind  the  extreme  productiveness  of  this  style  of  litera- 
ture and  music.  Among  the  most  important  hymn-writers  were 
F.  D.  Pastorius,  of  Germantown;  Johann  Kelpuis,  of  the  Wissa- 
hickon;  Conrad  Beissel,  of  Ephrata,  and  Count  von  Zinzendorf, 
the  Moravian.^ 

'Louis  Elson,  National  Music  in  America,  p.  18. 

*Cf.  for  further  information  on  this  subject:  J.  H.  Dubbs,  Early  German 
Hymnology  of  Pennsylvania;  Hausmann,  German  American  Hymnology  1683- 
iSoo,  in  Americana  Germanica  1898,  Vol.  II,  No.  3,  p.  11. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  159 


Church  Music  and  the  Manner  of  its  Performance. 

It  has  already  been  mentioned  that  there  were  many 
German  hymn-writers  in  Philadelphia  in  the  early  eighteenth 
centm-y,  and  it  is  now  in  place  to  consider  what  was  the  quality  of 
the  music  in  the  German  churches  at  that  period,  and  whether 
musical  instruments  of  any  kind  were  used  in  the  Philadelphia 

For  the  first  record  it  is  necessary  to  go  a  little  beyond  Phila- 
delphia to  the  Hermits  of  the  Wissahickon.  To  this  people  un- 
doubtedly belongs  the  honor  of  first  using  instrumental  music 
in  religious  services.  Of  their  voyage  across  the  Atlantic,  Kelpuis 

"We  had  also  prayer  meetings  and  sang  hymns  of  praise  and 
joy,  several  of  us  accompanying  on  instruments  that  we  had  brought 
from  London."  ^ 

Evidently  the  instruments  which  they  brought  with  them 
were  not  satisfactory  or  were  regarded  as  inadequate  for  the 
worship  of  God,  as  Kelpuis  in  a  letter  to  friends  in  London  asked 
that  two  clarichords  with  additional  strings  might  be  sent."* 

Again  the  Llermits  at  the  consecration  of  the  new  Swedish 
church — Gloria  Dei — July  2,  1700,  act  as  choristers  and  furnish 
instrumental  music.^ 

The  first  German  minister  ordained  in  this  country  was 
Justus  Falckner,  who  was  consecrated  by  the  Swedish  Lutherans. 
In  a  letter  to  Rev.  Heinrich  Muhlen,  of  Holstein  (1701),  Falck- 
ner shows  that,  even  at  that  early  day,  music  was  considered  an 
important  adjunct  of  the  church  service.     He  says : 

'^  Sachse,  German  Pietists,  p.  22 ;  Scidcnsticker,  Geschichtsblacttcr,  p.  100. 

*  Seidensticker,  Geschichlsblaetter,  p.   100. 

^  Sachse,  German  Pietists,  p.  144  (hereafter  quoted  as  G.  P.). 

i6o  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

"In  short  there  are  Germans  here,  and  perhaps  the  majority,  who 
despise  God's  Word  and  all  outward  good  order ;  who  blaspheme  the 
sacraments  and  frightfully  and  publicly  give  scandal 

"I  will  here  take  occasion  to  mention  that  many  others  besides 
myself,  who  know  the  ways  of  the  land,  maintain  that  music  would 
contribute  much  towards  a  good  Christian  service.  It  would  not 
only  attract  and  civilize  the  wild  Indians,  but  it  would  do  much  good 
in  spreading  the  Gospel  truths  among  the  sects  and  others  by  attract- 
ing them.  Instrumental  music  is  especially  serviceable  here.  Thus 
a  well-sounding  organ  would  perhaps  prove  of  great  profit,  to  say 
Mothing  of  the  fact  that  the  Indians  would  come  running  from  far 
and  near  to  listen  to  such  unknown  melody,  and  upon  that  account 
might  become  willing  to  accept  our  language  and  teaching,  and  re- 
main with  people  who  had  such  agreeable  things ;  for  they  are  said 
to  come  ever  so  far  to  listen  to  one  who  plays  even  a  reed-pipe  (rolir- 
pfeiffe)  :  such  an  extraordinary  love  have  they  for  any  melodious 
and  ringing  sound.  Now  as  the  melancholy,  saturine  stingy 
Quaker  spirit  has  abolished  (relegiert)  all  such  music,  it  would 
indeed  be  a  novelty  here,  and  tend  to  attract  many  of  the  young 
people  away  from  the  Quakers  and  sects  to  attend  services  where 
such  music  was  found,  even  against  the  wishes  of  their  parents.  This 
would  afford  a  good  opportunity  to  show  them  the  truth  and  their 

"If  such  an  organ-instrument  (Orgel-werck)  were  placed  in  the 
Swedish  church  ....  it  would  prove  of  great  service  to  this 

"If  there  were  music  in  the  church,  the  young  people  would 
consider  church-going  a  recreation. 

"The  Lord  of  Hosts  ....  would  be  praised  and  honored 
with  cymbal  and  organ. 

"And  it  may  be  assumed  that  even  a  small  organ-instrument 
and  music  in  this  place  would  be  acceptable  to  God.  and  prove  far 
more  useful  than  many  hundreds  in  Europe,  where  there  is  already 
a  superfluity  of  such  things. 

"There  are  in  Europe  masters  enough  who  would  build  such 
instruments,  and  a  fine  one  can  be  secured  for  300  or  400  thalers. 
Then  if  an  experienced  organist  and  musician  could  be  found,  and 
a  curious  one,  who  would  undertake  so  far  a  journey,  he  would  be 
very  welcome  here.  In  case  this  could  not  be,  if  we  only  had  an 
organ,  some  one  or  other  might  be  found  who  had  knowledge  there- 
of." « 

'Cf.  The  Missive  of  Justus  Falckner  of  Germantown,  Concerning  the 
Religious  Condition  of  Pa.  in  the  Year  1701.  Translated  by  J.  F.  Sachse. 
Found  also  in  Pa.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  1897. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  i6i 

The  writer  of  this  missive  was  somewhat  of  a  poet  himself, 
and  composed  several  fine  hymns,  some  of  which  are  in  use  at 
the  present  day."^ 

Whether  the  appeal  for  musical  instruments  was  of  avail, 
we  know  not,  but  in  the  Joiirnal  of  Rev.  Andreas  Sandel  for 
July  20,  1702,  is  mentioned  one  Jonas,  organist  of  Gloria  Dei 
church.  Again,  on  November  24,  1703,  when  Falckner  was 
ordained  in  this  church,  Sachse  says : 

"The  service  was  opened  with  a  voluntary  on  the  little  organ  in 
the  gallery  by  Jonas  the  organist,  supplemented  with  instrumental 
music  by  the  Mystics  on  the  viol,  hautboy,  trumpets  (Posaunen)  and 
kettle  drums  (Pauk en)'' ^ 

The  first  church  organ  in  Philadelphia,  then,  was  placed  in 
a  Swedish  Lutheran  church  largely  by  means  of  a  German.  Al- 
though the  merit  for  this  achievement  must  be  divided  between 
the  Germans  and  Swedes,  in  one  department  of  music — the  sing- 
ing of  hymns — the  Swedes  probably  were  pre-eminent.  In  1696 
Charles,  King  of  Sweden,  sent  to  the  church  at  Wicacoa,  one 
hundred  hymn  books, ^  while  in  171 2  another  lot,  consisting  of 
"360  hymn  books  of  three  sorts"  were  shipped.  ^^  The  Swedes 
were  strict,  too,  in  their  regulations  of  the  church  services,  espe- 
cially of  singing.  In  1702,  Rev.  Andreas  Sandel  imposes  a  fine 
"for  untimely  singing,  six  schillings."  ^^  Especially  interesting 
is  the  account  concerning  the  attempt  of  Pastor  Andreas  Hes- 
selius,  of  Christina,  Delaware,  to  reform  church  singing  in  171 3. 
Acrelius  says : 

'  Sasche,  Justus  Falckner,  pp.  20-21. 

*  Justus  Falckner,  p.  64 ;  also  G.  P.,  pp.  354-5.  Sachse  believes  this  organ 
was  one  brought  over  by  Kelpius. 

*  Israel  Acrelius,  A  History  of  New  Sweden,  trans,  by  Wm.  Reynolds, 
in  Memoirs  of  Pa.  Hist.  Soc,  Vol.  XI,  pp.  197,  366  (hereafter  quoted  as 

"Acrelius,  p.  367;  also  Andreas  Sandel's  Diary,  in  Pa.  Mag.  Hist.  1906, 
p.  446. 

"Acrelius,  p.  217. 

1 62  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

"He  had  special  regard  to  propriety  in  church-singing,  in  which 
there  was  often  such  discord,  as  though  they  intended  to  call  their 
cows  to  the  church.  In  opposition  to  which  it  was  represented  that 
as  all  those  who  possessed  the  gift  of  praising  God  with  a  pleasing 
voice  in  psalms  and  hymns  should  not  stand  mute,  so,  on  the  other 
hand,  those  who  were  unfitted  for  this  should  not  with  their  harsh 
voices,  hinder  others  and  make  confusion,  but,  by  softly  singing  after 
the  others,  train  themselves  to  correct  singing.  During  the  singing, 
he  went  around  the  church  and  aided  where  they  failed."  ^- 

It  is  very  probable  that  in  Philadelphia,  this  same  instruc- 
tion in  church  singing  prevailed,  since  Hesselius  was  for  some 
time  Provost,  and  had  a  right  to  command,  and  also,  because 
Samuel  Hesselius,  his  brother,  occupied  the  pulpit  at  Wicacoa 
and  could  more  easily  be  coerced — if  necessary — to  establish  this 
method  of  instruction. 

In  the  other  churches  of  Philadelphia,  organs  seem  to  have 
been  introduced  at  a  relatively  late  date.  On  September  2,  1728, 
a  committee  having  been  appointed  at  Christ  Church  "to  treat 
with  Mr.  Lod.  C.  Sprogel,^^  about  an  organ  lately  arrived  here, 
report  that  they  had  done  the  same,  and  that  he  insisted  on  £200 
for  said  organ ;  and  that  they  had  procured  men  of  the  best  skill 
this  place  could  afford  to  erect  the  said  organ  in  a  convenient 
house  in  town,  to  make  trial  thereof ;  which,  being  done,  it  is  said 
the  organ  proves  good  in  its  kind,  and  large  enough  for  our 
church."  ^**  Upon  this  recommendation  the  organ  was  purchased. 
In  the  Moravian  church,  corner  of  Race  and  Broad  streets,  there 
were  two  organs  in  1743,^^  one  of  which  was  sold  in  1796,  and 
a  new  one  built  by  David  Tannenberger.^^     In  this  same  year 

^Acrelius,  p.  276. 

"  Ludovic  Christian  Sproegel  was  one  of  the  "Hermits  of  the  Wissa- 

"Quoted  from  the  Minutes  of  the  Vestry  of  Christ  Church,  by  Bcnj. 
Borr,  History  of  Christ  Church,  p.  61. 

"  Madeira,  Annals  of  Music  in  Philadelphia,  p.  24. 

**  Madeira,  Annals  of  Music  in  Philadelphia,  p.  24  (hereafter  quoted  as 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  163 

(1743)  the  Moravians  in  Germantown  had  an  organ  costing  £60, 
but  in  1744  both  church  and  organ  reverted  to  the  German  Re- 
formed Church.  ^^  The  CathoHc  church  had  an  organ  in  1750.^^ 
These  are  the  earhest  known  organs  in  use  in  Philadelphia 
churches.  From  this  time  on,  the  other  churches  in  the  city 
gradually  established  them  as  an  aid  to  their  services. 

One  writer,  who  came  to  this  country  from  Germany,  evi- 
dently had  no  knowledge  of  these  organs  when  he  said : 

"I  came  to  this  country  with  the  first  organ  [1750]  which  now 
stands  in  a  High  German  Lutheran  church  in  the  city  of  Philadel- 
phia, and  which  was  built  in  Heilbronn."  ^^ 

In  the  face  of  the  evidence  already  produced,  it  is  needless 
to  say  that  this  statement  is  a  little  off  color,  to  say  the  least. 

There  were  then  in  Philadelphia  several  organs  before  1755, 
and  it  is  reasonable  to  assume  that  in  the  Moravian  church,  that 
"wind"  and  "string"  instruments  were  used,  since  we  find  this 
true  at  the  colony  in  Bethlehem.-*^  The  testimony  of  travellers 
of  that  time  or  of  members  of  other  churches  is  of  some  interest 
and  importance.  The  first  witness  is  William  Black,  secretary 
of  the  commission  appointed  by  the  Governor  of  Virginia  to 
unite  with  commissions  from  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  for 
the  purpose  of  treating  with  the  Indians.  In  the  year  1744,  he 
resided  in  Philadelphia,  during  which  time  he  kept  a  journal 
of  interest  and  importance.    June  8  he  writes : 

"Minutes  and  Letters  of  the  Coetus  of  the  German  Reformed  Church, 
p.  29. 

"Madeira,  p.  24. 

"Gottlieb  Mittelberger's  Journey  to  Penn.  in  the  Year  1750;  translated 
by  Carl  T.  Eben,  p.  114. 

*°  Wm.  Reichel,  Something  about  Trombones,  p.  4  ff.  See  also  the  state- 
ment concerning  Justus  Falckner's  ordination  as  quoted  above,  where  musical 
instruments  of  this  character  were  used. 

164  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

"We  went  to  the  Moravian  Meeting,  where  I  had  the  pleasure 
to  hear  an  Excellent  Comment  on  that  Passage  in  Scripture  Relating 
to  the  Prodigal  Son,  and  after  some  very  Agreeable  Church  Musick, 
half  an  hour  after  9  they  broke  up."  -^ 

This  testimony  is  not  without  its  value,  as  this  gentleman 
was  evidently  somewhat  of  a  musician  himself,  since  under  the 
same  date  in  his  diary  we  find : 

"I  Rose  from  my  P)ed  and  pass'd  two  hours  in  writting,  the 
rest  of  the  time  till  Breakfast,  I  spent  with  my  Fiddle  and  Flute."  ^^ 

Concerning  the  music  in  the  Moravian  church  we  have  other 
evidence,  at  a  later  date.  John  Adams  remarks  in  his  diary  for 
October  23,  1774: 

"The  singing  here  [Methodist  meeting]  is  very  sweet  and  soft 
indeed ;  the  first  music  I  have  heard  in  any  society  except  the 
Moravians,  and  once  at  church  with  the  organ."  -^ 

He  also  remarks  September  4,  1774,  upon  "the  organ  and 
a  new  choir  of  singers  at  Christ  Church,  which  were  very  musi- 
cal." -^ 

Franklin,  in  1755,  speaks  of  hearing  Moravian  music  at 
Bethlehem,  and  praises  it  generously.--^  A  year  earlier  Acrelius, 
who  visited  the  same  place,  gives  a  more  detailed  account  in  the 
following  words : 

"It  was  finally  agreed  that  we  should  sit  below  [in  the  audi- 
torium of  the  church],  as  the  music  sounded  better  there.  The 
organ  had  the  accompaniment  of  violins  and  flutes.  The  musicians 
were  back  in  the  gallery,  so  that  none  of  them  were  seen."  One  of 
the  ministers  "read  some  verses  of  a  German  hymn  book,  after  which 
they  were  sung  with  excellent  music."  -^ 

^'  Pcnn.  Mag.  of  History,  Vol.  II,  p.  43- 

"  Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.  Vol.  II,  p.  40. 

'"John  Adams  Works,  Vol.  II,  pp.  401  and  364. 

^Vo/tn  Adams  Works,  Vol.  II,  pp.  401  and  364. 

"Franklin,  Atttobriography.  p.  325   [Lippincott,  Phila.,  1868]. 

"Acrelius,  p.  413. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  165 

Their  style  of  music  and  manner  of  performing  it  must 
have  been  exceptionally  good,  as  compared  with  the  music  of 
other  churches,  to  have  impressel  so  favorably  such  men,  who, 
we  may  be  sure,  were  quite  different.  There  is  the  sturdy  pastor 
Acrelius,  understanding  church  music  and  the  manner  of  its 
performance;  the  cordial,  genial  Ben  Franklin,  who  knew  some- 
thing about  music  from  living  in  London;  the  somewhat  cold 
but  highly  cultured,  John  Adams,  with  his  Puritan  traditions; 
then  the  gentleman  from  Virginia,  William  Black,  who  most 
probably  partook  of  the  nature  of  the  warm,  sunny-tempered 
Southerners,  himself  somewhat  of  a  musician.  Could  we  ask 
for  witnesses  more  unlike  ? 

To  the  Moravian  church  undoubtedly  belongs  the  palm  for 
music  during  the  eighteenth  century;  but  there  was  music,  and 
good  music,  in  some  other  churches  as  well.  We  have  already 
mentioned  the  music  in  Christ  Church  and  the  Methodist 
Church.  Concerning  the  music  in  the  German  Lutheran  Church, 
we  have  the  testimony  of  Daniel  Fisher,  who  writes  in  his  Diary 
for  May  25,  1755: 

"Went  to  the  Lutheran  Church,  a  neat  Brick  Building  where 
there  is  a  good  organ-^  to  which  I  heard  them  sing  Psalms,  agree 
ably  enough."  ^^ 

Again  he  says : 

"The  Lutheran  Church  has  an  organ,  and  a  good  one."  ^^ 

There  were  organs  then  in  the  churches,  to  a  great  extent, 
before  1750.  The  question  now  arises  were  there  men  who 
could  repair  these  instruments  if  they  got  out  of  order?  By  the 
end  of  the  fourth  decade,  there  were  several  men  who  could 
not  only  repair  an  organ,  but  also  build  one.  Of  these  men  Gus- 
tavus  Hesselius  is  the  most  important,  as  he  was  the  first  spinet 

The  organ  Mittelberger  brought  from  Heilbronn ;  see  above. 
'  Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist,  Vol.  XVII,  p.  267. 
'  Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  Vol.  XVII,  p.  272. 

l66  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

builder  in  America,  having  produced  specimens  as  early  as  1743,^" 
and  probably  the  first  organ  builder  in  Pennsylvania.  It  is  claimed 
that  he  was  the  first  organ  builder  in  America,  and  in  support  of 
that  claim  an  organ  is  mentioned  as  built  by  him  for  the  Moravian 
Church  at  Bethlehem,  Pa.,  in  1746.^^  The  fact  is  lost  sight  of 
that  a  Boston  man,  Edward  Bromfield,  generally  regarded  as 
the  first  organ  builder,  constructed  an  instrument  in  1745,^- 
although  Hesselius  was  undoubtedly  the  first  man  who  built 
many  church  organs. 

Still  another  claimant  appears  for  this  title — no  less  a  man 
than  the  Englishman,  Doctor  Christopher  Witt  (1675-1765). 
another  hermit  of  the  Wissahickon.  Doctor  Witt  possessed  a 
large  pipe-organ  presumably  made  by  him  alone,  but  possibly 
aided  by  other  Hermits.  It  was  built  at  least  while  he  was  living 
with  the  Settlement  on  the  Wissahickon,  and  as  he  left  that  society 
shortly  after  the  death  of  Kelpuis,^^  which  took  place  about 
1708,^^  the  evidence  is  in  his  favor.  This  organ  at  his  death  was 
valued  at  £40.^^ 

Hesselius  was  not  only  a  musician,  but  a  painter  as  well.  He 
died  in  1755.^''  Connected  with  Hesselius  in  1746  was  John  G. 
Klemm,  a  native  of  Dresden,  Germany.  Three  years  later  David 
Tannenberger  arrived  in  Philadelphia,  a  man  whom  many  of  his 
contempararies  conceded  to  be  the  greatest  organ  builder  in 
America,  but,  as  is  usually  the  case,  there  is  another  claimant  for 
this  high  honor,  as  will  be  seen  later. 

David  Tanneberger  was  born  March  21, 1728,  in  Berthesdorf, 
Saxony.  He  was  evidently  an  all-round  musician,  and  could 
play,  sing — he  possessed  a  good  voice — build,  or  repair  an  organ 

^Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  XVI,  p.  473   (note). 

^  Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  Vol.  XXIX,  p.  131   ff;  also  Reichel,  p.  4. 

^L.  Elson,  History  of  American  Music,  p.  43. 

^  German  Pietists,  pp.  403,  412. 

^  German  Pietists,  p.  192. 

^German  Pietists,  p.  418  (note). 

''Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  Vol.  XII,  p.  503   (note). 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  167 

as  occasion  presented  itself.  It  is  known  that  he  built  at  least 
fourteen  organs  during-  his  stay  in  Pennsylvania,  while  no  record 
of  the  number  of  spinets,  which  he  made  and  sold  for  £22.10.?, 
has  been  discovered.  He  died  May  19,  1804,  stricken  by  paraly- 
sis while  tuning  an  organ  at  York,  Pa.^^ 

As  to  Tannenberger's  reputation  as  an  organ  builder,  we 
have  the  testimony  of  a  man  who  probably  knew  Tannenberger : 

"Tannenberg  belongs  to  history  as  tJie  organ  builder  of  his  day 
and  one  of  renown.  He  too,  was  of  the  German  school.  Fancy 
stops  were  not  generally  in  vogue,  except  the  trumpet  in  the  great 
organ,  and  the  vox  humana  in  the  swell,  of  which  latter  there  was 
but  one  in  the  city,  and  that  was  in  Christ  Church,  and  to  my  young 
ear,  a  good  imitation  of  the  human  voice. 

"There  are  several  of  Tannenberg's  organs  yet  in  breathing 
existence  [1857].  Lancaster,  Litiz,  and  Nazareth  still  hold  his 
memory  in  audible  and  respectful  tones ;  and  much  of  his  work  is 
worthy  of  imitation.  His  diapsons  were  particularly  dignified, 
whilst  his  upper  work,  12th,  15th,  and  sesquialtera,  gave  brilliancy  to 
the  whole."  ^* 

This  testimony  of  Abraham  Ritter,  an  organist  of  good 
standing  in  the  Moravian  Church,  gives  some  idea  of  the  excel- 
lence of  the  work  and  of  the  reputation  which  Tannenberger  still 
had  in  the  nineteenth  centruy. 

We  have  already  spoken  of  Gottlieb  Mittelberger  and  his 
organ,  and,  although  we  cannot  depend  upon  his  statements,  there 
may  be  some  truth  in  his  somewhat  exaggerated  account  of  the 
dedication  of  his  organ.  It  is  at  least  interesting,  and  shows  that 
the  people  as  a  whole  were  certainly  not  prejudiced  against 
music.     He  says : 

"After  this  work  had  been  set  up  and  tuned  it  was  conse- 
crated with  great  rejoicing  and  delivered  to  the  Christian  St. 
Michael's  Church  for  the  praise  and  service  of  God. 

"The  crowd  of  hearers  was  indescribably  large ;  many  people 

^^  Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  Vol.  XXII,  p.  231  ff. 

'*  Abraham  Ritter,  Hist,  of  the  Moravian  Church  in  Phila.  (1857),  p.  59  ff. 

i68  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

came  from  a  great  distance,  lo,  20,  30,  40  and  even  50  hours'  journey, 
to  see  and  hear  this  organ.  The  number  of  hearers,  who  stood 
inside  and  outside  the  church,  both  German  and  English,  were 
estimated  at  several  thousands.  I  was  appointed  school-master  and 
organist.  As  I  became  more  and  more  known  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
the  people  learned  that  I  had  brought  fine  and  good  instruments 
with  me,  many  English  and  German  families  came  10,  20  and  30 
hours'  journey  to  hear  them  and  the  organ,  and  they  were  greatly 
surprised  because  they  had  never  in  all  their  lives  seen  or  heard  an 
organ  or  any  of  those  instruments. ■'*'' 

"At  the  present  time  [1754]  there  are  6  organs  in  Pennsylvania 
— the  first  is  in  Philadelphia,  the  2nd  in  Germantown,  the  3rd  in 
Providence,  the  4th  in  New  Hanover,  the  5th  in  Dulpehocken,  all 
of  them  came  to  this  country  during  the  four  years  of  my  sojourn 
there."  '° 

This  statement  concerning  the  number  of  organs  in  Phila- 
delphia cannot  be  true,  as  we  have  shown  above  that  there  were 
several.  In  his  list  of  the  organs  in  Pennsylvania,  he  neglects 
to  mention  the  one  made  for  the  Moravian  Church  at  Bethlehem 
in  1746.^^  The  number  of  people  which  he  claims  was  present 
at  the  dedication  is  probably  exaggerated,  and,  as  Mittelberger 
was  the  chief  performer,  we  can  pardon  him  this  slip  of  the 
pen.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  there  was  a  large  number  of 
people  present,  as  there  would  be  at  any  new  event  entering  into 
their  narrow  lives — especially  as  there  was  no  charge  for  admis- 

In  1762  a  new  organ  was  built  in  Philadelphia  by  Philip 
Feyring  for  St.  Paul's  Church.  He  is  the  other  claimant  to  the 
honor  of  being  the  greatest  organ  builder  of  his  day.**-  One  of 
the  newspapers  was  evidently  partial  to  him,  since  it  gives  this 
notice : 

^This  statement  is  utterly  false,  as  it  will  be  shown  later  that  there 
were  musical  instruments  in  Philadelphia  long  before  this  time,  and  even 
concerts  in  1740. 

*°  Mittelberger's  Journey  to  Perm.,  p.  114. 

"  Cf.  above,  p.     . 

*'  Cf.  above,  p.    . 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  169 

"The  New  Organ,  which  is  putting  up  in  St.  Paul's  Church  in 
this  City,  will  be  in  such  Forwardness  as  to  be  used  in  Divine  Service 
on  Christmas  Day.  It  is  of  a  new  Construction,  and  made  by  Mr. 
Philip  Fyring,"  Musical  Instrument-Maker,  in  this  City,  who  may, 
with  Justice,  be  said  to  be  the  best  Hand  at  that  ingenious  Business 
on  the  Continent."  ** 

The  organ  was  evidently  in  use  on  Christmas  Day  and  must 
have  proven  satisfactory,  as  it  called  forth  a  poem  lauding  both 
Keyring  and  his  organ. 

We  have  this  biographical  reference  to  him  in  a  contem- 
porary newspaper: 

"Mr.  Feyring  is  a  German  by  Birth,  but  has  for  some  years 
past,  practic'd  the  making  of  Musical  Instruments  (particularly 
Spinets  and  Harpsichords)  in  this  City,  with  great  Repute."*^ 

How  many  instruments  were  sold  by  these  organmakers  it 
would  be  difficult  to  say,  although  undoubtedly  parlor  organs  were 
found  in  many  houses.  There  are  advertisements  of  two  organs 
for  sale  among  a  list  of  household  goods  before  the  end  of  1750: 
A  "small"  organ  belonging  to  Benj.  Morgan,  1748,*^  and  a 
"large"  one,  the  property  of  the  late  Peter  Kook,  in  1750."*^ 

Religious  music  in  this  half  century  was  flourishing,  and 
was  considered  a  valuable  adjunct  of  the  church  service,  not  only 
in  German  churches,  but  also  in  the  Swedish  and  English 
churches.  The  composition  of  hymns  up  to  this  time  seems  to 
have  been  confined  to  the  Germans. 

Spelled  also  Feyring. 
Pa.  Gazette,  Dec.  23,  1762. 
Pa.  Gas.,  Dec.  30,  1762. 
'  Pa.  Journal,  July  7,  174S. 
Pa.  Journal,  Jan.  2,  1750. 

I  JO  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 


Secular  Music. 

From  the  preceding  chapter  it  has  been  clearly  seen,  that 
the  Germans  in  Philadelphia,  and  indeed  in  the  whole  State,  were 
strongly  religious,  and  were  celebrated  for  their  church  music 
and  instrument  makers,  especially  for  their  organ  builders. 

Were  all  the  people  in  Philadelphia  as  religious  as  the  Ger- 
mans and  Quakers  seem  to  have  been,  and  were  there  no  public 
amusements?  This  is  an  important  question,  and  one  not  easily 
answered,  especially  during  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury. It  may  be  thought  that  this  question  is  not  related  to  Ger- 
man music,  but  indirectly  it  is,  so  that  it  may  be  shown  whether 
or  not  the  people  of  Philadelphia  were  ready  to  welcome  music, 
whether  they  were  in  a  state  of  mind  favorable  for  the  introduc- 
tion of  any  amusements.  It  is  necessary  to  establish  these 
facts  before  we  can  clearly  understand  the  reasons  and  cause 
for  the  introduction  of  German  concert  music  into  America. 

We  know,  that  in  Philadelphia  during  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, there  were  men  of  every  creed  and  religion,  of  every  walk 
of  life,  of  many  different  nationalities,  and  we  may  be  sure  that 
in  such  a  conglomeration  of  men  and  ideas  there  would  be  some 
to  whom  amusements  would  be  necessary — even  amusements 
which  strait-laced  people  would  condemn.  The  information  there 
is  upon  this  subject  supports  the  opinion,  that  there  were  amuse- 
ments even  in  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century.  Foremost 
among  the  pleasures  in  which  the  inhabitants  of  Philadelphia 
indulged,  was  dancing,  and  we  have  reference  to  this  art  at  an 
early  period.  In  a  book  written  in  1710  is  the  following  state- 
ment : 

"Among  the  rest  of  my  Friends,  I  must  not  forget  the  facetious 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  171 

Mr.  Staples,  Dancing-Master,  who  was  the  first  Stranger  of  Phila- 
delphia that  did  me  the  Honour  of  a  Visit."  *^ 

As  early  as  17 16  we  find  this  record  : 

"At  the  Yearly  Meeting  of  the  Friends,  members  were  ad- 
vised against  'going  to  or  being  in  any  way  concerned  in  plays, 
games,  lotteries,  music  and  dancing.'  "  *" 

Throughout  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  dancing 
was  evidently  held  in  due  respect  by  a  certain  element  of  the  popu- 
lation. In  1728  it  forms  a  part  of  the  curriculum  of  a  boarding 
school.^o  In  1730  dancing  is  taught  by  Thomas  Ball's  sister.^^ 
The  first  really  fashionable  ball  was  probably  that  given  by  Gov- 
ernor Gordon,  in  1726,  in  honor  of  the  Prince  of  Wales'  birth- 
day.^- To  some  extent,  too,  music  and  dancing  were  surely  a 
part  of  the  marriage  festivities,  as  the  following  item  shows : 

"We  hear  that  Tuesday  night  last,  a  young  Dutchman  was 
married  to  an  old  Dutchwoman,  who  was  known  to  have  money. 
They  had  a  fiddle  at  the  Wedding.  .  .  .  She  danc'd  till  it 
was  late."  ^^ 

We  find  ministers  of  different  denominations  complaining  of 
the  irrcligion  of  some  of  the  inhabitants.    As  one  writer  remarks : 

"We  live  in  an  age,  when  'tis  counted  almost  a  scandal  to  be 
a  Christian.  Religion  is  stil'd  Preciseness  and  Hyprocrisy,  and  a 
strict  Conformity  to  Truth  and  Virtue  is  imputed  to  be  the  Effect 
of   Melancholly,   a  Distemper'd   Imagination.     We  daily  hear  the 

**Hart,  American  History  told  by  Contemporaries  II,  p.  yy,  quoted  from 
"The  Voyage,  Shiprack  and  Miraculous  Escape  of  Richard  Castleman,  Gent.," 
appended  to  "The  Voyages  and  Adventures  of  Capt.  Robert  Boyle,"  London, 
1726,  4th  Ed.  1786,  p.  331. 

''  Scharf  &  Wescott,  History  of  Phila.,  Vol.  II,  p.  863. 
^American  Weekly  Mercury,  March  5-14,  172%. 
"Fo.  Gazette,  March  5-13,  1729-30. 
''  Scharf  &  Wescott,  Hist,  of  Phila.,  Vol.  I,  p.  203. 
^"^  Pa.  Gas.,  March  15  to  22,  1738-9. 

172  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  with 

greatest  Mysteries  of  our  Faith  Ridicul'd  and  Banter'd,  the  Clergy 
Despis'd,  Expos'd  and  Degraded;  and  that  even  by  Men,  who  have 
not  yet  Publickly  Renounc'd  Christianity;  but  such  as  would  be 
thought  to  have  clearer  Heads,  and  more  refin'd  Conceptions  of 
Things  than  their  Brethren,  those  Men  to  their  Shame  stand  Pelting 
Religion  at  a  distance,  with  little  ScofTs  and  Jests,  when  there  is 
a  more  Fair  and  Honourable  way  of  deciding  the  Matter,  by  rational 
and  indeniable  Arguments."  ^* 

In  opposition  to  this  we  have  the  testimony  of  Benjamin 
Franklin,  who  writes : 

"Our  people,  having  no  publick  amusements  to  divert  their 
attention  from  study,  became  better  acquainted  with  books."  ^^ 

So,  too,  a  correspondent  in  the  Weekly  Mercury  writes : 

"Here  are  no  Masquerades,  Plays,  Balls,  Midnight  Revellings, 
or  Assemblies  to  Debauch  the  Mind  or  promote  Intrigue."  ^^ 

When,  however,  we  read  an  advertisement  in  the  same  paper 
about  a  month  later  like  the  following,  we  may  be  permitted  to 
doubt  somewhat  the  statements  of  the  last  two  men. 

"The  Art  of  Dancing  Carefully  Taught  (as  it  is  now  Practic'd 
at  Court)  by  Samuel  Perpoint,  at  his  School.  .  .  .  where 
for  the  Recreation  of  all  Gentlemen  and  Ladies:  There  will  be 
Country  Dances  every  Thursday  Evening;  likewise  he  teaches  small 
Sword."  " 

From  this  time  on,  we  notice  the  advertisements  of  various 
dancing  masters,  who,  often  were  school  masters  at  the  same  time. 
Not  only  did  these  Philadelphians  enjoy  dancing,  but  they  were 
partial  to  late  suppers  and  card  playing  as  well, — playing  cards 
was  a  staple  article  of  importation  after  1736.'^^    Another  favor- 

^  American  Weekly  Mercury,  June  19-26,  1729  [a  correspondent]. 

^'^Autobiography,  p.  207. 

^American  Weekly  Mercury,  June  19-26,  1729. 

^^  American  Weekly  Mercury.  July  31  to  August  7,  1729. 

''^American  Weekly  Mercury,  February  8,  1736  [first  advertised]. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  173 

ite  amusement,  we  may  be  sure,  was  playing  on  the  Jew's  harp, 
for  after  1733,  this  instrument  frequently  is  advertised.^^  The 
Jew's  harp  must  have  been  considered  a  harmless  instrument  by 
all  sects,  for  as  early  as  1675  '"  one  State  of  Puritan  New  Eng- 
land it  is  stated  that  a  law  was  enacted,  "that  no  one  should  play 
on  any  kind  of  music  except  the  drum,  the  trumpet  and  the  jew- 
sharp. "®° 

Besides  the  amusements  already  mentioned,  the  Philadel- 
phians  had  an  opportunity  to  see  a  rope-dancer  in  1724,^^  "Punch 
and  Joan  his  Wife,"  ^-  "Magick  Lanthorn"  exhibition, ^^  "Camera 
Obscura  and  Microscope,"  ^^  a  musical  clock  with  a  man  and 
woman  appearing  as  mountebanks.^^ 

Music  was  evidently  popular  at  society  meetings,  banquets, 
etc.  Perhaps  there  was  nothing  more  than  singing,  but  possibly 
a  violin  and  spinet  helped  to  while  away  the  time.  For  instance, 
in  1 73 1  at  the  celebration  of  "St.  David's  Day,"  by  the  "Society 
of  Ancient  Britons,"  the  evening  ended  with  "Musick,  Mirth  and 
Friendship."  ^^ 

In  the  two  items  which  will  be  given  now,  may  be  detected, 
perhaps,  the  incipient  germs  of  musical  criticism,  or  at  least  the 
idea,  which  most  people  probably  had  of  what  a  professor  of 
music  should  know  and  be  able  to  do : 

"Elocution  is  not  unlike  Musick ;  there  is  scarce  a  Soul  so  rustick 
as  not  to  admire  both  in  their  Excellency,  altho'  the  Masters  of 
those  Sciences  may  lose  their  proper  Share  of  the  Praise.    He  that 

^'American  Weekly  Mercury,  March  2,  1733  [first  advertised]. 

^^  Perkins  &  Dwiglit,  History  of  Hacndel  &  Haydn  Society,  p.  17  (note). 

*'  Scharf  &  Wescott,  Vol.  II,  p.  863. 

^' Pa.   Gas.,  Dec.  30,   1742. 

'^  Pa.  Gas.,  Jan.  27,  1743. 

"Pa.  Gas.,  July  2,  1744. 

*^  Pa.  Gas.,  May  31,  1744. 

'^  Pa.  Gaz.,  Feb.  23  to  March  4,  1730-31. 

*^ American  Weekly  Mercury,  Aug.  7-14,  1729. 

174  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  zvith 

having  laid  before  him  the  several  Parts  of  a  Musical  Instrument, 
can  Unite  them  in  their  Places,  and  tune  them  to  Harmony,  merits 
the  appelation  of  a  Master  in  Musick  and  should  be  distinguished  as 
such,  as  he  that  disposes  Words  into  grammatical  sentences,  and 
eloquent  Periods,  is  a  Master  of  Language."  •'^ 

This  quotation  may  argue  for  the  popularity  and  respect  in 
which  music  was  held  at  that  time  by  at  least  some  of  the  people. 
We  find  in  this  crude  statement,  that  music  was  thought  worthy 
of  a  position  by  the  side  of  elocution,  which  has  always  held  a 
high  place  in  the  minds  of  every  people,  and  so  we  may  be  safe 
in  believing  that  music  had  a  place,  and  an  important  place,  in 
Philadelphia,  in  the  early  history  of  that  city. 

Another  correspondent  states  that: 

"Women,  like  Instruments  of  Musick,  require  to  be  long  used 
before  their  Sweetness  or  Discord  are  certainly  discovered."  "^^ 

Unless  the  writer  of  the  above  knew  something  about  music, 
and  unless  music  was  an  object  of  interest  or  pleasure,  so  that 
this  comparison  would  be  appreciated,  he  would  not  likely  have 
ventured  to  use  such  a  simile. 

In  1733  there  is  a  record  of  a  "ball"  •*"  while,  in  the  next 
year  under  the  heading  "London  news,"  there  is  a  notice  con- 
cerning the  marriage  of  the  Princess  Royal  to  the  Prince  of 
Orange,  which  gives  the  following  information: 

"A  fine  anthem  compos'd  by  Mr.  Handell  was  perform'd  by  a 
great  Number  of  Voices  and  Instruments."  ^° 

This  latter  item  proves  nothing  except  that  the  name  of 
Handel  was  introduced  into  the  colonies  at  an  early  date,  and  may 
have  remained  in  the  memories  of  some  of  the  people,  since  he 
was  connected  with  such  an  important  event.     This  may  possibly 

''American  Weekly  Mercury,  Sept.   10-17,  1730. 
^American  Weekly  Mercury,  Nov.  11,  1733. 
^American  Weekly  Mercury,  May  23,  1734. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  175 

have  helped  to  increase  the  popularity  which  his  works,  later  in 
the  century,  attained  in  America. 

It  has  been  seen  that  there  was  music  and  dancing  at  this 
time,  and  it  is  now  interesting  to  learn  what  kind  of  musical 
instruments  were  used.  It  has  been  shown  already,  that  there 
were  Jew's  harps, '^'  that  Kelpuis  had  clavichords,"-  and  assuredly 
there  were  some  virginals,  although  probably  few.  In  the  fourth 
decade  the  various  instrument  makers  mentioned  above, "^  prob- 
ably had  quite  a  number  of  customers. 

In  1729  Andrew  Bradford,  proprietor  of  the  American 
Weekly  Mercury,  advertises : 

"A  well-strung  Virginal  to  be  sold ;  being  in  good  Order.  En- 
quire of  Printer  hereof."  '^^ 

Dr.  Christopher  Witt,  referred  to  before,^''  was  a  capable 
player  on  the  virginal, '^'^  which  at  his  death  was  estimated  at 
£1,  15^'.;  ^^  while  a  virginal  belonging  to  the  "Hermits"  reverted 
to  the  widow  of  Magister  Zimmerman."** 

The  people  who  owned  instruments  of  this  kind  had  an 
opportunity  to  learn  to  play,  since  in  1730  a  woman — the  first 
music  teacher  in  Philadelphia — makes  an  announcement  in  the 
newspaper  as  follows : 

[Thomas  Ball's]  "Wife  teaches  Writing  and  French.  Like- 
wise Singing,  Playing  on  the  Spinet,  Dancing  and  all  sorts  of 
Needle- Work  are  taught  by  his  Sister  lately  arrived  from  London."  ''^ 

''^Vide  above,  p. 

"  Vide  above,  p. 

"  Vide  above,  p. 

''*  American  Weekly  Mercury,  March  4-13,  1728-9. 

'"  See  above. 

'*  German  Pietists,  p.  412. 

^^ German  Pietists,  p.  418   (note). 

'''*  Justus  Falckner,  p.  64  (note). 

"Fa.  Gas.,  July  2-9,  1730. 

176  Early  Music  in  PhilodclpJiia  with 

What  class  of  music  she  and  her  pupils  played,  it  would  be 
hard  to  say,  but  it  did  not  cause  anyone  to  start  a  music  store, 
and  it  is  not  until  1739  that  any  great  musical  works  are  adver- 
tised at  the  office  of  the  man  of  many  parts,  Benjamin  Franklin. 
The  following  pieces  were  to  be  obtained  there:  "Corelli's 
Sonatas,  Geminiani's  Concertos,  Ditto's  Solos. "^"^ 

Besides  spinets  and  virginals  there  were  probably  violins, 
German  flutes,  trumpets,  drums,  a  few  viols,  etc.  For  instance, 
in  1749  Anthony  Lamb,  of  New  York,  advertises  among  other 
things:  "German  Flutes,"  ^^  while  other  men  advertise,  in  1750, 
''Hunting  pipes,"  ^-  and  "fiddle  strings,"  ^^  From  1744  on  num- 
erous advertisements  of  drums  appear. 

Before  1740  there  is  no  record  of  any  kind  of  musical  organi- 
zation, but  in  this  year  there  was  such  a  society.  During  this 
year  the  evangelist,  Whitefield,  visited  Philadelphia  and  made 
a  strong  impression  upon  people  of  all  beliefs.  One  of  his 
disciples  caused  this  to  be  printed : 

"Since  Mr.  Whitefields'  Preaching  here,  the  Dancing  school. 
Assembly,  and  Concert  Room  have  been  shut  up,  as  inconsistent 
with  the  Doctrine  of  the  Gospel :  And  though  the  Gentlemen  con- 
cern'd,  caus'd  the  Door  to  be  broke  open  again,  we  are  inform'd  that 
no  Company  came  the  last  Assembly  night."  ^* 

One  of  the  members,  however,  denied  the  charge  that  dances 
were  inconsistent  with  the  doctrine  of  the  gospel,  and  affirmed 
that  the  hall  was  closed  up  by  William  Seward,  an  "Attendant 
and  intimate  Companion"  of  Whitefield's.  This  same  writer 
speaks  of  "Members  of  the  Concert"  and  the  rooms  belonging  to 
them.  He  also  says  that  the  members  "met  the  Night  after 
according  to  Custom ;  and  the  Thursday  following  the  Company 

^^  Pa.  Gas.,  June  15-22,  1738-9. 

'^^  Pa.  Gas.,  Jan.  31,  1749. 

^  Pa.  Journal,  Jan.  9,  1750. 

''Pa.  Jour,  and  also  Pa.  Gas.,  May  24,  1750. 

^  Pa.  Gazette,  May  i,  1740. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  177 

met  to  Dance  as  they  used  to  do ;  but  the  Assembly  being  only  for 
the  Winter  Season  is  now  discontinued  of  Course  and  tlie  Concert 
being  for  the  whole  Year  still  goes  on  as  usual."  ^'' 

This  is  interesting,  as  it  is  the  first  record  of  concerts,  and 
also,  because  these  concerts,  continued  the  whole  year,  not  merely 
during  the  winter  months  as  nowadays.  There  were  "Members 
of  the  Concert,"  too,  who  rented  or  owned  rooms.  There  must 
then  have  been  some  kind  of  a  club  or  society,  which  gave  these 

These  concerts  must  either  have  been  kept  up  for  years,  or 
new  series  instituted  year  by  year,  since  our  friend  William 
Black  (already  quoted)  says  in  his  diary  of  1744,  June  5: 

"At  8  O'clock  went  to  hear  a  Concert  of  Musick ;  the  Per- 
formers was  some  Town's  Gentlemen,  and  did  Us  the  Honour  of  an 
Invitation,  we  staid  till  past  11,  and  I  left  the  Company  to  go  home 
to  my  lodgings."  ^^ 

It  is  important  to  observe,  that  William  Black  says  he  had 
the  "Honour"  to  be  invited  to  a  concert.  One  might  say  that  this 
word  was  simply  a  common  expression.  It  probably  was,  and  still 
is ;  but  we  believe  a  man  would  hardly  write  such  an  expression 
in  his  diary,  unless  he  really  thought  he  was  honored.  It  seems 
probable  that  this  concert  and  those  of  1740  must  have  been  very 
exclusive  and  were  not  public  entertainments,  which  anyone 
might  attend. 

There  was  exhibited  this  same  year  (1744)  a  curiosity, 
which  would  attract  a  large  crowd  of  people.  This  was  no  less 
than : 

"The  Unparallelled  Musical  Clock,  made  by  that  great  Master 
of  Machinery,  David  Lockwood.  It  excels  all  others  in  the  Beauty 
of  its  Structure  and  plays  the  choicest  Airs  from  the  most  cele- 
brated Operas  with  the  greatest  Nicety  and  Exactness.  It  per- 
forms with  beautiful  graces,  ingeniously  and  variously  intermixed, 

'^'  Pa.  Gas.,  May  8,  1740. 

""Penn.  Mag.  of  Hist.,  Vol.  I,  p.  416. 

178  Early  Music  in  Philadelphia  ivith 

the  French  Horn  Pieces,  perform'd  upon  the  Organ,  German  and 
Common  Flute,  Flageolet,  etc.,  Sonata's,  Concerto's,  Marches,  iMinu- 
etts,  Jiggs  and  Scots  Airs,  composed  by  Corelli,  Alberoni,  I\Ir.  Handel 
and  other  great  and  eminent  Masters  of  Musick."  **^ 

This  is  the  first  public  record  we  have,  that  works  of  such 
famous  composers  were  played,  and  they  must  have  become 
familiar,  in  a  short  time  to  a  great  number  of  the  inhabitants. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  Miss  Ball's  capabilities  in  the 
province  of  music  were  confined  to  but  two  branches,  voice  and 
spinet.  In  1749,  however,  appears  a  truly  musical  genius,  if  we 
may  judge  by  the  number  of  instruments  which  he  played.  This 
man  was,  as  we  learn  from  the  following : 

"John  Beals,  Musick  Master  from  London  [who]  at  his  House 
in  Fourth  Street,  near  Chestnut  Street,  joining  to  Mr.  Linton's,  collar 
maker,  teaches  the  Violin,  Hautboy,  German  Flute,  Common  Flute 
and  Dulcimer  by  Note. 

"Said  Beals  will  likewise  attend  young  ladies,  or  others,  that 
may  desire  it,  at  their  houses.  He  likewise  provides  musick  for  balls 
or  other  entertainments."  ^- 

Here  was  an  opportunity  for  the  inhabitants  of  the  Quaker 
City  to  improve  their  time  by  learning  music,  and  as  the  variety 
of  instruments  from  which  they  might  choose,  was  large,  no 
doubt  some  of  them  became  proficient  musicians. 

This  same  year  saw  the  beginnings  of  drama  and  opera  in 
Philadelphia,  given  by  the  English  actors,  Murray  and  Kean.^^ 
These  dramatic  performances  were  soon  discontinued  on  account 
of  the  opposition  of  the  public.  From  now  until  the  latter  part 
of  the  fifth  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century  there  were  desultory 
attempts  to  give  dramas,  but  not  until  1 759  did  the  theatre  prove 
successful  and  become  permanent. 

There  was  then  in  this  decade  an  incipient  appreciation  of 

Pa.  Gas.,  July  12,  1744. 
'Pa.  Gac,  March  21,  1749. 
'  Madeira,  Annals  of  Music,  p.  29. 

special  Reference  to  German  Music  lyg 

drama  to  which  some  music  was  oftentimes  joined.     What  other 
music  was  there  at  this  time?    In  1750-4  Mittelberger  says: 

"The  cultivation  of  music  is  rather  rare  as  yet.  .  .  .  Some 
Englishmen  give  occasional  concerts  in  private  houses  with  a  spinet 
or  harpsichord."  ®° 

Mittleberger's  statement  concerning  the  cultivation  of 
music  is  not  quite  true.  Music  undoubtedly  was  studied  a  great 
deal  more  than  Mittelberger  seems  to  think.  If  his  statement 
that  occasional  private  concerts  were  given  by  Englishmen  is 
true,  this  was  probably  the  kind  of  concert  William  Black  at- 
tended in  1749,^^  and  may  have  been  similar  to  the  concerts  of 

During  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  Philadelphia 
was  not  so  utterly  devoid  of  musical  culture  as  some  of  our  his- 
torians of  music  would  have  us  believe.  The  music  was  not 
entirely  church  music,  and  although  musical  culture  was  not  so 
important  a  factor  in  the  life  of  the  people  as  at  the  present  day, 
still  music  was  beginning  to  make  itself  felt  among  intelligent 
people,  and  interest  in  it  and  appreciation  of  it  were  gradually 

University  of  Pennsylvania. 

'  Mittelbergers  Journey,  p.  114  ff. 
Cf.  above,  p. 
'  Cf.  above,  p. 


At  the  Whitsuntide  Festival  at  Washington  Park,  Philadel- 
phia, on  June  8,  1908,  Mr.  Theodore  Sutro,  of  New  York,  in  his 
most  excellent  address,  divided  mankind  into  three  classes :  Pessi- 
mists, Conservatives  and  Optimists.  He  declared  the  Conserva- 
tives the  most  tiresome  class,  as  they  always  wish  to  leave 
everything  as  it  was  and  is ;  the  Pessimists  are  the  worst  class, 
because  they  always  find  everything  wrong;  whatever  is  done,  is 
not  enough — they  only  talk  and  criticise,  but  never  do  anything 
themselves.  They  always  say  what  ought  to  have  been  done  and 
what  ought  to  be  done ;  they  put  up  visionary  ideals,  but  never 
do  anything  to  bring  about  those  things  desired.  Much  better 
is  the  third  class,  the  Optimists,  who  do  things  and  act,  and  bring 
forth  things  as  the  conditions  demand  and  wait  till  they  bring 
about  other  things  when  new  times  and  conditions  demand.  Mr. 
Sutro  spoke  of  these  three  classes  in  reference  to  the  German 
endeavors  in  America. 

I  can  readily  endorse  Mr.  Sutro's  words  in  reference  to  the 
German  American  Historical  Society  and  the  German  American 

Of  course,  things  could  be  better;  this  German  American 
Historical  Society  which  tries  in  its  Annals  to  bring  before  the 
whole  of  the  American  world  all  those  matters  in  which  Germans 
and  German  influence  have  worked  upon  the  political  and  social 
status  of  America,  ought  to  have  ten  thousand  members,  instead, 
of  less  than  one  thousand;  and  if  the  Pessimists  wish  to  have 
matters  made  better,  let  them  become  members  of  the  German 
American  Historical  Society — of  which  our  great  President, 
Theodore  Roosevelt,  is  an  honorary  member,  who  in  a  letter 
addressed  to  the  president  of  the  German  American  Historical 

German  American  Historical  Society  i8i 

Society  expressed  the  pleasure  of  his  acceptance  and  special  thanks 
to  the  Society  for  the  great  compliment  thus  paid  him.  It  is  the 
same  President  Roosevelt  who,  some  months  ago,  conversed  in 
the  German  language  with  a  candidate  of  the  Austrian  Reichs- 
rat,  and  who  some  time  ago  expressed  his  great  pleasure  that 
he  could  sing  in  the  original  German  the  beautiful  hymn  "Ein 
feste  Burg  ist  unser  Gott." 

Why  do  the  Germans  and  German  Americans  not  imitate 
the  President  by  using  the  German  language  whenever  there  is  an 
opportunity  to  do  so? 

Let  the  Conservatives  become  members,  as  they  will  readily 
find  all  that  which  was  and  which  is — and,  of  course,  the  Opti- 
mists will  become  members,  because  they  rejoice  in  that  which 
has  already  been  done  and  which  is  done. 

At  the  present  time  there  appears  in  the  "German  American 
Annals"  the  biography  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  the  first 
German  who,  two  hundred  and  twenty-five  years  ago,  brought 
about  the  first  German  settlement  in  this  country.  Everyone 
who  is  German  or  of  German  descent,  everyone  who  is  Ameri- 
can enough  to  learn  something  of  the  development  of  his  or  her 
own  country,  ought  to  read  the  Pastorius  Biography,  written  by 
Prof.  Marion  Dexter  Learned.  The  Biography  of  Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius  will  appear  also  in  book  form  in  the  course  of 
this  summer. 

The  "German  American  Annals"  treat  also  other  historical 
affairs,  be  it  of  social,  religious,  scientific,  commercial  or  political 
concern,  which  are  and  will  be  for  all  who  have  anything  to  do 
with  America,  a  great  incentive  to  the  love  of  their  country. 
The  historical  research  extends  to : 

1.  The  history  of  the  Germans  in  America  in  general. 

2.  The  history  of  the  German   societies,   associations  and 


3.  The  history  of  the  German  churches  and  schools. 

4.  The  history  of  the  German  newspapers  and  magazines. 

5.  The  participation  of  Germans  and  German  Americans  in 

i82  German  American  Historical  Society 

the  Spanish  American  war,  as  well  as  in  other  wars  of  the  Union 
and  Colonies. 

6.  The  part  taken  by  Germans  and  German  Americans  in 
industry  and  commerce,  art  and  science,  including  engineering, 
agriculture,  etc. 

7.  The  biographies  and  autobiographies  of  Germans  in 

They  will  learn  that  the  Pennsylvania  Germans  decided  the 
fight  between  the  English  and  the  French  at  Fort  Duquesne, 
Pittsburgh ;  that  not  all  Germans  in  the  Revolutionary  War  were 
"Hessians,"  but  that  "some"  of  them  fought  the  battle  of  Tren- 
ton, and  that  "some"  of  them  preserved  Washington's  army  at 
Valley  Forge ;  that  von  Steuben,  Muhlenberg,  Ludwig,  the  baker, 
Solomon  Hyman  and  many  others  were  Germans;  that  the 
Wister,  Rittenhouse,  Pepper,  Leidy,  Schaumburg,  Tyson  families 
are  of  German  descent;  that  Pennsylvania  furnished  more  Ger- 
mans and  German  Americans  to  the  Civil  War  than  any  other 
race — all  this  and  more  would  the  American  nation  learn  by 
looking  into  the  history  of  Germans  in  America. 

In  conclusion  let  me  quote  editorials  from  the  Philadelphia 
"Record"  and  "Public  Ledger:" 

"We  do  not  intend  to  have  even  so  much  as  a  tarifif  war  with 
Germany ;  we  are  indebted  to  Germany  for  a  large  part  of  our 
population ;  we  have  been  importing  our  theology  and  science  from 
Germany,  and  we  are  now  importing  our  social  reform  therefrom; 
we  are  about  to  erect  a  statue  of  Baron  von  Steuben  in  Lafayette 
Square,  Washington ;  the  ties  between  us  and  the  Fatherland  are 
many  and  close,  and  the  many  points  of  resemblance  between  the 
President  and  the  Emperor  have  often  been  dwelt  on.  We  need  say 
no  more  to  assure  the  officers  and  men  of  the  German  cruiser  Bremen 
that  they  are  heartily  welcome  in  Philadelphia,  within  whose  boun- 
daries lies  the  first  German  settlement  on  the  American  continent." — 
Philadelphia  Record. 

Our  German  Naval  Guests. 

"For  the  best  part  of  a  week  the  German  cruiser  Bremen  has 
been  lying  at  anchor  in  the  Delaware,  and  there  has  been  the  usual 
exchange  of  social  courtesies  between  the  officers  and  crew,  on  the 

Ccnnan  American  Historical  Society  1S3 

one  side,  and  the  municipal  authorities  and  the  German  and  German- 
American  residents  of  Philadelphia,  on  the  other.  It  remained, 
however,  for  the  ceremony  of  yesterday,  when  the  German 
naval  guests  joined  with  the  United  Singers  in  the  dedication  of  the 
Haydn  statue  in  Fairmount  Park,  to  afford  an  opportunity  to  the 
public  at  large  to  extend  the  cordial  welcome  which  is  in  the  heart 
of  every  patriotic  Philadelphian. 

"There  was  something  peculiarly  appropriate  in  the  participation 
of  the  Bremen's  officers  and  crew  in  the  affair  in  the  Park,  for  it 
was  an  occasion  which  is  typical  in  a  marked  degree  of  the  especial 
contribution  made  to  the  civic  life  of  the  city  by  that  portion  of  its 
population  which  claims  German  birth  or  German  parentage.  The 
order,  thrift  and  wholesome  common  sense  which  are  the  charac- 
teristics of  the  German  element  in  the  composite  which  we  call 
American,  are  so  universally  recognized  that  to  dwell  upon  them 
would  be  to  emphasize  the  merely  obvious. 

"What  the  dedication  of  the  Haydn  memorial  brought  into 
especial  relief,  however,  was  the  activity  of  the  Germans  in  Phila- 
delphia in  poetry,  literature  and  art,  and  the  incalculable  benefit 
which  they  have  conferred  and  are  conferring  upon  the  community 
in  thus  stimulating  the  practice  and  the  appreciation  of  the  beautiful 
and  intellectual.  The  Haydn  statue  is  but  one  of  many  such 
memorials  with  which  the  Germans  of  Philadelphia  have  adorned  the 
Park,  and  while  there  is  no  lack  of  popular  appreciation  of  the  sub- 
stantial worth  of  the  German  influence  and  example  in  Philadelphia 
this  aspect  of  what  they  are  doing  for  the  community  is  especially 

"It  is  taken  as  a  matter  of  course  that  in  new  surroundings  the 
German  people  and  their  descendants  display  the  same  qualities  of 
industry  and  determination  which  have  made  the  Fatherland  what 
it  is — one  of  the  great  Powers  of  Europe,  an  aggressive  and  progres- 
sive nation,  and  the  keenest  of  competitors  for  front  rank  in  the 
commercial  life  of  the  world.  That  they  should  also  have  retained 
the  power  and  the  practice  of  intellectual  concentration  and  esthetic 
devotion,  which  are  the  bases  of  German  achievements  in  science, 
literature  and  art,  is  a  fact  that  is  often  overlooked  by  their  fellow 
citizens  in  this  country.  Philadelphia  has  many  evidences  to  show 
of  the  sincerity  and  the  worth  of  this  side  of  the  life  of  its  German 
and  German  American  population,  and  the  co-operation  of  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  military  power  of  the  Fatherland  with  the  music 
lovers  of  Philadelphia,  who  are  none  the  less  Americans  because  of 
their  birth  or  parentage,  is  an  incident  of  most  happy  omen." — Phila- 
delphia Public  Ledger. 

184  German  American  Historical  Society 

Apropos  of  the  editorial  in  the  Public  Ledger,  I  wish  to 
mention  an  occurrence.  I  was  walking  along  Eleventh  street 
and  met  at  Eleventh  and  Walnut  three  sailors  of  the  German 
cruiser  "Bremen."  .  They  were  the  first  German  sailors  I  had  seen 
for  a  number  of  years.  I  spoke  to  them,  of  course,  in  German, 
and  they  were  glad  to  hear  the  "Muttersprache ;"  and  one  of  the 
first  things  they  asked  me  yas,  "Wo  ist  ein  Musikinstrumenten- 
laden,  wir  mochten  ein  Instrument  kaufen."  Of  course,  I 
directed  them  to  a  store  which  happened  to  be  only  a  short  dis- 
tance away.  There  is  something  else  I  may  refer  to.  It  was  a 
delight  and  pleasure  to  see  the  German  sailors  trim,  and  to  see 
their  conduct  on  the  streets,  parks  and  wherever  they  were  found. 
Several  Americans  remarked  to  me  about  them,  and  the  highest 
praise  which  they  could  give,  was  to  say,  "Why,  your 
German  sailors  all  are  gentlemen."  Of  course,  they  probably 
forgot  when  they  spoke,  that  these  sailor  boys  were  the  well- 
schooled,  and  well-raised  sons  of  a  German  family,  whether 
this  family  was  rich  or  not.  Such  a  "demonstratio  ad  oculos," 
such  visits  from  German  ships  are  but  another  link  of  the  con- 
nection between  Germany  and  America. 

Let  Germans  and  Americans  read  the  German  American 
Annals  and  become  members  of  The  German  American  Histori- 
cal Society ! 


©erman  Clmcrican  Qnnals 




Historical.  Literary,  Linguistic,  Educational   and   Commercial    Relations 


Germany  and  America 


The  German  American  Historical  Society 
The  National  German  American  Alliance 
The  Union  of  Old  German  Students  in  America 



University  of  Pennsylvania. 


H,  C.  G.  Brandt,  Julius  Goebel, 

Hamilton  College.  University  of  Illinois. 

W.  H.  Carpenter,  j.  t.  Hatfield, 

Columbia  University.  Northwestern  University. 

W.  H.  Carruth,  W.  T.  Hewett, 

University  of  Kansas.  Cornell  University. 

Hermann  Collitz,  A.  R.  Hohlfeld, 

Johns  Hopkins  University.  University  of  Wisconsin. 

Starr  W.  Cutting,  Hugo  K.  Schilling, 

University  of  Chicago.  University  of  California. 

Daniel  K.  Dodge.  H.  Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University  of  Illinois.  University  of  Chicago. 

A.  B.  Faust,  Hermann  Schoenfeld, 

Cornell  University.  Columbian  University. 

KuNO  Francke,  Calvin  Thomas, 

Harvard  University.  Columbia  University. 

Adolph  Gerber,  H.  S.  White, 

Late  of  Earlham  College.  Harvard  University, 
Henry  Wood,  Johns  Hopkins  University, 

New  Series,  Vol,  6.  1908.  Old  Series,  Vol.  10. 

published  by 


E.  M.  Fogel,  Business  Manager, 

Box  10,  College  Hall,  University  of  Pennsylvania 

Berlin  :  IRcw  l^ocft  :  Xefpsfg  : 


XonOon  :  Paris : 


(Scrman  Qmcrican  Qnnals 



New  Series,  July  and  August  Old  Series, 

Vol.  VI.     No.  4.  1908.  Vol.  X.     No.  4. 

The  Founder  of  Germantowu. 

By  Marion  Dkxter  Learned. 

(Copyrighted.    All  rights  reserved.) 


Pastorius'  Official  Documents. 

In  addition  to  the  works  in  manuscript  already  discussed, 
Pastorius  left  a  number  of  important  public  documents,  which 
bear  the  impress  of  his  mind,  ranging  all  the  way  from  the  Protest 
against  Negro  Slavery  of  the  year  1688,  to  the  Record  of  Friends 
Certificates  of  Marriage.  These  works  are  here  mentioned  by 
title  and  treated  briefly  in  order  to  give  a  complete  view  of  Pas- 
torius' activity  as  a  writer.  They  are  five  in  all,  and  numbered 
here  for  convenience  in  cronological  order. 

The  most  important  question  of  public  moment  touched  upon 
by  Pastorius  was  that  of  Negro  Slavery.  While  we  have  no 
statement  that  he  formulated  the  Protest  brought  by  the  Germans 
before  the  Friends  Meeting  in  1688,  it  is  easy  to  detect  the  ear- 
marks of  his  style  and  manner  of  thought  in  the  quaint  German- 
isms of  the  document.    The  handwriting  also  is  his. 


1 88  Francis  Daniel  Pastoritis 


Germantown  Friends'  Protest  Against  Slavery,  1688: 

This  is  to  y«  Monthly  Meeting  held  at  Richard  Warrell's. 

These  are  the  reasons  why  we  are  against  the  traffick  of  men 
Body,  as  followeth :  Js  there  any  that  would  be  done  or  handled  at 
this  manner?  viz.,  to  be  sold  or  made  a  slave  for  all  the  time  of  his 
life?  How  fearfuU  &  fainthearted  are  many  on  sea  when  they  see  a 
strange  vassel,  being  afraid  it  should  be  a  Turck,  and  they  should  be 
tacken  and  sold  for  slaves  into  Turckey.  Now  what  is  this  better 
done  as  Turcks  doe?  yea  rather  is  it  worse  for  them,  w*^^  say  they 
are  Christians;  for  we  hear  that  ye  most  part  of  such  Negers  are 
brought  heither  against  their  will  &  consent;  and  that  many  of  them 
are  stollen.  Now,  tho'  they  are  black,  we  cannot  conceive  there  is 
more  liberty  to  have  them  slaves,  as  it  is  to  have  other  white  ones. 
There  is  a  saying,  that  we  shall  doe  to  all  men,  licke  as  we  will  be 
done  our  selves ;  making  no  difference  of  what  generation,  descent  or 
Colour  they  are.  And  those  who  steal  or  robb  men,  and  those  who 
buy  or  purchase  them,  are  they  not  all  alike?  Here  is  liberty  of 
Conscience,  w*^^  is  right  &  reasonable;  here  ought  to  be  lickewise 
liberty  of  y®  body,  except  of  evildoers,  w'^'^  is  an  other  case.  But  to 
bring  men  hither,  or  to  robb  and  sell  them  against  their  will,  we 
stand  against.  Jn  Europe  there  are  many  oppressed  for  Conscience 
sacke;  and  here  there  are  those  oppressed  w^^  are  of  a  black  Colour. 
And  we,  who  know  that  men  must  not  comitt  adultery,  some  doe 
corhitt  adultery  in  others,  separating  wifes  from  their  housbanils  and 
giving  them  to  others ;  and  some  sell  the  children  of  those  poor 
Creatures  to  other  men.  Oh !  doe  consider  well  this  things,  you  who 
doe  it;  if  you  would  be  done  at  this  manner?  and  if  it  is  done  accord- 
ing Christianity?  You  surpass  Holland  and  Germany  in  this  thing. 
This  mackes  an  ill  report  in  all  those  Countries  of  Europe,  where 
they  hear  ofT,  that  y®  Quackers  doe  here  handel  men  licke  they  handel 
there  y®  Cattel.  And  for  that  reason  some  have  no  mind  or  inclina- 
tion to  come  hither,  and  who  shall  maintaine  this  your  cause  or 
plaid  for  it?  Truely  we  can  not  do  so,  except  you  shall  inform  us 
better  hereoff,  viz :  that  christians  have  liberty  to  practise  this 
things.  Pray !  What  thing  in  the  world  can  be  done  worse  towards 
us,  then  if  men  should  robb  or  steal  us  away,  &  sell  us  for  slaves  to 
strange  Countries,  separating  housband[s]  from  their  wifes  &  chil- 
dren. Being  now  this  is  not  done  at  that  manner,  we  will  be  done  at, 
therefore  we  contradict  &  are  against  this  trafifick  of  menbody.  And 
we  who  profess  that  it  is  not  lawfull  to  steal,  must  lickewise  avoid  to 
purchase  such  things  as  are  stollen,  but  rather  help  to  stop  this  rob- 
bing and  stealing  if  possible;  and  such  men  ought  to  be  delivered  out 

Warburg  in  Westphalia,  About  1650. 
( By  the  Courtesy  of  Fritz  Quick,  of  Warburg. ) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  189 

of  y®  hands  of  y*^  Robbers  &  and  sett  free  as  well  as  in  Europe.  Then 
is  Pennsilvania  to  have  a  good  report,  instead  it  hath  now  a  bad  one 
for  this  sacke  in  other  Countries.  Especially  whereas  y®  Europeans 
are  desirous  to  know  in  what  manner  y*^  Quackers  doe  rule  in  their 
Province;  &  most  of  them  doe  loock  upon  us  with  an  envious  eye. 
But  if  this  is  done  well,  what  shall  we  say  is  done  evill  ? 

If  once  these  slaves,  (  iw*^^  they  say  are  so  wicked  and  stubbern 
men:)  should  joint  themselves,  fight  for  their  freedom  and  handel 
their  masters  &  mastrisses  as  they  did  handel  them  before ;  will  these 
Masters  and  mastrisses  tacke  the  sword  at  hand  &  warr  against  these 
poor  slaves,  licke  we  are  able  to  belive,  some  will  not  refuse  to  doe? 
Or  have  these  Negers  not  as  much  right  to  fight  for  their  freedom, 
as  you  have  to  keep  them  slaves  ? 

Now  consider  well  this  thing,  if  it  is  good  or  bad?  and  in  case 
you  find  it  to  be  good  to  handel  these  blacks  at  that  manner,  we 
desire  &  require  you  hereby  lovingly,  that  you  may  informe  us  here 
in,  which  at  this  time  never  was  done,  viz.,  that  Christians  have  such 
a  liberty  to  do  so.  to  the  end  we  shall  be  satisfied  in  this  point,  & 
satisfie  licke  wise  our  good  friends  &  acquaintances  in  our  natif 
Country,  to  whose  it  is  a  terrour  or  fairfull  thing  that  men  should 
be  handeld  so  in  Pensilvania. 

This  is  from  our  Meeting  at  Germantown  held  y^  18.  of  the  2. 
month  1688.  to  be  delivred  to  the  Monthly  Meeting  at  Richard 

gerret  hendericks 
derick  op  de  graefif 
Francis  Daniell  Pastorius 
Abraham  op  Den  graef. 

At  our  monthly  meeting  at  Dublin,  ^'^  30 — 2  mo:  1688  we 
having  inspected  y®  matter  above  mentioned  &  considered  of  it,  we 
finde  it  so  weighty  that  we  think  it  not  Expedient  for  vs  to  meddle 
with  it  here,  but  do  Rather  comit  it  to  y®  consideration  of  y®  Quar- 
terly meeting;  y^  tennor  of  it  being  nearly  Related  to  y®  truth. 
On  behalfe  of  y®  monthly  meeting. 
Signed,  P  Jo :  Hart. 

This,  above  mentioned  was  read  in  our  quarterly  meetting  at 
Philadelphia,  the  4  of  y®  4th  mo  88  and  was  from  thence  recom- 
mended to  the  Yearly  Meetting  and  the  abovesaid  Derick  and  the 
other  two  mentioned  therein  to  present  the  same  to  y®  Abovesaid 
meetting  it  being  a  thing  of  too  great  A  weight  for  this  meeting  to 

Signed  by  order  of  y®  meetting 

Anthony  Morris. 

190  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Minute  of  Burlington  Yearly  Meeting  Minute  on  the  above  Protest: 

At  a  Yearly  Meeting  held  at  Burlington  the  5th  day  of  the  7th 
month,  1688. 

A  Paper  being  here  presented  by  some  German  Friends  Con- 
cerning the  Lawfulness  and  Unlawfulness  of  Buying  and  keeping 
Negroes,  It  was  adjudged  not  to  be  so  proper  for  this  Meeting  to 
give  a  Positive  Judgment  in  the  Case,  It  having  so  General  a  Relation 
to  many  other  Parts,  and  therefore  at  present  they  forbear  It. 


The  Generall  Court  Book  |  of  the  Corporation  of  |  Germantown. 
I  Oder  I  Raths-Buch  |  der  Germantownischen  Gemeinde,  j 
angefangen  den  2  ten  tag  des  4  ten  Monats  Anno  1691. 

The  MS.  is  8  3-16x12  11-16  inches  in  size  and  contains: 

1.  The  Raths-Buch,  ■^^.  1-32. 

2.  Alphabet  to  Book  I,  Vol.  5,  7  pp. 

3.  An  old  plot  of  survey. 

4-  79  PP-  (unnumbered  and  all  blank  except  two). 

This  MS.  of  the  Raths-Buch  is  evidently  the  original  minutes 
of  the  General  Court  of  Germantown,as  the  entries  are  in  different 
hands.  Three  different  languages — German,  Dutch,  English — 
are  used  in  various  parts  of  the  record.  The  Raths-Buch  is  a 
most  valuable  document  for  the  history  of  the  German  language 
in  America,  inasmuch  as  it  shows  that  the  speech  mixture,  so 
familiar  in  the  later  day  American  German,  especially  the  Penn- 
sylvania German,  began  with  the  pioneers  almost  immediately 
after  their  arrival. 


Lex  Pennsylvaniensis  |  in  Compedium  |  redacta. :  |  h.  e.  |  The 
Great  Law  of  Penn-  |  silvania — abridged,  |  for  the  particular 
use  of  I  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius.  |  Salus  Populi  Suprema  Lex 



Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  191 

A  manuscript  5/^x8  1-16  inches  in  size,  containing: 

Title  page,  i  p. 

Index,  6  pp. 

Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  beginning  with  No.  20  (Laws  1-19 
are  wanting),  22  pp. 

Blank  2  pp. 

The  laws  in  this  part  are  briefly  abstracted  for  ready  refer- 
ence in  practice. 


Leges  Pennsilvanianae  |  h :  e :  |  The  great  Law  of  the  |  Province 

I  of  I  Penn  Silvania.  | Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

his  Book  I     .    .    .     1690    .... 


The  size  of  this  manuscript  is  6x7^  inches.     The  contents 

Title  page,  i  p.     (See  photographic  reproduction.) 

Entry  of  the  dates  on  which  the  laws  were  enacted,  p.  2. 

The  full  text  of  the  laws,  pp.  3-82. 

Blank,  4  pp. 

Index,  3  pp. 

Blank,  7  pp. 


1.  Copia  des  Germantownischen  Charters.  | 

2.  Gesetz,  Ordnungen  und  Statuten  der  Gemeinden  ^^  |  zu 
Germantown,  in  denen  daselbstigen  generalen  |  Raths  Ver- 
samblungen  von  Zeit  zu  Zeit  gemacht  |  und  publicirt  |  ^^ 

antecedent  to 

The  Laws  of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania 
the  sd  Charter  &  By-Laws  .  | 

The  manuscript  measures  6  3-16  (6}i)xy}^  inches  and  con- 
tains 28  pages  in  all.  It  was  originally  bound  in  rough  black 
pasteboard,  which  is  still  preserved. 

All  three  of  these  MSS.  are  now  bound  up  together  in  the 
order  here  given,  and  found  in  the  Historical  Society  of  Penn- 
sylvania.     As  the  title  page  shows  the  Leges  PennsilvaniancB 

Written  "Geineind"  in  title  to  the  section  containing  the  text. 
"  Replaced  by  "verfertigt"   in  the  title  before  the  text. 

192  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

codex  is  the  oldest  of  the  three.  It  is  probable  that  the  third  codex, 
containing  the  Gesetz,  Ordmingcn  nnd  Statuten  of  Germantown, 
are  of  equally  early  date,  although  transferred  later  to  this  MS. 

Grund-  und   Lager-Buch    |    aller  and   jeden   unbeweglichen 
Gliter,  |  geklart-  und  ungeklarten  |  Landes,  |  in  der  gantzen 
German  Township  |  Durch  Ordre  Einer  daselbstigen  Generalen 
Court  I  angefangen  |  von  |  Francisco  Daniele  Pastorio 

The  book  is  a  large  MS.  folio,  11 3^  x  18  inches,  and  has 
the  following  contents : 

Title  page,  i  page  unnumbered ;  Ansprach  an  die  Nachkom- 
lingschafift,  &c.,  i  unnumbered  page;  Copia  des  Patents  oder 
Grund-Brieffs  iiber  die  gesamte  Germantownship,  p.  i  ;  Number 
of  acres  bought  by  original  purchasers  and  number  of  acres  in 
the  four  towns,  Germantown,  Kriessheim,  Sommerhausen,  Cre- 
feld,  p.  2 ;  List  of  original  purchases,  p.  3 ;  Purchases  in  Kriess- 
heim, p.  4 ;  Purchases  in  Sommerhausen.  p.  5  ;  Purchases  in  Cre- 
feld  (no  names  entered),  p.  6;  Blank,  pp.  7-10;  Die  Franckfur- 
tische  Compagnie  (no  entries),  p.  11;  Blank,  12-42  (4  pp.  less 
than  numbering  calls  for);  Jacob  Tellner  (no  entry),  p.  43; 
Blank,  pp.  44-48 ;  Power  of  Attorney  of  Johan  Stripers  and  his 
wife,  p.  50;  Blank,  pp.  51-54  (2  pp.  wanting);  Dirck  Lipman, 
ein  Erster  Kaiiffer  (no  entry),  p.  55;  Blank,  pp.  56-60;  Govert 
Remkins,  ein  Erster  Kaiiffer  (no  entry),  p.  61  ;  Blank  pp.  62- 
64 ;  Lenert  Arets,  ein  Erster  Kaiiffer,  p.  65 ;  Blank,  pp.  66-70 ; 
Jacob  Jsaacs,  ein  Erster  Kaiiffer  (no  entry),  p.  71  ;  Blank,  pp. 
72-76  (2  pp.  wanting);  Franz  Daniel  Pastorius  (no  entry),  p. 
yj;  Blank,  pp.  78-80  (81-82  wanting);  Georg  Hartzfelder  (no 
entry),  p.  83;  Blank,  pp.  84-86;  Peter  Keiirlis  (no  entry),  p.  87-, 
Blank,  pp.  88-90;  Tiines  Kunders  (no  entry),  p.  91  ;  Blank,  pp. 
92-94;  Jan  Lensen  (two  documents),  p.  95;  Blank,  pp.  96-98; 
Reinert  Tisen  (five  documents),  pp.  99-100;  Blank,  pp.  1 01 -104; 
Jan  Liicken  (one  document),  p.  105;  Blank,  pp.  1 06-1 10  (iii- 
112  wanting) ;  Gerhard  Henrichs  (no  entry),  p.  113;  Blank,  pp. 


3u  2<CO?®^€9J'©2i53}?/ 

Title  Page  of  Pastorius'  "  Missive  to  tiik  Piktists 

IN  Germany  ". 
(By  the  Courtesy  of  Dr.  Julius  F.  Sachse,  of  I'hiladelphia. ) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  193 

1 1 4-1 18;  David  Scherckges  (no  entry),  p.  119;  Shoemaker 
document,  p.  120;  Blank,  pp.  121-122;  Wolter  Simens  (no  en- 
try), p.  123;  Blank,  pp.  124-126;  Dirck  Kolck  (no  entry),  p.  127; 
Blank,  pp.  128-130;  Wigart  Levering  (no  entry),  p.  131  ;  Blank, 
p.  132;  Herman  von  Bon  (no  entry),  p.  133;  Blank,  p.  134; 
Gerhard  Levering  (no  entry),  p.  135;  Blank,  pp.  136-138;  Hen- 
rich  Sellen  (no  entry),  p.  139;  Blank,  pp.  140-142;  Jsaack 
Schefer  (no  entry),  p.  143;  Blank,  pp.  144-146  (147-148  want- 
ing); Heinrich  Buchholtz  (no  entry),  p.  149;  Blank,  pp.  150- 
152;  Cornelis  Bom  (no  entry),  p.  153;  Blank,  pp.  154-156  (157- 
158  wanting);  Isaac  Dilbeeck,  pp.  159-160  (two  documents); 
Blank,  pp.  161-162;  Efiecke  Klostermans  (two  documents),  p. 
163;  Blank,  pp.  164-166;  Jan  Doeden  (no  entry),  p.  167;  Blank, 
pp.  168-170;  Andres  Souplis  (no  entry),  p.  171 ;  Blank,  pp.  172- 
174;  Willem  Riittinghusen  (no  entry),  p.  175;  Blank,  pp.  176- 
178;  Claus  Riittinghusen  (no  entry),  p.  179;  Blank,  pp.  180- 
182;  Dirck  Keyser  (no  entry),  p.  183;  Blank,  pp.  184-186;  Wil- 
lem Strepers  (four  documents),  pp.  187-189;  Blank,  p.  190; 
Dirck  op  de  Graeff  (no  entry),  p.  191  ;  Blank,  pp.  192-194;  Her- 
man op  de  Graeff  (one  document),  p.  195;  Blank,  p.  196;  Five 
op  den  Graaff  documents  and  memorandum,  p.  197;  Herman 
Dors  document,  p.  198;  Abraham  op  de  Graeff  (one  document), 
p.  19;  Blank,  pp.  200-201;  George  Walker  (one  document),  p. 
202;  Jan  Simens  (one  document),  p.  203;  William  Strepers 
document,  p.  204;  Blank,  pp.  205-206;  Paul  Wulff,  pp.  207-210 
(five  documents);  Johannes  Bleickers,  pp.  211-212  (two  docu- 
ments); Blank,  pp.  213-214;  Jacob  Schumacher  (no  entry),  p. 
215;  Blank,  p.  216-218;  Heifert  Papen  (double  document),  pp. 
219-220;  Blank,  pp.  221-222;  Jacob  Jansen  Kliimges  (no  en- 
try), p.  223;  Blank,  pp.  224-226;  Cornelis  Sjoerts  (no  entry), 
p.  227;  Blank,  pp.  228-230;  Hans  Peter  Umstat  (no  entry),  p. 
231;  Blank,  pp.  232-234;  Peter  Schumacher  (four  documents), 
pp.  235-236;  Blank,  pp.  237-238  (239-240  wanting);  Claus 
Tamson  (one  document),  p.  241;  Blank,  pp.  242-244;  Hanns 
Milan  (no  entry),  p.  245;  Blank,  pp.  246-248;  Henrich  Frey 
(no  entry),  p.  249;  Blank,  pp.  250-252;  Johannes  Kassel  and 

194  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Arnold  Cassel  (four  documents),  pp.  253-254;  Blank,  pp.  255- 
258;  Aret  Klincken  (three  documents),  pp.  259-260;  Blank,  pp. 
261-262;  John  Silans  (three  documents),  p.  263;  Blank,  pp.  264- 
266;  Reinier  Hermans  (no  entry),  p.  267;  Blank  (268-269 
wanting),  pp.  270-272;  Henrich  Sellen  (no  entry),  p.  273; 
Blank,  pp.  274-276;  Dirck  Sellen  (one  document),  p.  277;  Blank, 
pp.  278-281;  Gerard  Riittinghousen  (one  document),  p.  282; 
Blank,  pp.  283-288;  Willjam  Streper's  document  and  Matthias 
van  Bebber  document,  p.  289 ;  Blank,  pp.  290-304 ;  William  Strep- 
ers  document  and  Matthias  van  Bebber  document,  pp.  305-306; 
Blank,  pp.  307-323;  Thomas  Tresse  (one  document),  p.  324; 
Blank,  pp.  325-338  (2  pp.  numbered  328)  ;  William  Streepers 
(three  documents),  pp.  239-241;  Blank,  pp.  342-344;  Abraham 
Tonnis  (one  document),  pp.  345-346;  Blank,  pp.  347-368;  Jn 
het  Lands  van  Crefelt  (one  document),  p.  369;  Blank,  pp.  370- 
380;  [Index],  2  unnumbered  pages  and  i  blank  page. 

The  Grund  und  Lager-Buch  is  in  a  sense  the  most  national 
book  indited  by  Pastorius,  inasmuch  as  it  is  addressed  to  the 
German  people  in  America  and  their  descendants.  It  is  also 
from  the  literary  point  of  view  the  most  interesting  document 
emanating  from  him  alone  because  the  Latin  "Address  to  Pos- 
terity" has  become  immortalized  as  classical  in  English  Amer- 
ican literature  by  the  Quaker  poet  Whittier,  in  his  Pennsylvania 
Pilgrim.  The  Latin  and  German  addresses  are  given  here  both 
in  the  original  and  in  English  translation,  as  well  as  in  the  photo- 
graphic reproduction. 

"Ansprach  an  die  Nachkomlingschaft,  und  Alle,  die  dieses 
Lager-Buch  continuiren  oder  fortsetzen. 

Wehrte  und  Geliebte  Nachkomlinge!  Damit  Jhr  zu  alien 
Zeiten  wissen  moget,  von  weme,  wann,  wie  undt  warumb  die  so  ge- 
nannte  Germantownship  sey  angefangen  worden ;  und  also  Eurer 
Vor-  Eltern  ursprung  merckliche  ungemachligkeiten  und  wohlmein- 
endliche  Jntention  Euch  kiirtzlich  entdecket  werde,  habe  ich  allhier 
Vorredsweis  was  weniges  darvon  bey  zu  fiigen  meiner  Schuldigkeit 
zu  seyn  erachtet.  Anfanglich  nun  Nachdem  Carolus,  dieses  Nahmens 
der  Zweyte,  Konig  von  Engelland,  durch  sonderbahre  Schickung  des 
Allerhochsten  und  aus  erheblichen  ursachenhiesigeLandschafftPenn- 
silvanien  an  Willjam-Penn  und  seine  Erben,  krafft  offenen  brieffs 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 


de  dato  den  4ten  Martij  1680.,  iibergebcn  und  abgetretten  hatte,  sind 
nebenst  andern  auch  einige  Pcrsonen  in  Hoch-  und  Nieder  Teutsch- 
land  (  :deren  Nahmen  in  dem  allgemeinen  Patent  oder  Grundbrieff 
uber  diese  Gcrmantovvnship  p.  i.  zu  ersehen:)  bewogen  worden,  in 
allem  43000.  Acker  lands  in  gemeldter  Provinz  Pennsilvanien  von 
gedm  Willjam  Penn,  vermittelst  Benjamin  Furly,  dessen  gevollmach- 
t^igten  zu  Rotterdam  in  Holland,  an  sicb  zu  kauffen,  der  zuverlassigen 
/^bsicht,  bey  damahligen  schweren  laiifften  sowohl  selbst  aus  dem 
verwirrten  Europa  anhero  [ :  als  in  ein  zweytes  Pellam:]  zu  entflihcn, 
wie  nicht  mmder  andere  redliche  und  arbeitsame  leut  zu  transportiren 
umb    allhier    unter    mehrerwehnten    Willjam    Penns    verhoffentlich 
gerechten  und  liebreichen  Regierung  ein  friedsam,  still  und  Gottge- 
falhges  Leben  zu  fiihren.    Anno  1683.  den  2ten  tag  des  2ten  Monats 
(  :Apnlis :)  begab  ich  Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius  mich  (  :gleicli  ein  Vor- 
lauffer  vermuthlich  vieler  nachfolgenden  ehrlichen  lands  leute:)  auff 
den  weg,  und  arrivirte  den  20ten  des  6ten  Monats  (  :Augusti:)  mit 
cthchen  kncchten  und  magden  Gott  lob !  f risch  und  gesund  zu  Phila- 
delphia. Bald  darauff  nembl.  den  6ten  des  8ten  Monats  (  :  Octobris  •) 
kamen    eben falls  in    besagtem    Philada.    an    Dirck-    und    Herman- 
und  Abraham  Jsaacs  op  den  Grasff,  Lenert  Arets,  Tiines  Kunders 
Remert  Tisen,  Willhelm  Strepers,  Jan  Lensen,  Peter  Keurlis    Jan 
Smiens  Johanes  Bleickers.  Abraham  Tunes  und  Jan  Liicken,  mit 
dero  respective  Weibern,  Kindern  und  gesind,  zusamen  13.  Fami- 
hen.    Da  wir  dann  ungesaiimt  von  Willjam  Penn  begehrten,  dass  Er 
das  samtliche  von  obgedn  Hoch-  und  Nieder  Teutschen  erkauffte 
Land  an  einem  stiick,  und  zwar  bey  einem  schiffbaren  Strom,  solte 
auslegen   und  abmessen   lassen.     Dieweilen  Er  aber  uns   hierinnen 
nicht    willfahren    kunnte,    sondern    bisz    zu    iiberkunfft    mehrerer 
Hausgesinde  eine  Township  unfern  dem  Philadelphischen  Stattgebiet 
ethche  meil  oberhalb  des  Scullkill  Falls,  anprasentirte,  haben  wir 
sothanen   Landstrich  besichtiget  und   demnach  derselbe  uns   seiner 
hohen  geburg  halber  nicht  anstandig,  von  oftgem.     Willjam  Penn 
versucht,  die  Township  lieber  buschwarts  ein  auff  ebenern  grund  zu 
zustehen ;  dessen  Er  wohl  zufrieden,  und  darauff  den  24  ten  Octobris 
durch  Thomas  Fairman   14.   losen  oder  Erbe  abmessen  liesz    umb 
welche  oberwehnte  13.  Familien  den  25ten  dito  durch  Zettul  das  los 
zogen,  und  sofort  anfiengen  Keller  und  Hiitten  zu  machen,  worinnen 
si^  den  Winter  nicht  sonder  grosse  beschwerligkeit  zubrachten. 

"Den  Ort  nennten  wir  Gcrmantown,  welches  der  Teutschen  item 
Briider  Statt  bedeutet ;  Etliche  gaben  ihm  den  bey  Nahmen  Armen 
Town,  sindemahl  viel  der  vorgedn.  ersten  beginere  sich  nicht  einst 
auff  etliche  wochcn,  zu  gcschweigen  Monaten,  provisioniren  kunntcn. 
Und  mag  wcder  gcnug  bcschrieben,  noch  von  denen  vermoglichern 
Nachkomlingen  geglaubt  werdcn,  in  was  Mangel  und  Armuth,  anbey 
mit  welch  einer  Christn.   Vergnugligkeit  und  unermudctem  Fleiss 

196  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

diese  German  Townsliip  begunen  scy ;  da  daii  mehrgemn.  Willjam 
Penns  offtmaliger  durchdringender  Anmuthigung  und  wiirklichen 
assistenz  nicht  zu  vergessen ;  wie  auch,  dasz,  als  Er  nacher  Engelland 
abgesegelt.  gegen  das  Vorjahr  einigen  der  Einwohner  ihr  muth  so 
gar  entfallen,  dass  sie  anders  wohin  verhausen  wolten ;  welches  doch 
auff  der  bestandigern  Zusprach  unterblieben  ist,  imd  Sie  anjetzo 
beederseits  ursach  haben,  Gottes  vatterliche  Giite  und  Vorsorg  dank- 
barlich  zu  riihmen. 

"Anno  1684,  den  20ten  und  folgende  tag  des  I2ten  Monats 
(  :Februar:)  wurde  von  gedm.  Thomas  Fairman  der  umbkreisz  der 
German  township,  nembUch  nach  Jnnhalt  des  von  Willjam  Penn  er- 
theilten,  und  ins  general  landmesser  Amt  eingelieferten,  warrants, 
6000.  Ackers  abgemessen,  kurtz  darnach  aber  durch  dessen  ordre 
(  :  unerachtet  wz  wir  dagegen  einwenden  kunnten:)  1000.  ackers 
darvon,  langs  der  Scullkillseite,  wieder  abgeschnitten ;  wobey  es  also 
verblieben,  bisz  Anno  1687.  den  29.  Decembris  diese  unsre  Gemian- 
township  zum  andern  mahl  von  Thomas  Fairman,  und  zwar  mit 
accurater  sorgfalt.  gemessen,  und  darinnen  5700.  acker  lands  be- 
funden  worden,  iiber  welche  wir  das  auff  folgender  Seite  abcopirte 
Patent  oder  Grundbrieff  genomen  haben. 

"Ferner  wurden  zu  selbiger  Zeit  alien  und  Jeden  Einwohnern 
zu  Germantown  ihre  gantze  und  halbe  losen  in  richtiger  Ordnung 
zugemessen,  wie  aus  dem  draught  oder  Abriss  und  gegenwartigem 
buch,  clarer  erhellet;  Nembl :  2750.  ackers.  Anno  1689.  den  4ten  des 
2ten  Monats  (:Aprilis:)  haben  die  Kaiiffer  und  Erbpachts  lent, 
denen  die  iibrige  2950.  ackers  der  Germantownship  zubehoren, 
dieselbe  durchs  los  unter  sich  in  drey  absonderliche  Dorffsschafften 
vertheilt;  und  Anno  1690.  den  I4ten  des  Xlten  Monats  (  Januarii:) 
von  Thomas  Fairman  die  Durchschnitt  dardurch  thun  lassen ;  den 
vordersten  an  Germantown  anstossenden  Theil  Kriszheim ;  den  Mit- 
telsten  ( :von  meiner  geburts  statt:)  Sommerhausen ;  und  den  hin- 
dersten  Crefeld  benahmset;  wie  p.  2.  umbstandlicher  ausweiset. 

"Hierbey  ist  gelegentlich  zu  erinnern,  dasz  wir  die  Urheber 
dieses  Wercks,  wegen  ermanglender  sattsamer  experienz  in  solcherley 
sachen,  vieles  gethan  haben,  das  wir  hemach  theils  selbst  andern, 
theils  der  kliigern  Nachfahren  Verbesserung  anbefehlen,  miissen. 
Daii  in  ansehung  der  beschwerlichen  Ausrottung  des  holtzes  &c. 
haben  wir  anfangl :  die  Erb  oder  Losen  nur  7.  ruthen  breit  ausgelegt ; 
jedoch  nachgehends.  da  mit  dergleichen  harten  arbeit  was  beszer  ge- 
wehren  kunnten,  dieselbe  um  andere  7.  ruthen  und  4.  Fuss  erweitert. 
Auch  war  unser  ersteres  Vornehmen,  es  bey  25.  losen  bewenden  zu 
lassen ;  weszhalben  wir  dann  vor  dem  sechsten  Erb  auff  der  West- 
seite  (  :  als  neben  einer  Zwerchstrasz,  und  inmitten  des  Orts:)  einen 
acker  zum  Marck-  und  begrabnisz  platz,  auch  zu  gemeinen  Gebaiien 
vorbehalten  haben.  Dieweilen  aber  verschiedene,  beedes  gewesene 
Dienstboten  und  aus  Teutschland  uberkomende,  gern  bey  uns  zu 


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'-  V    •  ■^.-"n&f"'^-  '  ■ '- — "•*.....■' a"  - — ■  "■*  -*• 

Oldest  Title  Page  of  Pastorius'  Copy  of  the  "Laws  of 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  197 

Germantown  bleiben  unci  wohnen  wolten,  vergrosserten  wir  die 
anzahl  der  losen  auf  55.  Jngleichen  hatte  unserer  Jntention  nach  die 
lange  strasz  in  einer  geraden  Nord  West  linj  durch  gantz  German- 
town  lauffen  und  die  zwerchstraszen  recht  gegen  einander  iiber  und 
von  einerley  Weite  seyn  sollen ;  welches  doch  die  darzwischen  fal- 
lende  Siimpff  und  unbeqvemheiten ;  haubtsachl :  aber  die  mit  dem 
Volk  anwachsende  diversitat  der  Sinnen  und  andere  dergestaltige 
umbstande  verhindert  haben. 

Zum  beschlusz  mag  ich  wohl  mit  einem  angehenckten  NB. 
denen  Nachkomlingen  zu  wissen  fiigen,  dasz  German  Towns  vor- 
nehmste  eusserliche  Auffnehmen  ( :  wo  fern  bereits  so  zu  reden  gezie- 
met:)  vom  Flachs  bau,  spinnen  und  weben  herriihre;  und  sonder 
Zweiffel  durch  dieses  Kraiitlein  auch  hinfiiro  die  Armuth  und  Diirff- 
tigkeit  noch  vieler  curirt  werden  konne;  weshalben  dan  daszelbe  mit 
gebiihrlichem  Fleiss  zu  saen  und  wahr  zu  nehmen  ist. 

"Hiermit  nun  abbrechende,  wiinsche  ich  von  hertzen,  dasz  die 
leider !  schon  all  zu  viel  iiberthatige  Zwietracht  und  Uneinigkeit  aus 
der  Germantowner  hertzen  und  gemiithern  gantzlich  vertilgt  werde, 
sie  samtlich  aber,  alte  und  Junge,  grosse  und  kleine  in  wahrer  Liebe 
zu  Gott  und  ihrem  Neben  Menschen  fromm  und  gerecht  leben, 
gedultig  leiden,  selig  sterben,  und  so  in  die  Ewige  Ruh  u.  Herrligkeit 
eingehen  mogen !    Amen. 

Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius." 

"Salve  Posteritas! 

Posteritas  Germanopolitana ! 

et  ex  argumento  insequentis  paginse 

primitus  observa, 

Parentes  ac  Majores  Tuos 


dulce  Solum,  quod  eos  genuerat,  alueratq'  diu, 

voluntario  exilio 


[ :  oh  Patrios  Focos ! :] 

ut  in  silvosa  hac  Pennsilvania, 

deserta  Solitudine, 

minus  Soliciti 

residuum    ^tatis 

Germane,  h.  e.  instar  Fratrum, 


Porro  etiam  inde  addiscas, 

Qvantffi  molis  erat, 

exantlato  jam  mari  Atlantico, 

in  Septentrionali  ist  hoc  Americae  tractu, 


condere  gentem. 

198  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 


Series  dilecta  Nepotum! 

ubi  fuimns  exemplar  honesti, 

nostrum  imitare  exemplum ; 

Sin  autem  a  semita  tam  difficili  aberravimus, 

Quod  paenitenter  agnoscitur, 

ignosce ; 

Et  sic  te  faciant  aliena  pericula  Cautam. 

Vale  Posteritas! 

Vale  Germanitas ! 

Aetemum  Vale! 

F.  D.  P." 
Address  to  posterity  and  all  who  shall  continue  or  keep  up 
this  Land  Record. 

Dear  and  Beloved  Successors.  In  order  that  you  may 
know  at  all  times  by  whom,  when,  how,  and  why  the  so-called 
Germantownship  was  begun  and  that  the  origin,  noteworthy 
hardships  and  well-meaning  purpose  of  your  forefathers  may  be 
briefly  disclosed  to  you,  I  have  considered  it  my  duty  to  add  a  lit- 
tle about  it  here  by  way  of  preface.  In  the  beginning,  then,  after 
Charles,  King  of  England,  the  second  of  this  name,  by  the  special 
Providence  of  the  Most  High  and  for  weighty  considerations  had 
granted  and  ceded  to  William  Penn  and  his  heirs  the  Province  of 
Pennsylvania  in  a  public  charter  dated  March  4th,  1680,  a  number 
of  persons  in  High  and  Low  Germany  (whose  names  may  be  seen 
in  the  general  patent  or  grant  of  this  Germantownship  p.  i)  among 
others  were  led  to  purchase  of  the  said  William  Penn  through  Ben- 
jamin Furly  his  plenipotentiary  at  Rotterdam  in  Holland  43000 
acres  of  land  in  all  in  the  above  mentioned  Province  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, with  the  confident  expectation  that  by  fleeing  hither  from 
Europe,  as  it  were  into  a  second  Pellam,  we  might  escape  the  dis- 
turbances and  oppressions  of  that  time,  and,  likewise  transport 
other  honest  and  industrious  people  in  order  that  we  might  lead  a 
quiet,  peaceful,  Godly  life  under  the  rule  of  the  oft-mentioned  Wil- 
liam Penn,  which  it  is  hoped,  will  be  just  and  benign.  On  the  sec- 
ond day  of  the  second  month  (April)  1683,  I,  Francis  Daniel  Pas- 
torius (a  forerunner  presumably  of  many  honest  countrymen  who 
are  to  follow),  began  the  journey  and  arrived  the  20th  of  the  sixth 
month  (August)  with  a  nvmiber  of  hired  men  and  maids,  God  be 
praised,  safe  and  sound,  in  Philadelphia.  Soon  afterwards,  viz.  on 
the  6th  of  the  eighth  month  (October)  arrived  likewise  in  Phila- 
delphia Dirck  and  Herman  and  Abraham  Isaacs  op  den  Graeff, 
Lenert  Arets,  Tiines  Kunders,  Reinert  Tisen,  Wilhelm  Strepers, 
Jan  Lensen,  Peter  Keurlis,  Jan  Simens,  Johanes  Bleickers,  Abra- 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  199 

ham  Tiines,  and  Jan  Liicken,  with  their  respective  wives,  children, 
and  servants,  together  thirteen  families,  when  we  without  delay 
requested  of  William  Penn  that  he  should  have  laid  out  and  sur- 
veyed in  one  tract  on  a  navigable  stream  all  the  land  bought  by  the 
above  mentioned  High  and  Low  Germans. 

Inasmuch  as  he  could  not  acceed  to  our  wishes  in  this  matter, 
but  offered  a  township  some  miles  above  the  Falls  of  the  Schuyl- 
kill not  far  from  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  awaiting  the  arrival  of  a 
number  of  families,  we  examined  the  land,  and,  as  it  was  not  suit- 
able for  us  because  of  its  high  hills,  we  requested  William  Penn 
that  he  grant  us  the  township  on  more  level  ground  in  the  wooded 
region,  to  which  he  agreed  and  afterwards  on  the  24th  of  October 
had  fourteen  lots  or  hereditary  shares,  surveyed  by  Thomas  Fair- 
man,  for  which  the  above  mentioned  thirteen  families  drew  lots  on 
the  25th  of  the  same  month,  and  began  forthwith  to  construct  cel- 
lars and  houses,  in  which  they  spent  the  winter,  not  without  great 

We  called  the  place  Germantown,  which  signifies  likewise  the 
city  of  Germans  and  the  city  of  Brothers;  some  gave  it  the  name 
Armentown  (Poortown)  because  many  of  the  aforesaid  settlers 
could  not  procure  themselves  provision  for  even  a  few  weeks  much 
less  months.  And  it  cannot  be  adequately  described  nor  believed 
by  the  more  prosperous  decendents,  in  what  want  and  poverty,  but 
at  the  same  time  with  what  Christian  contentment  and  unwearied 
industry  this  Germantown  was  begun. 

Therefore,  the  frequent  earnest  encouragement  and  actual  as- 
sistance of  William  Penn,  who  has  often  been  mentioned,  are  not  to 
be  forgotten ;  also  the  fact  that  when  he  had  sailed  to  England,  and 
the  courage  of  some  of  the  inhabitants  had  failed  at  the  thought 
of  the  previous  year,  so  that  they  wished  to  take  up  their  abode  else- 
where, which  however  was  prevented  by  his  continued  encourage- 
ment ;  and  you  now  have  reason  on  both  accounts  to  gratefully 
praise  the  fatherly  goodness  and  care  of  God. 

Anno  1684,  the  20th  and  following  days  of  the  12th  month 
(February)  the  tract  of  the  German  township  viz.,  6000  acres  ac- 
cording to  the  purport  of  the  warrant  issued  by  William  Penn  and 
delivered  to  the  Surveyor  General's  office,  was  surveyed ;  but  shortly 
afterwards  by  his  order  1000  acres  of  it  along  the  Schuylkill  were 
again  cut  ofif  (regardless  of  what  we  could  say  against  it).  Thus 
it  remained  until  this  our  German  township  was  again  surveyed  a 
second  time  by  Thomas  Fairman  on  the  29th  of  December,  and  this 
time  with  scrupulous  accuracy  and  found  to  contain  5700  acres  of 
land  for  which  we  have  taken  out  the  patent  or  land  charter  copied 
on  the  next  page. 

200  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Moreover,  at  the  same  time  the  whole  and  half  lots  were  sur- 
veyed in  proper  order  to  the  inhabitants  of  Germantown,  all  and 
singly,  as  may  be  seen  more  clearly  from  the  draft  or  chart  and 
this  book,  namely,  2750  acres.  On  the  4th  of  the  second  month 
(April)  1689,  the  purchasers  and  hereditary  tenants  to  whom  the 
remaining  2950  acres  of  the  German  township  belong,  distributed  this 
land  among  themselves,  by  lot,  into  three  separate  villages,  and, 
on  the  14th  of  the  nth  month  (January)  1690,  had  it  laid  off  by 
Thomas  Fairman,  and  called  the  nearest  portion,  adjoining  Ger- 
mantown, Krissheim,  the  middle  portion  Somerhausen,  after  my 
native  city,  and  the  farthest  portion  Crefeld,  as  is  shown  more  in 
detail  on  page  2.  In  this  connection  it  is  to  be  incidentally  remem- 
bered that  we,  the  beginners  in  this  work,  because  of  the  lack  of 
sufficient  experience  in  such  things,  have  done  many  things  which 
we  afterwards  must  ourselves  change  or  recommend  to  our  wiser 
successors  for  improvement.  For  because  of  the  difficult  clearing 
of  the  woodland,  etc.,  we  laid  out  in  the  beginning  only  seven-rod 
tracts  or  lots,  but  afterwards  when  we  were  able  to  get  along  better 
with  such  difficult  labor,  we  added  to  these  lots  seven  perches  and 
four  feet.  Then,  too,  our  first  intention  was  to  stop  with  25  lots ; 
accordingly,  we  then  reserved  an  acre  for  a  market  place,  a  grave- 
yard, and  also  for  commercial  buildings  on  the  west  side  in  front  of 
the  sixth  lot  by  a  cross  street  in  the  middle  of  the  town  ;  but  inasmuch 
as  a  number  of  former  servants  and  others  arriving  from  Ger- 
many wished  to  remain  and  live  with  us  in  Germantown,  we  in- 
creased the  number  of  lots  to  55.  In  like  manner,  it  was  our  in- 
tention that  the  long  street  was  to  run  in  a  straight  northwest  line 
through  the  entire  village  of  Germantown,  and  the  cross  streets 
directly  opposite  each  other  and  of  one  width,  which,  however,  the 
intervening  swamps  and  inconveniences,  but  chiefly  the  growing 
diversity  of  opinion  among  the  people,  prevented. 

In  conclusion,  I  may  properly  add  with  an  appended  N.  B., 
for  the  information  of  those  that  are  to  follow,  that  Germantown's 
most  prominent  external  prosperity,  so  far  as  it  is  befitting  to  speak 
of  such  at  this  early  stage,  is  due  to  flax  raising,  spinning,  and 
weaving,  and  doubtless  by  means  of  this  little  plant,  also  in  the 
future  the  poverty  and  want  of  many  can  yet  be  remedied,  and  for 
this  reason  it  should  be  sown  and  cared  for  with  becoming  indus- 
try. Closing  with  this,  I  wish  sincerely  that  the  dissention  and 
strife  which,  alas!  are  all  too  rife,  may  be  entirely  erased  from  the 
hearts  and  minds  of  the  people  of  Germantown,  and  that  they  all, 
old  and  young,  great  and  small,  may  live  piously  and  honestly  in 
true  love  to  God  and  their  neighbors,  suffer  in  patience,  die  happy, 
and  thus  enter  into  eternal  peace  and  glory.     Amen. 

Franz  Daniel  Pastorius. 

Umftdnbige  ©cogra^ 


©er  5u  allcrle^t  erfun^enen 





I    J. V.  Lie.  unt)5riet)cnfi>;3iict)(an 


\t  notable  §3eciet)cnf)eiten  /  mb 

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Unt)  ont)cccciutegrc«nt)c> 

SuiinOen  l^ei)  S(nDrt'a6  Otto.  2700. 

Title  Page  of  Pastorius'  "DESCRirnoN  ok  Pennsylvania,"   1700. 
(From  the  Copy  in  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  201 

"Hail  to  Posterity ! 
Hail  future  men  of  Germanopolis ! 

Let  the  young  generations  yet  to  be 
Look  kindly  upon  this. 
Think  how  your  fathers  left  their  native  land, — 

Dear  German  land !  O  sacret  hearths  and  homes ! — 
And  where  the  wild  beast  roams 

In  patience  planned 
New  forest  homes  beyond  the  mighty  sea, 

There  undisturbed  and  free 
To  live  as  brothers  of  one  family, 
What  pains  and  cares  befell. 
What  trials  and  what  fears, 
Remember,  and  wherein  we  have  done  well 

Follow  our  footsteps,  men  of  coming  years ! 
Where  we  have  failed  to  do 
Aright,  or  wisely  live. 
Be  warned  by  us,  the  better  way  pursue, 
And  knowing  we  were  human,  even  as  you. 
Pity  us  and  forgive ! 

Farewell,  Posterity! 
Farewell,  dear  Germany ! 
Forevermore  farewell ! 

F.  D.  P.^^a 

A  Record  |  of  Friends  Certificates  of  Marriage  |  belonging  to 
the  Monthly  Meeting  of  Philadelphia  1672. 

The  first  marriages  recorded  took  place  in  England.  The 
last  entry  in  Pastorius's  hand  is  dated  "15th,  4th,  1699."  The 
record  is  then  continued  in  another  hand. 

Although  the  range  of  Pastorius's  reading  in  English  litera- 
ture includes  the  Venerable  Bede  among  the  Church  Fathers,  and 
Chaucer  among  the  poets,  he  seems  to  have  known  nothing  of 
Shakespeare.  Indeed,  it  is  surprising  that  in  the  century  when 
English  comedians  had  made  a  deep  impression  upon  the  Ger- 
man stage,  including  in  their  repertoire  a  number  of  Shakes- 
peare's plays,  a  German  scholar  like  Pastorius,  who  had  himself 
been  in  England  in  the  early  eighties  of  that  same  century, 
should  not  once  mention  the  name  of  the  Bard  of  Avon.  This 
shows  how  little  the  personality  of  Shakespeare  meant  to  the 
Continent,  as  for  that  matter,  to  England  itself,  in  the  second 

'a  The  verses  are  from  Whittier's  Pennsylvania  Pilgrim. 

202  Francis  Daniel  Pastorins 

half  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  it  explains  the  dazzling  effect 
of  the  discovery  of  Shakespeare's  genius  in  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century  in  Germany. 

On  the  other  hand,  Pastorius  was  strongly  influenced  by  the 
religious  literature  of  England,  as  may  be  clearly  seen  from  the 
title  of  the  books  from  which  he  made  extracts  for  his  Beehive, 
and  from  the  works  mentioned  in  his  library,  as  well  as  from  the 
enormous  collection  of  Quakeriana  and  other  works  mentioned 
or  recommended  in  the  Beehive. 

The  poetic  technique  exhibited  in  his  poems  is  that  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  The  Alexandrine  is  perhaps  the  most 
prominent  form  of  verse  in  Pastorius's  serious  poems.  The  poems 
dedicated  to  the  daughters  of  Thomas  Lloyd  and  to  William 
Penn  and  others  are  written  for  the  most  part  in  Alexandrines. 

An  equally  frequent  form  is  the  "Knittelvers"  of  Hans 
Sachs.-"  Instead  of  the  rimed  couplets,  which  are  the  rule  in 
Hans  Sachs,  Pastorius  occasionally  continues  the  same  rime 
scheme  for  ten  or  more  verses,  as  in  the  poem  on  books.-^ 
Another  form  of  verse  quite  frequently  employed  is  the  four- 
stress  trochaic  verse  which  is  derived  from  the  mediaeval  Latin 
hymn.^^  In  addition  to  these  very  typical  forms  of  verse  Pas- 
torius employed  a  great  variety  of  shorter  verse-forms,  combining 
them  frequently  into  strophic  groups  of  unusual  rhythmical 
effect.  Even  the  antique  is  reflected  in  his  work,  but  he  seems  to 
have  preferred  for  his  own  thought  the  metrical  forms  of  the 
period  lying  closer  to  his  own  time.  There  is  little  evidence  that 
he  was  particularly  interested  in  the  content  of  the  writings  of 
either  the  First  or  Second  Silesian  School  of  Poets.  He  seems 
to  have  drawn  his  insipration,  like  Opitz  and  Fleming,  from 
earlier  sources. 

^  Cf.  The  poems  entitled:  Ziir  Zeit  der  Anno  1692  in  Pennsylvanien  ent- 
siandencn  Trennung..  (Printed  from  the  Beehive  in  Americana  Gerjnanica  I, 
4,  pp.    107-110.) 

^  Sylvula  Rhythmorum  Germanopolitanorum,  No.  35.  (Cf.  Americana 
Germanica  I,  4,  pp.   106-7.) 

°*Cf.  the  Latin  Epistle  addressed  to  Schumbergius.  (Cf.  S Uvula,  No. 
121  in  the  Beehive  and  also  F.  D.  P.  and  the  Beschreibung,) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  203 


A  complete  list  of  books  in  Pastorius'  library  is  preserved 
in  his  own  hand  and  is  here  printed : 

An  Manuscriptis  habe  ich 

In  Folio. 
I.     Alvearium  or  Alphabetical  Hive. 

In  Quarto. 

1.  Academische  Spaarstunden. 

2.  Miscellanea  Theologico-Moralia. 

3.  Exercit.  Arithmet. 

4.  Emblematical  Recreations. 

5.  Ein  dick  ungeschrieben  buch. 

6.  Young  Countrey-Clerk. 

7.  Confusanea  Geometriae. 

8.  Gramatical  Rudiments  of  the  Latin  Tongue. 

9.  Pen  syl vane.  Gesetz.     Item  Germantone.  Statutae. 

10.  Deliciae  hortenses  &  Voluptates  Apianae. 

11.  Anleitung  zur  Englischen  Sprach. 

12.  Poetica  Pastoriana. 

13.  Moral  Sayings  meeterly  Versified. 

14.  Johailis  Godtmanni  Speculum  Sapientiae. 

15.  W'"  Peiis  Schliiszel  von  mir  tibersetzt. 

16.  An  Omer  full  of  Mafia  for  my  Ship-mates. 

17.  Good  Counsel  for  bad  Lawyers  &  Attornies. 

18.  Vaticinium  de  Reditu  Guillielmi  Penni. 

19.  A  Compendium  of  Arithmetick. 

In  Octavo. 

1.  Meine  Reisbeschreibung  od  Jtinerarium. 

2.  Phraseologia  Teutonica. 

3.  Academischer   Spaar-Stunden   Vorlaufifer  od   Miscellanea 


4.  Liber  Epitaphiorum. 

5.  Artzney-  und  Kuntsbiichlein. 

^  An  earlier  and  slightly  variant  but  less  complete  list  is  found  in  the 
Beehive,  p.  386.  The  list  here  given  is  taken  from  the  Res  Propria;  which  is 
later  than  the  Beehive.  Seidensticker  (First  Century  of  German  Printing  in 
America)  printed  the  shorter  list. 


Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 















Rudimento  Linguae  Angl. 

Collections   Biblicae  oder  Theologica   Anglicana   in   grun 

Pergament  nebenst  vielen  andern,  so  uneingebunden. 
Melligo  Sententiarum  latine. 
Calendarium  Calendariorum. 
Angling  &  other  Tracts  of  Husbandry. 
The  Monthly  Monitor. 
Discipline  of  the  Church  of  Christ. 
Deliciae  hortenses  Germanopolitanae. 
Arithmetick  and  Copies. 
Apiarium  :oder  Bienen-biichlein. 
Onomastical  Considerations. 
Bernh.  Pet.  Karl's  Catechism  English'd  by  me. 
English  Rhymes,  twice. 

W'"  Pens  Friichte  der  Einsamk,  von  mir  verteutscht. 
Private  Annotations. 
A  Fascicle  of  Several  Mens  Mscripts. 
J  Saml.  Pastorius  his  Cherry  harvest  of  Arithmet. 

In  Duodecimo. 

1.  Law-Terms  added  to  the  Compleat  Justice. 

2.  Additamenta  ad  Fene's  Gramaticam  Gallicam. 

3.  -       -       -       ad  Caffae      -      ~      -      Jtalicam. 

4.  -       -       -       ad  the  Writing  Scholars  Companion. 

5.  Latinae  Primordia  Linguae. 

6.  Ein  geschr.  Anhang  an  Tim.  Rolls  Garten-biichlein. 

7.  Spiegel  eines  wahrhafTtig  bekehrten  Christen. 

An  Land-Charten,  Die  4  Welltheil  u.  Teutschland. 

NB.     Mein   zu   Altorff  gewesener   Stubengesell   Willhelm   von 
Diiten  J.  U.  Lie.  enthielt  mir  2.  geschriebene  Phrasesbiichlein. 

[Two  works  at  least,  which  are  known  to  have  existed,  but  are 
not  included  in  this  list,  are : 

Res  Proprias. 
Cash  Book.l 

An  Gedruckten  Biichern  habe  ich  theils  mit  ins  land  gebracht, 
theils  verehrt  bekomen,  auch  einige  wenige  gekauft:  Hingegen 
andere  verkaufft  und  weggegeben,  als  hier  mit  angemerckt  steht. 

Francis  Daniel  Fastorius  205 

Iti  Folio. 

1.  Ed:  Leighij.  Critica  Sacra. 

2.  Der  Staten  Bibel. 

3.  Cambridge  Concordance. 

4.  Hohbergs  Georgica  Curiosa. 

5.  Tabulae  Chronologicae  Helmstadiensis. 

6.  Sebast.  Franckens  Cosmographia. 

7.  Nich.  Bayard's  Tryal  for  high  Treason. 

8.  An  Act  for  Ascertaining  the  Currency  of  Money. 

9.  The  Bishops  Declaration. 

10.  John  Casimir's  Catalogue  of  Medicines. 

11.  G.  Fox  to  the  Planters  in  America. 

12.  Philaretus  agt.  Swearing  &  Cursing. 

13.  Concerning  Election  of  Assembly  men. 

14.  Cone.  Caesar's  Due. 

15.  Th.  Layths  Warning. 

16.  Joh  Clausen  Zeugnisz. 

17.  Ben.  Fletcher's  Proclamation. 

18.  Geo.  Joy's  Complaint  agt  New  England. 

19.  D.  Erberfelds  frauen  leich-Reimen. 

20.  Proceeding  agt  Rebels. 

21.  Yearly  Meeting  Epistles. 

22.  G  Keiths  Appeal. 

23.  Tho.  Budd  agt  W"  Pefi. 

In  Quarto. 

1.  An  English  Bible,  printed  at  Oxford. 

2.  Rob.  Barclay's  Apology. 

3.  Ein  Hochteutsche  Bible,  gedruckt  zu  Lunenburg. 

4.  A  Collection  of  several  Friends  Writings. 
5-     Nich.  Hunt's  Newborn  Christian. 

6.  Joh.  Henr.  Voigts  prognostica. 

7.  Ant.  W"i  Boehm.  fun.  Sermon  to  Pr  Geo :  twice,  gave  to 

each  one. 

8.  Jac.  Telner's  Treatise. 

9.  Dan.  Leeds  rebuked. 

10.  Js.  Pefiingtons  Wegh  des  Levens  ende  Doots.  to  Henry  P. 

11.  Rob.  Barcl.  Apology  nederduytsch.  to  Henry  P. 

12.  Du  Mont's  Reyse  naa  het  Oosten. 

13-  Fragmentum  Alcorani,  in  hochteutsch. 

14-  J.  Tauleri  Kern-lehr. 

15.  Gasp.  Panthesij  Jtinerarium. 

16.  Geo:  Keith's  Universal  Grace  asserted. 

17.  Marg.  Fells  Standard  of  the  Lord  revealed. 

18.  An  Abstract  of  the  Laws  of  Peiisilva. 

2o6  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

19.  In  einem  Band  :    Jn-liefcle  tot  de  Verloorene.    Js.  Peningt. 

wegh  des  levens  en  doots.  W  Ames  van  den  Wegh  des 
levens.  W.  Pens  Waarheyt  ontdecht.  J.  Park's  Chr. 
Jesus  verhooght.  G.  Fox  wat  wy  van  Christo  geloven. 
M  F.  Vrouwen  Spreeken.  Fr.  Howgils  heerlyckheyt 
van  de  waere  Kerch.  Stephen  Crips  geklanck  des 
alarms.  Bened  Figken  beantwortet.  Jtem  Gerrit 
Roosen.  Jt:  ein  Jesuit.  Jt.  Ds  Minist.  zu  Hamburg 
Verschiedene  Sendbrief.  Morgan  Watkins  Marks  of 
the  true  Church.  Nic.  Knights  Comparison  between 
true  &  false  Ministers.  Tho.  Hudchinsons  forced  Uni- 
formity. R.  Farnsworths  pure  langvage,  &  W.  Pens 

20.  Sonst  Zusamen  gebunden :  Pens  &  Meads  Tryal.    W,  Pens 

Answ:  to  a  libell.  Ejusd.  Answ:  to  a  Letter.  W. 
Shewens  agt.  Talebearers.  G.  Foxes  line  of  right. 
Clergy-mans  letter  to  a  Clergy  man.  A  letter  to  R. 
Bridgeman  Shipton  Wifes  &  others  prophecies. 

21.  G.  Foxes  Vision.  [  ?]   Beware  of  Seducing  Spirits.     Qua- 

kers no  plotters.  An  answ :  to  Semper  Jdem.  agt.  per- 
secution.   Qrs.  assemblies  vindicated. 

22.  W.  P.  Continued  Cry  of  the  Oppressed  for  Justice.     G. 

Benson  cone:  Oaths  &  Swearing.  Th.  Ellwoods  Cau- 
tion to  Constables.  Ben.  Lindleys  Shiboleth  of  Priest- 
hood. R.  Haydocks  Skirmisher  Confounded.  Tam 
Quam  for  Jurors.  Jnocency  defended  agt.  Lord  Corn- 
bury.    Dying-words  of  some  young  men. 

23.  G  Whiteheads  Truth  &  Jiiocency  vindicated.     Answer  to 

Lod.  Muggleton.  the  Anabaptists  lying  wonder,  relig- 
ious Meetings  no  Conventicles. 

24.  E.   Burne's  Looking  Glass.     W.   Smiths  earthly  Wisdom 

Confounded.  J.  Parke's  God's  Judgments  upon  the 
wicked  world.  J.  S.'s  the  Case  of  Qrs.  cone:  Oathes. 
the  Case  of  protestant  dissenters,  shewing  those  to  be 
no  papists,  &  the  Law  of  absenting  from  Church  not 
agt.  them. 

25.  Dan.    Leeds   rebuked.     G   Keith   proved   a   prevaricator: 

proteus  Ecclesiasticus,  or  G  K  proved  an  Apostate,  the 
Bomb  Search'd.  Remarks  upon  the  great  Mystery  of 
Fox-Craft.    J.  Wyeth's  Vindication  of  W.  P. 

26.  G  Ks  refutation  of  3.  Opposers  to  Truth.    Ejusd  Serious 

Appeal.  Qrs.  of  Rhode  Island  vindicated.  G  Ks  plea 
of  the  Jnnocent.  Ejusd.  Some  Fundamental  Truths. 
Ejusd.  Expostulation  with  Tho :  Lloid.  An  Exhorta- 
tion cone :  buying  of  Negroes.  Gross  Error  &  hypoc- 
rasie  detected  in  Geo:  Whitehead.  W"  Lancasters 
,  questions. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  207 

27.  the  Rulers  &   Priests  of   Somerset  shire  persecuting  the 

faithful  Witnesses  of  the  Lord. 

28.  John  Perrots  Epistle  &c.  &  Judas  his  30.  pieces. 

29.  G.  Foxes  family  order  of  Whites,  Blacks  &  Jndians.    Ap- 

peal that  there  may  not  be  a  beggar  in  England.  Wm. 
Shewen  agt.  Talebearers. 

30.  W"!  Russels  No  Seventh-day-Sabbath. 

31.  A  short  View  of  the  Prelatical  Church  of  England. 

32.  Hen.  Bernh  Kosters  Advice  for  all  Professors. 
^^.     Edw.  Coote's  English  School-master. 

34.  Ziegenbalgs  bericht  aus  Tranquebar.   R.  Coppers  2.  Schrei- 

ben.  T.  L.  Kohlhansen  schrift  an  die  Obrigkeit  zu 

35.  Wederlegginge  H.  Jungs.   G.   Foxen   Sendbrief  u.   Richt 

snoer.  P.  Hendricks  Answ :  aen  Gerrit  Roosen.  R 
Barcl:  brief  aan  de  Ambass.  tot  Nimegen.  St  Crisps 
Oorsaecken  van  de  Ellende  der  Nederlanden.  Spiegel 
voor  de  Stad  Emden.  Jt.  voor  Niew-York  door  J.  T. 
G  Ks  antw  op  XI.  Vragen.    S  Crisps  Klaren  Wegh. 

36.  G.    Foxen    antw:    an    Tob.    Stietman.      P.    Henrichs    ad 

eundem.    R.  Barcl.  Antw.  an  Ben.  Figken.    G.  Fox  ad 
eundem.     Jtem  an  Adrian  Pauli. 

37.  S.  Crisps  Klang  des  Allarms.    G.  Fox  von  d  tauflF.    James 

Parnels  Untersuchung  des  glaubens.  W.  Catons  Wort 
zu  rechter  Zeit.  W.  Ames  Guter  Rath.  G.  Fox  wider 
Verfolfung.  Antw.  an  Ben.  Figken.  Jt.  an  Gerrit 
Roosen.  W.  Gibsons  Ansprach  an  die  (Jbr.  zu  Dant- 
zig.   G  Foxen  Wamung  an  die  Obr.  zu  Hamburg. 

38.  Disputatio  Jnauguralis  F.  D.  P. 

39.  W.  Catons  een  Woort  ter  rechten  tyt.     M.   F.  vrouwen. 

Spreeken  gerechtvaerdigt.  Fr.  Howgils  Erfdeel  Jakobs. 
W.  Catons  Ondersoeker  voldaen.  W.  P.  Christenryck 
gedagvaart.  M.  Stephensons  Roep  van  de  Dott  tot  het 

40.  Fr.    Howgils    Eroflfnung    des    bauchs    der    Morgenrothe. 

Edw.  Burroughs  Banicre  alien  Volckern  dargestellt. 
Warumb  die  Qrs  d.Weltlehrer  verleugnen.  G.  Fox  an 
alle  Konig.  Ejusd.  Sendschreiben  an  John  HI  Konig  in 

41.  Den  Grooten  en  Witten  Duyvel. 

42.  De   Bisschop   voor   Groningen,    Tragi-Comedie. 

43.  Joh.  Rode  Baniere  of  Standaert  des  Heeren. 

44.  Quadrans  Astronomicus  &  Geometricus. 

45.  Conductor  Generalis,  Or  a  Guide  for  Constables.  &c.  1686. 

2o8  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

In  Great  Octavo. 

B.  Ariae  Montani  Nov.  Test.  Graeco-lat. 

Elisha  Coles  Dictionary. 

Biiiarti  Dictionarium  Belgico-lat. 

Nath.  Duez  Diction :  Jtalico-Gallicum. 

Midi.  Pexenfelderi  Apparatus  Eruditionis. 

Macarij  u.  anderer  Altvatter  Schrifften. 

Claude  Mauger's  Gramaire  Frangoise. 

hi  Octavo. 

1.  An  English  Bible  printed  at  Oxford. 

2.  Pauli  Tossani  Loci  Comunes  Theologici. 

3.  Jer.  Dyke's  good  Conscience. 

4.  Nicli.  Culpper's  English  Physician. 

5.  Jac.  Schiitzij  Compedium  Juris  Civilis. 

6.  Andr.  Reyheri  Manuductio  Poetica. 

7.  Comenij  Lexicon  Atriale. 

8.  Ejusd.  Janua  Lingu :  Lat:  Germ:  Gall:  &  Ital. 

9.  Ejusd.  Janua  Lingu.  Lat:  &  Angl. 

10.  Joh.  Val.  Andreae  Menippus. 

11.  Melch.  Ad.  Pastorij  Contemplatio  terrestr.  Vanitatum. 

12.  Bart.  Keckermani  Sy sterna  Logicae. 

13.  Riverij  Observationes  Medicae. 

14.  Pet.  Rami  Prselectiones  in  Virgilij  Georgica. 

15.  Joh.  Boemi  Mores  omnium  Gentium. 

16.  Le  Maitre  d'hotch  verehrt  an  Elisabeth  Hill. 

17.  Xtian  Keiman  Gramatica  Graeca. 

18.  Lutheri  Teutsche  Bibel.  gegeben  an  Heinrich  P. 

19.  Ejusd.  Neu  Testament,  cum  Judice  Manuscripto. 

20.  Felbingers  neu  Testament. 

21.  Rob.  Barclay's  Catechismus  in  Latein. 

22.  —  Jtem  in  English,  to  J.  Samuel  Pastorius. 

23.  —  Jtem  in  Nieder-teutsch.  to  Henry  P. 

24.  Tho.  Chalkley's  loving  Jnvitation.  twice,  gave  to  each  one. 

25.  Wm.  Penn's  Call  to  Christendom, 

26.  Wm.  Dell's  Laerdom  om  Daabe. 
2y.  Betriibter  Seelen  Heiligthum. 

28.  Wm.  Penns  No  Cross,  No  Crown. 

29.  Rob.  Barclay's  English  Catechism  bought  for  is. 

30.  Dan.  Leed's  Trumpet,  for  is. 

31.  the  12.  Patriarch's  Testamts.  twice,  for  2s.  to  each  one. 

32.  A  Short  Jntroduction  of  Gramar.  for  lod. 

Warrant  for  Survey  of  Land  for  Dutch  and  German  Purchasers. 
(Original  in  Department  of  Internal  Affairs,  Harrisburg,  Pa.) 

Warrant  for  Survey  of  Lots  for  Germans  in  Philadelphia. 
(Original  in  Department  of  Internal  Affairs,  Harrisburg,  Pa.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  209 

33.  Wil  Bartjens  Cyfferinge. 

34.  Christ  All  in  All,  &  Woe  to  Drunkards. 

35.  R.  H.  the  young  Clerks  Guide. 

36.  Edw.  Cocker  the  young  Clerk's  Tutor. 
^y.  Wel-Levens-Kunst. 

38.  The  Elements  of  Geometric. 

39.  Old  Almanacks. 

40.  Kohlhansens  Erinerung. 

41.  Ejusd.  Anmerkungen. 

42.  Ejusd.  abscheul.  finsterniss. 

43.  P.  Henr.  Entdecker  Entdeckt. 

44.  St.  Crisps  Triumph  d  Wahrheit. 

45.  Th.  Lawson's  Antwort. 

46.  The  Young  Mans  Companion. 

47.  The  privilege  of  Liberty  &  Property. 

48.  Geo.  Fox  the  Younger's  Collection. 

49.  G.  F.  &  E.  H.  Arraignmt.  of  Popery. 

50.  E.  P.  Rabshakeh  rebuked. 

51.  Th.  Elwoods  Answer  to  G.  Ks.  Narrative. 

52.  Kohlhansens  Schrifften  wider  Lobern. 

— .  auch  sein  und  mein  Brief  an  die  Pietisten. 

53.  Rich.  Baker's  Testimony  to  the  power  of  God. 

54.  Guill  Penn's  la  Clef. 

55.  J.  Bockett's  ye  poor  mechanick's  Plea. 

56.  Jos.  Wyeth's  primitive  Christianity  continued. 

57.  Th.  Elwood's  Truth  Defended. 

58.  G.  Keith's  pretended  antidote  proved  Poyson. 

59.  Dan.  Leeds  News  of  a  Trumpet. 

60.  Pietas  Hallensis.  part  2d  &  Progress  of  the  Conversion  of 

the  Malabarians.  part  2d. 

61.  Jerem.  Love's  Clavis  Medicinse. 

62.  Hinr.  Meiszners  Arithmet :  Blumgartlein. 

63.  Steven  Crisp's  Triumph  der  Wahrheit. 

64.  Th.  Lawsons  Antwort  an  Zentgraff. 

65.  A  just  Censure  of  Fr.  Bugg's  address  to  the  Parliamt. 

66.  W".  Davis's  Answ :  to  John  Wats. 

67.  A  Letter  to  Mons.  Pettecum. 

68.  Reflexions  on  the  State  of  the  Church  Universal. 

69.  Ant.  Will  Boehm's  Sermon  on  ye  day  of  Epiphany. 

70.  Pet.  Henrich's  Antwort  an  P.  Reinhard  Hermanni. 

71.  G.  Foxen  Sent-brief. 

72.  John  Tribbeko's  Farewel-Sermon  to  the  Palatines. 

73.  Pet.  Hendrich's  algemeene  Sendbrief. 
&Benj.  Furley's  Wederlegger  wederleght. 

74.  Geo.  Foxe's  la  primitive  Ordination  des  Eveques. 


Francis  Deiniel  Pastorius 

75.  Dan.  Leeds  brief  Reply  to  Caleb  Pusey's  mscript. 

76.  Abr.   Fuller's  Testimony  concerning  his  Son  Joseph. 

yy.  Zusam  gebunden:  M.  J.  Baurin  abschieds-reden.  Dis- 
quisitio  de  SS :  Trinitate.  Arnds  Vorred.  Justiniani 
bekehrung  unglaubiger  Volcker,  Jt. :  Verlaugnung  sein- 
selt.  Geist.  lieder.  the  Christian  a  Quaker,  good  hus- 
bandry. Geode  Vrydag.  der  Vlamingen  gcloofs  Con- 
fessie.  Felbingers  Politien.  Christ :  huyshoudinge.  Betkij 
leidens  gemeinschaft.  Lobwasser  vom  Reich  Christi. 
Joh.  Michaelis  Glaubens  grund.  Domin.  Beer  ged : 
liber  Biblische  Spriich. 

78.  Van  Gods  Voorweetenschap  en's  Menssn  Vrye  Werking. 

79.  Dirk  Muller's  Christelycke  Gesangen  van  Christus. 

80.  Spiegel  der  lydsame  Heyligen. 

81.  Wortel  der  Nederlantsche  Oorloghen. 

82.  Le  Guide  de  Londres.  1710. 

83.  Le  Nouveau  Testament,  a  Mons.  1677. 

84.  Claudius  Mauger's  French  Gramer,  1688,  an  Heinrich  P. 

In  Duodecimo. 

1.  Th.  Tryon's  Miscellanea.  I9:2d. 

2.  Ejusd.  Some  Memoirs  of  his  Life. 

3.  The  Compleat  Justice. 

4.  The  young  Secretaries  Guide. 

5.  Joh.  Arnds  Wahres  Christenthum,  sold  for  15^. 

6.  Statij  Schatzkamer  der  glaubigen,  for  lo'^.  Spener's  prie- 

sterthum,  for  2^. 

7.  W".  Shewen's  Christian  Faith  &  Experience. 

8.  Ejusd.  Councel  to  the  Christian  Traveller. 

9.  Spira  respirans. 

10.  Meditationi  di  S.  Agostino. 

11.  Subyte  Geestelycke  Meditatien  by  J.  Clemens. 

12.  Freyburgers  Chiliasmus  Sanctus. 

13.  Adam  Reussners  Psalmenbuch. 

14.  Ralph  Venning's  Orthodox  Paradoxes. 

15.  Theatrum  Poetarum  by  Edw.   Phillips. 

16.  Welt-Alter. 

17.  Cheureau  L'Ecole  du  Sage. 

18.  Comenij  Synopsis  Physicse. 

19.  L.  An.  Senecffi  Opera. 

20.  Guil  Amesij  Casus  Conscientiae. 

21.  J.  Soet's  Wintersche  Avonden. 

22.  Geo :  Horni j  Orbis  Jmperans  &  Politicus. 

23.  Ejusd.  Area  Mosis. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  211 

24.  W.  C.  Kriegsman  von  Eintzeln  Zusamenkiinfften. 

25.  John  Seller's  hydrographia. 

26.  An  English  Bible  bought  of  Rich,  vander  Werf  for  17s. 

was  spoiled  by  J.  Pettinger.  to  H.  P. 

28.  The  Writing  Scholars  Companion,   for   i^.   t,^. 

29.  J.  D.  Gramatica  Hispanica.    Gramaire  Espangnole. 

30.  Fr.  de  Fene  Gramatica  Gallica 

31.  CaroH  Caff^e  Gram.  Italica.     |  c^m  Annotat. 

i  manuscnptis. 

^2.  Tho.  Upsher's  Epistle  to  Friends  in  Jreland. 

^;^.  Jac.  Bohmens  Aurora. 

34.  Ejusd.  Weg  zu  Christo. 

35.  The  Negro  Christianized. 

36.  A  Catalogue  of  Books. 

^7.  Jer.  Dykens  Wiirdiger  Tischgenoss. 

38.  Wil.  Saldeni  Christliche  Kinderschul. 

39.  Ladies  rich  Closet  of  Rarities,  lent  to  EHz.  Hood. 

40.  And.  Schotti  Jtinerarium  Jtaliae. 

41.  Jod.  Sinceri  Jtinerarium  Gallise. 

42.  Weghweyser  door  Vranckryck. 

43.  Gotfr.  Hegenitij  Jtinerarium. 

44.  Mart.  Beers  Enchiridion  Geopraphige. 

45.  Fr.  Heerman's  guldene  Annotatien. 

46.  Defensie  van  D.  Martin  Luther. 

47.  D.  J.  Bedse  Judicium  de  bonorum  Secessione  a  malis. 

48.  Dr.  Jac.  Spenneri  pia  desideria. 

49.  Raed  aen  de  gescheyrde  Christenhyt. 

50.  La  Lyturgie  ou  Prieres  publiques. 

51.  Catechisme    familier   par    Phillippe    le    Noir. 

52.  The  English  Schoolmaster. 

53.  Tim.  Rolls  Blumen  Biichlein. 

54.  M.  A.  Pastorij  Soliloquia.  Ejusd.  Jnstitutio  Xtiana. 

55.  Wasenburgij  gheestelycke  Scheepvaert.  an  Mar-Sprick. 

56.  G.  Foxe's  Primmer. 

57.  Keache's  Jnstruction  for  Children. 

58.  Lubini  Clavis  Grsece  linguae. 

59.  Dictionariolum  Germ  :  Gall :  Latinum. 

60.  Histoire  Amoureuse  des  Gaules. 

61.  Char.  Hooles  Vocabularium  parvum. 

62.  Ein  anders  von  8.  Sprachen. 

63.  John   Tomkin's   Trumpet   Sounded.    &   W".    Tomlinson's 

short  work  of  greatest  Concern. 

64.  J.    Aug.     Lietzheimer-    u.    August    Herman    Franckens 


65.  Kenzeichen  eines  Wahren  Christen. 

212  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

66.  Corn.  Drebelij  de  Natura  elementorum. 

67.  Nich.  Bifield's  Signs  of  a  godly  man. 

68.  Henr.  Corn.  Agrippa  de  Vanitate  Scientiarum. 

69.  J  :  Ax  ford's  hidden  things  brought  to  Light. 

70.  OHver  Heywood's  heavenly  Converse. 

71.  Mar.  Jul.  Baurin  lebens-lauff. 

72.  W^.  Pens  Expostulacon  with  the  Jnhah.  of  Pensilva. 

73.  An  Essay  towards  the  peace  of  Europe. 

74.  Edw.  Cooks  Reports. 

75.  Hier  Cardani  Neroos  Lof   ( ?) 

1.  Joh.  Wollebij  Compendium  Theologiae. 

2.  Edw.  Cooks  Reports  in  12°. 

3.  Graad  Boecxken. 

4.  Ben.  Baxter's  Cases  of  Difficulty. 

5.  [crossed  out] 

6.  Bacchean  Magazine  by  W.  Y. 

7.  Pauli  Egardi  Koniglich  Priesterthum. 

8.  Micro-Cosmographie. 

9.  Ch.  Marshall's  Epistle. 

10.  Lutheri  Neu  Testament. 

11.  Lud.  Baily's  iibung  der  Gottseligkeit. 

12.  Joh.  Jonstonij  Constantia  Naturae. 

13.  Th.  a  Kempis  4.  libri  de  Jmitatione  Christi.  in  latein. 

14.  Jtem,  in  English,  given  to  Sarah  Goodson. 

15.  Jtem,  in  French. 

16.  Joseph  Hall's  beschafifenheit  eines  wahren  Christen. 

17.  Gedenckbiichlein,  und  Psalmen  Davids. 

18.  Joh.  Matthise  Ramus  Olivse  Septentr. 

19.  Er.  Roterod.  Encomium  Moriae. 

20.  Dionisij  Speculum  Amatorum  Mundi. 

21.  J.  H.  Horbij  Von  Gott  besuchtes  Wintzheim. 

22.  Enchiridion  of  Popish  Devotion. 
2^.  Gesangbiichlein. 

24.  Nieder  Teutsch  Testament.  Sold  for  4^. 

Pastorius's  Last  Days. 

Although  Pastorius  seems  to  have  had  a  "choleric"  tempera- 
ment, suggesting  physical  disorder,  he  seems  to  have  enjoyed 

general  good  health.  Nevertheless  he  had  a  number  of  severe 
illnesses  and  seems  to  have  had  his  share  of  malaria,  which  then 
sprang  up  spontaneously  out  of  the  new  soil  and  densely  wooded 
swamps.     He  relates  that  seventeen  months  after  his  arrival  he 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  213 

was  attacked  by  a  severe  exhausting  fever,  January  23,  1685, 
which  jeopardized  his  life.  Then  in  171 3  he  suffered  intensely 
from  a  gathering  on  the  thigh,  which  healed  only  after  a  long 
time,  during  which  period  he  re-wrote  his  treatise  on  Good  Coun- 
sel to  Bad  Lawyers  and  Attorneys.  The  next  year,  May  16, 
1 714,  he  had  another  attack  of  fever  (such  as  he  had  frequently 
experienced  and  cured  it  with  rum  and  pepperberries),  curing  it 
with  Epsom  salt.  February  25th,  171 6-1 7  he  was  seized  with  a 
severe  cough  and  expectoration,  and,  after  holding  out  some 
days  in  the  schoolroom,  was  attacked  by  a  fever  and  was  criti- 
cally ill,  but  recovered  his  appetite  after  three  weeks.  He  men- 
tions Griffith  Owen,  Richard  and  Hannah  Hill,  Samuel  Preston, 
Isaac  and  Mary  Norris  and  "several  of  the  Germans"  as  having 
been  very  kind  and  attentive  to  him  during  this  illness. 

We  learn  here  incidentally  that  Pastorius  was  still  teaching 
school  in  171 6-1 7  within  some  two  years  of  the  time  of  his 
death.  The  attack  last  described  was  evidently  pneumonia  or 
incipient  tuberculosis  and  showed  a  deterioration  of  his  system. 

The  exact  date  of  Pastorius's  death  is  not  known,  but  was 
between  December  26th,  17 19,  the  date  of  his  will,  and  January 
13th,  1720,  the  date  the  will  was  proven.  In  his  will  he  described 
himself  as  "being  at  present  very  sick  and  weak  in  body."  The 
inventory  of  his  effects  was  filed  January  21st,  1720.  The  late 
D.  P.  Bruner  left  this  note: 

"I  think  he  must  have  died  unexpectedly,  December  27,  1719." 

The  older  statements  that  Pastorius  died  September  27th, 
1 719,  as  recorded  in  the  Beehive,  by  Henry  Pastorius,  his  son,  is 
evidently  a  mistake,  as  Pastorius  wrote  and  witnessed  a  deed 
from  Reese  Potts  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  to  John  Cunrads  the 
"First  day  of  October  in  the  sixth  year  of  the  reign  of  King 
George  over  Great  Britain,  &c.,  A.  D.,  1719." 

He  was  interred  presumably  in  the  Friends'  Burying  Ground, 
in  Germantown,  although  neither  record  nor  tombstone  tells  us 

It  was  fitting  that  he  who  cared  so  little  for  the  esteem  of 

214  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

the  world  while  he  lived  should,  like  his  fellow  Pietests  and 
Friends,  rest  in  obscurity  in  the  little  German  Town,  which  has 
kept  pace  with  the  march  of  the  centuries  without  losing  many 
of  its  old  landmarks. 

It  would  be  easy  to  select  an  epitaph  for  the  German  Jurist- 
Pioneer  from  the  testimony  of  his  contemporaries,  such  as  the 
tribute  of  William  Penn,  who  called  him 

"Vir  sobrius,  probus,  prudens  &  pius." 

or  the  poetic  tribute  paid  by  Howell  Powell  a  short  time  after 
the  death  of  Pastorius : 

A  Commemoratory  Poem  on  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius. 

What  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 
Hath  tane  his  flight  from  hence  to  Olympus  ? 
Lost  to  his  Posterity,  y^  German  Town  Speci'lly 
Lost  (tho'  great  gaines  to  him)  it  was  to  many. 
The  Hermes,  Glory,  Crown,  and  Linguist's  gone 
Who  oft  Jnterpreted  Teutonick  tongue. 
The  Scribe,  and  Tutor,  German's  Bolar  Guide, 
An  Antiquarian  that  was  far  from  Pride, 
Religious  Zealous  Amanuensis ; 
An  Universal  man  in  Arts  [&]  Sciences: 
Who  Lov'd  his  Friends;  Britains;  yea  are  Na[tions] 
Zealous  for  the  Truth,  full  of  Compassions 
Ah !  may  Germanopolis  be  'gen  supplied 
Of  that  great  Loss,  their  Honour  Once,  their  Guide, 
A  wise  Achilles  as  he  was  be  Sent 
'    Lowly,  Lovely  Learn'd  Lively  Still  Content. 
Now  free  from  Cares,  Dire  troubles  that  attend 
This  brittle  Case,  the  Heavnely  Quire  befriend 
Him  Still :  Joyes  in  the  Glorious  Lamb  alone 
Seeth  the  Beatifick  Vision 
You  his  Family  offspring  take  Example 
By  Francis  Just  Sincere  &  truly  humble 
Tho'  you  Condole  the  Loss  of  's  Company 
He  got  a  better ;  be  Content  thereby, 
Tho  many  Lost  a  Friend ;  He  got,  yet  they 
Rejoyce  that  he  hath  Nobler  still  for  ay : 
Tho  Dead  to  his  Corp'ral  Form,  that  Sleep,  He  Lives 
Jn  Jmmortality  needs  no  Reprieve. 


Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  215 

Vade  Dijs  Superis  homo  Scandere  Culmen  Olympi, 
Francisce  seqtie  vale ;  tu  cape  carpe  viam. 
Opto  simul  quieris,  vestigia  recta  sequiq; 
Te  pedibus  verbij,  te  simul  esse  bonos. 

Howell  Powell  fecit 
31  mo  3th  mense  1720 

Appendix  A. 

Diplomatic  Print  of  the  Agreement  of  the   German   Company  of 


Jm  Nahmen  und  zur  Ehre  GOttes ! 

Wir  Unterschriebene  urkunden  und  bekennen  hiemit  /  demnach 
wir  zusammen  fiinff  und  zwantzig  tausend  Acker  /  Englischer  Masz 
/  unvertheilten  Lands  /  in  der  Americanischen  Provintz  Pennsyl- 
vania, gesampter  Hand  gekauffet  /  auch  jeglicher  sein  Antheil  nach 
Auszweisz  dariiber  besagender  Rechnungen  wiircklich  bezahlt  haben : 

Jacob  von  de  Wallen 2500  \ 

und    Caspar    Merian   2500.    jetzund   Jacob 

von  de  Walle 833/^ 

und  Daniel  Behagel 1666^ 

Lt.  Johann  Jacob  Schiitz 4000 

Johann  Wilhelm  Uberfeld  /  jetzund  Franz  \      5000. 

Daniel   Pastorius 1000 

Jacob  von  de  Wallen 1666?^ 

Georg  Strausz,  jetzund  Johanna  Eleonora 

von  Merlau  /  (        cooo. 

M.  Johann  Wilhelm  Peters  -^  Hauszfrau.  .    1666^ 

Daniel  Behagel   i666yz 

Dr.  Gerhard  von  Mastricht 1666^       ^ 

Dr.  Thomas  von  Wilich 1666^        '      5000. 

und  Johannes  le  Brim 1666^       \ 

Balthasar  Jawert o^o^  \A        \ 

Johannes  Kemler   1666^        j     ^°°°' 

Summa ....  25000. 

Dass  wir  wegen  sothaner  Giither  /  vor  uns  /  respective  unsere 
Hauzfrauen  /  kmder  und  Erben  /  im  Nahmen  GOttes  eine  Gemein- 
schafft  Oder  Societdt  angetretten  und  geschlossen  haben  /  auff  Art 
und  Weisz  als  hiernach  folgt : 

'*  Mistake  for  Petersen,  see  the  signature  at  the  end  of  the  document. 

2i6  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

I.  Obbesagte  Landereyen  [sic]  wie  unci  wo  sie  uns  sampt  unci 
sonciers  angewiesen  seyn  /  oder  ins  kiinfftige  angewiesen  werden 
mogen  /  selbsten  auch  die  iiber  obig  specificirtes  /  uns  compctircnde 
Stadt-losz  /  namlich  die  vier  oder  sechs  Platze  in  der  Stadt  Philadel- 
phia zum  Auffbauen  neuer  Hauser  /  und  incirca  beylaufftig  300. 
Acker  in  der  Stadt  Gerechtigkeit  unci  Freyheit  vor  und  umb  Phila- 
delphia gelegen  /  und  das  neulichst  /  zur  Ziegelbsckerey  [sic]  an 
Scbollkiel  /  erkauffte  Land  /  sampt  alien  und  jeden  /  an  alien  Orten 
und  Enden  in  gantz  P ennsylvanien  auffgerichteten  und  kiinfftigen 
Gebauen  und  anderen  meliorationen,  auch  dahin  gesendete  /  dorten 
gekauffte  oder  sonsten  erlangte  VictuaUa,  Kauffmanns  Wahren  / 
Viehe  /  Hauszgerath  /  &c.  erlangte  und  kiinfftige  Real-  Rechten  und 
Gerechtigkeiten  /  sollen  jetzt  und  kiinfftig  /  in  gleichen  Rechten 
gemeinschafftlich  seyn  unci  bleiben  /  nach  eines  peden  obspecificirtem 
Antheil  /  so  er  in  derselben  Compagnie  hat. 

2.  Alles  und  jedes  /  was  zu  deren  cultivirimg  und  Anrichtung 
/  zu  Gebauen  /  item  zu  Uberschickung  [sic]  der  Dienstbotten  / 
Pacht-Leuten  und  andern  Personen  /  auch  der  Kauffmanns-Wahren 
/  Lebens-Mitteln  /  Werckzeug  &c.  und  dorten  im  Lande  an  Hand- 
wercker  und  Taglohner  &c.  Summa  an  alien  Kosten  /  wie  die 
Nahmen  haben  m5gen  /  in  America  und  Euro  pa  biszhero  angewendet 
worden  ist  /  oder  kiinfftig  auff  hiemechst  benahmte  Weisz  /  ver- 
wendet  wercien  mochte  /  soil  auff  gemeine  Kosten  geschehen  pro  rata 
eines  jeden  Antheils. 

3.  Dargegen  auch  alle  Nutzungen  /  Gefall  /  was  daselbsten 
erworben  /  gebauet  /  gepflantzet  /  fruchtbar  gemacht  /  und  gezeuget 
wird  /  es  sey  an  Erd-Gewachs  /  leibeigenen  Menschen  /  Viehe  / 
Manufactnren  &c.  nichts  iiberall  auszgenommen  /  sollen  unter  alien 
Interessenten  pro  rato  der  Ackerzahl  /  gemein  seyn. 

4.  Was  dieser  Compagnie  Angelegenheit  betrifft  /  sollen  die 
fiinff  Haupt-Stamme  (jedes  5000.  vor  ein  Haupt-Stamm  gerechnet  / 
oder  wie  man  sich  kiinfftig  etwan  anders  vergleichen  mag)  unter 
sich  uberlegen  /  und  nach  den  meisten  Stimmen  (jegliches  tausend 
Acker  hat  zehen  Stimmen)  forderlichst  beschliessen. 

5.  Dorten,  im  Land  soil  jederzeit  ein  Bevollmachtigter  der 
Compagnie,  und  auff  dessen  Sterbens-Abwesens-  und  Unvermogens- 
Fall  /  demselben  ein  Suhstitutns,  mit  Schrifftlicher  /  von  beyden  Par- 
theyen  auszgefertigten  Bestallung  /  verordnet  seyn :  Diese  beyde 
sollen  jahrlich  unter  ihrer  beyder  Hand-Unterschrifften  /  und  der 
Compagnie  Pettschafft  /  ein  ordentliches  Inventarium,  alles  dessen  / 
was  die  Compagnie  dorten  hat  /  mit  Specification  der  gebauten  und 
ungebauten  Aecker  /  Wiesen  /  Wasseren  /  Waldungen  /  Hauser  / 
dero  Grentzen  /  auch  des  Gesindes  /  der  Pacht-Leuten  /  des  Viehes 
/  der  Friichten  /  Victualien,  Kauffmanns-Wahren  /  Schulden  und 
Gegenschulden  /  Paarschafften  &c.  verfertigen  /  und  neben  dero 

Francisci  Danielfs  Pastorii 

Sommerhufano-  Franch 
btt  Wmhie  erfunDenen 

SKit  ange&erirften  einigett  ti0tabfcn25cdcj 

i)enbeiten  unb  ^ericf)t.ecj)reiben  an  D^fTen^rn. 
•Pattern/  PatriofenunD gute grcunbe* 


*  (Brtuge  betunbtf  anf  was'tPeife  id>/ 
t>on  meinm  '^inbidhmen  at%/auf 
bem  tP 'ge  bitfcv  ddtlid^mt  meincrt 
tebf  nsJiauff  cjegen  5ie  H'<^t>silm^feitiwdn* 
^nidytetunbin  aiUmmeintmOlbun  babincti) 
ixadnet  l>4be/  ivu  id?  ;:>m  allef  rt  ^meH  WiiktX 

ten  /  unb  feme  uncfgi'unbiict)^  ci^iite  itebcn  la'f 
nenmocbte.  Urtb  obwobiejt  ki>  mbftunbtvti 
gemdnen  rOiffenf^talfreni  5ct  frcyen  Jd^nnftc/ 
^as  Studiunt  Juris  fe!iciterabIoivii-et/t5ic  Jtdf 
memo begrifferi  /  aiicp  Oen fo  qenanrttert  grop 
fen  Tour  Oiird)  bk  tanbfd)affim  fjetban  /  f^ 
l)abe  id)  jebort)  do  aUen(|>mnunO^SnOen  mci^ 
hengi'offejlen  ^ii?sp  un'o^^emvlymit^  an  Mbevs 
^id)t9Qavmbu/ai9  cigeucUd;  ^uuia^vm/iv<> 

^  £>od? 

Title  F^age  of  Pastorius'  "Description  of  Pennsylvania' 
(Appended  to  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius'  "Description 
of  Windsheim,"  1692.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pasforius  217 

Rechnung  /  iiber  Kosten  und  Nutzungen  /  Einnahmen  und  Auszgab 
/  Ab-  und  Zugang  /  in  alien  Stiicken  /  an  demjemgen  /  welchem 
jedesmahls  der  Compagnie  Correspondents  committivet  seyn  wird  / 
und  mit  einem  andern  folgenden  Schifif  /  dessen  noch  ein  auszge- 
fertigtes  Original  herausz  senden  /  auch  auff  solche  Manier  den 
dortigen  Zustand  zeitlich  berichten. 

6.     Hier  zu  Land  sollen  ein  oder  zwey  Schreiber  der  Com- 
pagnie, entweder  ausz  den  Conipagnons  oder  Frembden  /  durch  die 
meinste  Stimmen  /  scllrifftlich  bestellet  werden  /  welche  der  Com- 
pagnie Rechnungen  und  Correspondents  in  Americam  fiihren  /  dero 
gehorige  Brieffen  erbrechen  /  ihren  Jnhalt  Extracts-\\[^\se  /  oder 
da  es  nothig  /  Copeylich  /  an  die.    5.    Haupt-Stamme  (von  welchen 
und  durch     welche     ferner     alle     und     jede     Interessenten     das 
Jhrige     zu     erlangen     /     auch     zu     bestellen     und     zu     verrichten 
haben)     insinniren     /     das     Tag-Buch     /     wegen     des     Pennsyl- 
vanischen    Wercks    /     ausz    dortigen     Brieffen    /   oder    hiesigen 
Begebenheiten  /  mit  kurtzen  Worten  /  doch  auszfiihrlich  und  fleissig 
einschreiben  /  was  zu  bestellen  oder  zu  beobachten  ist  /  in  ein  son- 
deres  Memorial  notiren  /  die  Rechnungen  nechst  revision  der  Inven- 
torien  /  und  annotation  des  Zu-  oder  Abgangs  /  mit  Tag  und  datum, 
so  weit  man  ausz  Brieffen  oder  sonsten  kommen  kan  /  alle  Jahr 
ultimo  Decembr.  schliessen  /  nach  beschehener  approbation  der  fiinff 
Haupt-Stamme  /  oder  dero  Bevollmachtigten  /  in  ein  Buch  zusam- 
men  schreiben  /  und  neben  den  Documenten  und  dero  Compagnie 
Original-  Schreiben  /  mit  auffgeschriebenem  Tag  und  datum,  auch 
Copeyen  der  abgelassenen  Brieffen  /  an  einen  sichern  der  Com- 
pagnie beliebigen  Ort  /  und  zwar  zu  jetgiger  Zeit  zu  Franckfurt  am 
Mayn  /  als  woselbsten  dieses  Werck  seinen  ersten  An  fang  genom- 
men  /  und  die  starkste  Theil  noch  zur  Zeit  hingehoren  /  in  guter 
Ordnung  nach  dero  Register  /  unter  zweyen  Schlossen  verwahren  / 
und  in  allem  ohne  der  fiinff  Haupt-Stamme  absonderliche   Bewil- 
ligung   nichts   Hauptsachliches    unternehmen    oder    auszfertigen    / 
dabeneben  vor  alle  diese  Miihe  /  nach  Gestalt  der  Sachen  /  eine 
mittelmassige  Ergetzlichkeit  ausz  der  Compagnie  geniessen  sollen : 
Dabeneben  mag  jeglicher  Haupt-Stani  vor  sich  und  seine  zugehorige 
Theilsgenossen  /  was  ihme  beliebet  /  ausz  sothanen  Brieffen  ex- 
trahiren :  Die  Originalia  aber  sollen  in  der  Schreiberey  verwahrt 

7.  Kiinfftig  sol  die  Compagnie  dero  Brieff  und  Contracten  &c. 
mit  einem  besondern  /  nebens  vorgedachten  Original  documentis 
verwahrten  Siegel  auszfertigen  /  auch  ein  anderes  /  in  Grosse  und 
Umbschrifft  etwas  unterschiedenes  Siegel  dero  Factorn  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, dessen  sich  daselbsten  gleicher  massen  zu  bedienen  /  iibersen- 
den :  Ohne  solche  Siegel  sollen  keine  Brieff  oder  Contracten  /  im 
Nahmen  der  Compagnie  hin  und  her  gesendet  /  oder  gultig  geachtet 

2i8  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

8.  Dafern  jemand  von  tins  /  odcr  unscrn  Erben  selbsten  nach 
Pennsylvanien  reisen  /  oder  ihm  einen  Sitz  zubereiten  eincn  vorausz- 
gehenden  Bevallmachtigten  vor  sich  allein  senden  /  und  allerley 
Eigenthumb  zu  seinem  Gebrauch  deme  mitgeben  oder  mitnehmen 
wolte  /  so  mag  der  oder  dieselbe  /  solches  auff  seine  eigene  Kosten 
und  Gefahr  thun  /  folgendlich  pro  rato  seines  Antheils  vor  jedes 
tausend  Acker  sechzig  an  einem  Stuck  unbereitetes  Land  /  wie  wir 
es  von  dem  Gonverneur  empfangen  /  vor  sich  auszlesen  /  und  davon 
soil  er  der  Compagnie  jahrlich  von  jeden  zehen  Acker  einen  Eng- 
lischen  Schilling  /  als  Erb-Pacht  /  zur  recognition  entrichten :  Und 
wo  ihm  dieses  Land  nicht  genug  /  sondern  zu  enge  seyn  wiirde 
/  sollen  ihme  noch  weiter  /  nach  proportion  seines  Antheils  /  60. 
Acker  wie  gemeldt  /  von  tausenden  gerechnet  /  umb  die  Helfft  des 
Preises  /als  es  die  Compagnie  selbiger  Zeit  an  Frembde  in  Erb-Pacht 
auszzugeben  pfleget  /  auch  im  Fall  er  noch  mehrers  Land  verlangte 
/  wann  es  die  Compagnie  entbehren  mag  /  in  dem  Preisz  /  und  mit 
denen  Conditionibus,  wie  einem  Frembden  iiberlassen  werden.  Auff 
diesen  Landern  nun  /  welche  einer  oder  der  andere  solcher  Gestalten 
vor  sich  allein  beziehet  /  soil  derselbe  nach  Belieben  handeln  /  auch 
allerley  gemeinschafftliche  /  dortige  bewegliche  und  unbewegliche 
Giiter  /  fiir  andern  Frembden  /  gebrauchen  und  geniessen ;  doch 
dasz  dieses  alles  dem  gemeinen  Wesen  der  Compagnie  ohnnachtheilig 
seye;  auch  sollen  solche  in  Pennsylvania  wohnende  Compagnons,  der 
Compagnie  dortigem  Factor,  den  Landsublichen  Zinsz  /  Lohn  / 
Bezahlung  oder  Wehrt  von  allem  /  was  sie  gemeinschafftliches  vor 
sich  gebrauchen  /  entrichten ;  worvon  sie  bey  folgender  repartition 
ihren  Antheil  wicder  zu  empfangen  haben.  Wolte  aber  die  Gesampte 
Compagnie  auff  allgemeines  Gutbefinden  /  jemanden  von  ihren  Theil- 
genossen  /  zu  ihrem  germeinschafftlichen  Dienst  /  und  auff'  ihre 
gemeinschafftliche  Kosten  dorthin  vibergehen  lassen  /  so  soil  mit 
selbigem  auff"  solchen  Fall  absonderlicher  Vergleich  getroft'en 
werden:  Auff  alien  Fall  aber  und  in  alien  Stiicken  die  dortige  Com- 
pagnons  und  deren  Erben  nicht  weniger  als  die  in  Eurot>a  seyend  / 
an  diesem  Contract,  und  der  meisten  Stimmen  Ktinfftige  Verord- 
nungen  /  verbunden  seyn. 

9.  Dafern  die  Schreiber  oder  sonsten  einer  oder  mehrere  mit 
der  Compagnie  Gutbefinden  /  als  obgemeldet  /  Geld  vorschiessen 
wiirden  /  so  sollen  solche  debitores  dero  vorgeschossenes  Capital 
auffs  langste  innerhalb  Jahres  Frist  /  con  dato  des  Vorschusses  / 
sampt  fiinff  pro  Cento  Jahrlichen  Inter  esse  wieder  zu  entrichten 
schuldig  /  und  desswegen  ihr  Antheil  zur  special-hypothec  hiemit 
in  bester  Form  Rechtens  verschrieben  seyn. 

10.  Da  jemand  von  uns  /  oder  den  unserigen  /  iiber  kurtz  oder 
lang  /  ohne  Ehegemahl  /  und  ohne  Eheliche  Leibs-Erben  vcrstiirbe  / 
auch  wie  er  es  mit  seinem  Antheil  /  dieser  gemeinschafftlichen  Giiter 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  219 

/  nach  seinem  Todt  gehalten  haben  wolle  /  per  Testamentum  oder 
andere  schrifft-oder  mundliche  glaubwiirdige  Verordnung  nicht  ausz- 
triicklich  und  absonderlich  erkliiret  hatte  /  so  soil  dessen  Antheil  der 
samptlichen  Compagnie,  jeden  nach  proportion  seines  habenden 
Antheils  /  anwachsen  und  hiemit  iibergeben  seyn  /  auch  anders  nicht 
/  als  ob  er  allein  den  Gebrauch  solcher  Giiter  /  Zeit  seines  Lebens 
sich  vorbehalten  /  und  das  wahre  Eigenthumb  der  Compagnie  gleich 
Anfangs  incorporircX  hatte  /  gehalten  werden ;  und  sollen  alle  die 
Sterb-Fall  der  Compagnons,  auch  wer  derselben  in  diesem  Werck 
nachgelassene  Erben  seyen  /  von  dero  jedesmahliger  Schreiber  in 
beglaubter  Form  entweder  unter  des  Verstorbenen  gesampter  nechs- 
ten  Verwandschafft  /  oder  anderer  beglaubten  Persohnen  attestat, 
forderlich  berichtet  /  oder  bisz  zu  dessen  Gewissheit  /  des  Verstor- 
benen Nahmen  in  Rechnungen  und  Biicher  contimiir&t  /  und  dessen 
etwa  erfolgendes  contingent,  in  der  Compagnie  Cassa,  bey  den 
On^rwoZ-Brieffschafften  verwahret  werden. 

11.  Es  soil  niemand  /  so  ein  Participant  in  dieser  Compagnie 
ist  /  bemachtigt  seyn  /  sein  Land  oder  dessen  Gerechtigkeit  /  alles 
oder  zum  Theil  /  an  jemanden  /  ausser  der  Compagnie,  ohne  Bewil- 
ligung  /  oder  wenigstens  ersten  Anbietung  /  der  Compagnie,  zu 
veraussen ;  wolte  aber  eines  oder  das  andere  von  uns  /  unsern 
Weibern  /  Kindern  /  oder  wer  kiinfftig  Participant  der  Compagnie 
seyn  mochte  /  seine  portion  oder  dero  Antheil  iiber  kurtz  oder  lang 
begeben  /  aber  ausz  der  Compagnie  niemand  selbiges  an  sich  bringen 
oder  kauffen  /  alsdann  erst  soil  dem  Verkauffer  frey  stehen  /  an 
jemanden  anders  zu  verkauffen  /  doch  dergestalt  /  dasz  jederzeit  die 
Compagnie,  oder  wann  sie  es  nicht  haben  wolte  /  jemanden  ausz  der 
Compagnie  innerhalb  drey  Monat  /  nach  gcschehener  Anzeigung  der 
Verausserung  /  frey  stehen  solle  /  das  Verkauffte  mit  Darlegung 
des  Kauffschillings  an  sich  zu  nehmen  /  und  zu  ihrem  Profit  zehen 
pro  Cento  vom  Kaufifschilling  abzuziehen  /  oder  weniger  zu  geben  / 
als  solcher  neue  Kauffer  das  verausserte  Antheil  gekaufft  hat: 
Dessen  Wehrt  der  Verkauffer  und  Kauffer  auff  sein  Gewissen 
anzuzeigen  schuldig  seyn  soil. 

12.  Jm  unvershofften  Fall  iiber  kurtz  oder  lang  zwichen  uns 
/  unseren  Erben  und  Nachkomen  /  wegen  dieser  Giiter  und  deren 
dependentien  einiger  Miszverstand  oder  Anlass  zum  Streit  vorfallen 
mochte  /  soil  solches  zwischen  den  Gliedern  der  Gesellschafft  /  oder 
dafern  diese  von  beyden  Theilen  nicht  gantz  unpartheyisch  gehalten 
wiirden  /  durch  andere  von  den  uneinigen  Partheyen  /  einmiithiglich 
erwehlte  zwey  redliche  Persohnen  /  mit  Macht  /  dasz  diese  zwey 
erwehlte  Persohnen  /  die  dritte  /  wann  sie  es  nothig  achten  /  zu  sich 
nehmen  /auff  Art  und  Weisz  /  als  jetzt  beschrieben  wird  /  ge- 
schlichtet  werden :  Nemlich  die  erwehlte  Schieds-Freunde  sollen  auff 
bestimpten  Tag  und  Orth  /  in  Beywesen  der  misshelligen  Partheyen 

220  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

/  Oder  dero  Bevollmachtigten  /  nach  Anruffung  Gottlichen  Bey- 
stands  /  und  reifflicher  der  Sachen  Uberlegung  /  das  Werck  nach 
ihrem  besten  Verstand  und  Gutdiincken  durch  ihre  Urtheil  /  wann 
sie  die  Partheyen  nicht  vergleichen  konnen  /  entscheiden.  Jm  Fall 
aber  diese  drey  nicht  einig  werden  /  oder  die  meiste  Stimmen  nicht 
auszfinden  konten  /  so  sollen  sie  sich  bey  ein  oder  zweyen  Haupt- 
participanten  Raths  erholen  /  und  darnach  die  Urtheil  verfassen  und 
auszsprechen :  Wogegen  hernacher  auff  keine  Weisz  oder  Weg 
etwas  ferner  gethan  /  gehandelt  oder  admittivet  werden  soil  /  auff 
keine  Weisz  oder  Weg  /  mit  Recht  oder  mit  Gewalt  /  von  keinem 
Richter  oder  Menschen  /  der  gantzen  Welt  /  in  Euro  pa  oder  Amer- 
ica: Und  dafern  jemand  hiergegen  sich  zu  setzen  anmassen  wolte  / 
soil  er  ed  ipso  seines  gantzen  Antheils  verlustig  /  und  darzu  des  Orts 
/  wo  er  wohnet  /  allgemeinen  Allmosen-Kasten  mit  einer  Straff  / 
von  200.  Rthl.  ohne  alle  exception,  auch  ohne  fernere  declaration, 
ipso  facto  verfallen  seyn. 

Alles  treulich  und  sonder  Gefahrde:  Dessen  zu  wahrer  Urkund 
ist  gegenwartiger  nach  reifflicher  Uberlegung  von  alien  Interesseiiten 
einmiithiglich  beliebter  Brieff  /  unter  aller  und  jeder  eigenhandigen 
Unterschrifft  und  vorgetrucktem  Jnsiegel  Zwolffmahl  auszgefertiget 
/  und  jeglichem  dessen  ein  exemplar  zugestellet  /  auch  eines  zu  den 
gemeinschafftlichen  documentis  geleget  worden.  Welcher  gegeben 
zu  Franckfurt  am  Mayn  /  den  12.  Novemb.  anno  1686. 

(Seal)     Johann  Jacob  Schiitz 

(Seal)     Gerhard  Von  Mastricht 

(Seal)  Daniel  Bahaghel 

(Seal)  Jacobus  Vande  Walle 

(Seal)  iohan  Wilhelm  Petersen 

(Seal)  Johannes  Kemler 

(Seal)     Frantz  Daniel  Pastorius 
(Seal)     Thorn,  v.  wylich 
(Seal)     Johan  Le  Brun 

(Seal)     Balthaser  jawert-'' 

"  The  foreign  words  are  written  in  antiqiia  in  the  original,  according  to 
the  custom  of  the  time,  but  are  here  set  in  italic.  A  sample  page  with  signatures 
is  reproduced  in  half-tone  from  Pastorius'  own  copy  of  the  Agreement,  which 
is  now  in  the  Collection  of  Mr.  George  C.  Thomas,  of  Philadelphia. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  221 

Appendix  B. 

Exemplum  sine  lixemplo. 


(to  borrow  the  Jnscription   of  One  of  John   Wilson's   Plays.) 

The   Cheats    and   the    Projectors. 

J  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  having  formerly,  (to  wit  these 
28  years  past,)  by  Doctor  Schultz  &  other  honest  men  in  high 
Germany,  (Purchasers  of  25000.  Acres  of  land  in  this  Province 
of  Pennsilvania,  and  known  by  the  name  of  the  Francfort  Com- 
pany,) been  made  &  Constituted  their  Attorney,  And  still  being 
concern'd  as  Copartner  with  them  to  clear  my  Conscience  (as 
touching  the  Administration  of  their  sd  Estate,)  before  all 
People,  to  whom  the  Reading  hereof  may  come,  as  J  always  en- 
deavour'd  to  keep  the  same  void  of  offence  towards  the  all-seeing 
Eyes  of  God,  J  am,  if  it  were,  constrained  to  publish  this  short 
Relation,  for  as  much  as  the  aforesd  Francfort  Company  is  at  present 
Ejected  outof  their  25000.  Acres  of  land,  sumo  Jure  i.  e.  Suma 
Jnjuria,  by  extreme  Right,  extreme  Wrong.  Now  Jntending  Brevity, 
J  shall  let  my  Reader  know,  that  the  sd  Company  (  :  being  all  persons 
of  approved  Jntegrity  &  learning  became  at  least  some  of  them  per- 
sonally acquainted  with  out  Worthy  Proprietary  &  Govern.'"  William 
Penn,  and  purchased  of  him  at  a  full  rate  the  abovementioned  25000. 
Acres,  &  in  the  very  Jnfancy  of  this  sd  Province  disbursed  large 
sums  of  money  for  the  transporting  of  Servants  Tenants  and  others: 
And  that  J  according  to  the  best  of  my  poor  Ability  (as  many  of  the 
primitive  Jnhabitants  &  Settlers  yet  Surviving  Swedes  Dutch  and 
English  may  testify,)  administred  their  Affairs  17.  years  and  an 
half;  But  conscious  of  my  weakness,  have  often  requested  them  to 
disburden  me  of  this  Load  of  theirs  J  took  on  my  shoulders  by  their 
frequent  Assurance  to  be  behind  my  heels  into  this  Country  as  soon 
as  the  Jce  were  broken :  Whereupon  the  heirs  of  the  sd  first  Pur- 
chasers did  appeint  in  my  room  Daniel  Falkner,  John  Kelpius  & 
John  Jawert,  NB  to  act  Jointly  &  Severally. 

However  when  the  sd  John  Kelpius  had  a  forecast,  in  what 
chanel  things  would  run,  he  with  all  speed  in  a  certain  Jnstrument 
( :  of  Geo :  Lowther's  devise,  who  was  the  first  Lawyer,  that  un- 
happily got  an  hand  into  the  Companies  business,:)  declared  his 
Unwillingness  to  be  any  further  Concern'd  therein,  &  therefore  was 
termed  Civiliter  Mortuus.  Then  Daniel  Falkner  &  John  Jawert  acted 
in  the  dual  number  as  the  sd  Companies  Attornies  for  some  few 
years :  For  he  the  sd  Jawert  being  married  and  Settled  in  Marieland, 
Falkner  tum'd  such  a  Spent-thrift  and  Ever-drunk-ever-dry,  that 
he  made  Bone-fires  of  the  Companies  flax  in  open  Street  at  German- 
town,  giving  a  bit  of  Silver  money  to  one  Lad  for  lighting  his 
Tobacco-pipe,  and  a  piece  of  Eight  to  another  for  shewing  him  a 

222  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

house  in  Philadelphia,  which  in  his  Sober-fits  he  knew  as  well  as  his 
own.  &c.  Hereupon  his  Joint-Attorney  John  Jawert  affixed  an 
Advertisement  at  the  then  Meeting  house  of  Germantown  aforesd 
dated  the  9th  of  November  1705:  wherein  he  forewarn'd  all  persons, 
who  had  any  Rent  or  other  Debt  to  pay  into  the  sd  Company,  to 
forbear  the  Paying  thereof,  &c.  And  so  all  was  a  sleep,  as  Dormice 
do  in  winter,  till  about  2.  years  agoe  one  John  Henry  Sprogel, 
arrived  in  this  Province,  who  being  he,  that  by  the  Collusion  and 
treachery  of  the  sd  Daniel  Falkner,  &  by  the  wicked  Assistance  of 
the  Projectors  hereafter  to  be  spoken  of,  has  through  J  know  not 
what  Fiction  of  the  Law,  Ejected  the  sd  Company  out  of  their  real 
Estate  of  25000.  Acres,  J  think  it  not  amiss  to  give  some  little  account 
of  him. 

His  Parents,  I  hear,  are  of  a  good  report,  and  to  be  pittied  for 
such  a  Scandal  to  their  Family ;  this  Degenerate  &  Prodigal  Child 
came  the  first  time  into  this  Province  in  anno  1700.  and  quickly 
Owing  more  than  he  was  worth,  went  over  to  his  Native  land  in 
order  to  procure  some  cash  of  his  Father,  whom  he  said  to  be  a  rich 
Bishop  on  that  side.  Jn  his  return  he  was  taken  by  the  French,  & 
carried  to  Dunkerk,  whence  he  escap'd  with  an  empty  Brigantine 
into  Holland,  and  by  the  (now  repented  of)  Recomendation  of 
Benjamin  Furly  &  his  Book  keeper  H.  L.  found  so  much  Credit  with 
John  van  der  Gaegh  Merchant  at  Rotterdam  &  others  as  to  bee 
Jntrusted  with  a  deal  of  goods;  After  he  departed  outof  that  coun- 
try and  could  not  be  found  when  search'd  for  in  England,  he  came 
at  last  to  Philada.  and  there  took  his  Oath,  (as  J  am  credibly  in- 
form'd)  that  all  the  sd  Goods  were  his  own  directly  &  Jndirectly. 
Some  of  the  Germantown  people  then  Visiting  this  their  Great  Coun- 
treyman,  and  inquiring  for  Letters,  were  looked  upon  as  Slaves,  he 
being  the  only  Anglified  in  all  the  Province  of  Pennsilvania. 

How  be  it,  none  of  us  all  (J  believe,)  will  ever  have  such  a 
base  and  disloyal  heart  toward  our  Sovereign  Lady  the  Queen  of 
Great  Britain,  as  to  get  his  Naturaliation  by  the  like  disingenuous 
knack  as  he  did,  viz.  to  borrow  a  key  &  to  wear  another  man's  coat 
as  though  it  were  his  own.  &c. 

But  to  return  to  the  Francfort  Companies  Concern,  he  the 
aforesd  John  Henry  Sprogel,  having  along  with  him  a  Letter  of 
Attorney  from  the  sd  Benjamin  Furly,  sold  1000.  Acres  of  land, 
part  of  the  sd  Furly's  Purchase  in  this  Province  unto  David  Lloyd, 
at  a  reasonable  price,  so  as  to  have  his  Jrreasonable  advice  in  Law 
for  the  most  unjust  Entry  upon  the  Companie's  land.  For  he  the 
sd  Sprogel  finding  no  means  to  satisfy  his  Old  and  Just  Debts,  was 
forced  to  cantrive  a  New  untrodden  way  of  Clearing  his  Scores,  and 
to  play  the  Gentleman  sprung  out  of  a  Grocer's  Shop;  Therefore 
among  a  Swarm  of  tedious  Lies,  (  :  Wherewith  J  dare  not  trouble 
the  Reader,:)  he  also  spread  this,  that  he  stroke  a  bargain  for  the 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  223 

Companies  land  with  Doctor  Gerhard  van  Alastricht,  one  of  the  part- 
ners, of  whom  J  but  newly  received  an  extreme  kind  Letter  to  the 
clean  Contrary  thereof;  AForeover,  the  sd  Sprogel  to  pacify  the  above 
mentioned  John  Jawert.  (  :  who  likewise  has  a  Share  in  the  sd  Com- 
pany:)  proffered  unto  him  700.  Pounds  Pensilvania  Silver  money  for 
the  land,  and  100.  Pounds  besides  as  a  Gratuity  to  himself,  &c.  But 
he,  the  sd  Jawert  being  to  honest  for  an  Imposture  &  Bribe  of  this 
black  stamp,  Sprogel  was  driven  to  that  Extremity  (  :  hap  what  may, 
and  let  Frost  &  Fraud  have  hereafter  as  foul  Ends  as  they  will,:) 
that  he  now  must  Obtain  the  25000.  Acres  &  Arrears  of  Quitrents 
due  to  the  Franc  fort  Company  solely  &  alone  of  Daniel  Falkner,  who 
plunged  in  needlessly  contracted  Debts  over  head  &  ears,  could 
expect  no  gladder  Tidings,  (as  he  said  himself:)  than  the  same 
Proffer  made  unto  him.  Here  David  Lloyd  (  :  whom  to  name  again, 
J  am  almost  ashamed,:)  very  gingerly  to  play  his  Roll,  Fictionem 
Juris  ad  reipia  detrudendos  veros  Passessores,  the  which  never  the 
less,  it  seems  he  was  not  bold-faced  enough  to  do  in  his  proper 
Clothes,  but  one  Tho:  Macnamara,  a  Lawyer,  if  it  were,  started  up 
for  the  purpose  outof  Marieland,  ( :  for  a  couple  of  Periwigs,  which 
he  himself  told  me  was  all  he  had  of  this  my  brave  Client  for  blush- 
ing in  this  Case:)  Nominally  inferred  in  the  Ejectment,  lending 
like  as  the  Cat  her  Paws  to  a  more  crafty  Creature,  for  the  drawing 
of  the  rosted  Chestnuts  from  off  the  glewing  Coals.  Jf  any  demand 
how  this  D.  LI.  and  Macnamara  could  possibly  in  so  horrible  a 
manner  Circumvent  the  County  Court?  J  suppose,  the  fittest  Answer, 
J  can  give  to  this  Question,  is  what  Judge  Groudon  de- 
clared before  our  honourable  Lieutenant  Goven.''  sitting  in 
Council,  viz  that  at  the  tail  of  the  Court  Daniel  Falkner 
and  John  Henry  Sprogel  did  appear,  aixl  the  aforenamed  D.  LI.  and 
M.  laid  the  Matter  before  the  Court,  and  none  there,  to  Object  any 
thing,  &c.  (  :  For  this  cheating  trick  was  so  Clandestinely,  that  J 
and  John  Jawert  were  altogether  igiaorant  thereof,  and  when  Tho: 
Clark  the  Queens  Attorney  then  present  in  Court  did  but  rise,  the 
others  Suspecting  he  might  say  somewhat  in  Obstruction  of  their 
hainous  design,  was  gently  pull'd  down  by  the  sleeve,  and  promised 
40.  Shillings  to  be  quiet,  when  he  had  nothing  to  offer,:)  Thus  they 
surprised  the  Court,  and  Ob-et  subreptitie  compassed  the  Eject- 
ment. Three  days  after  the  breaking  up  of  the  aforesd  Court  J 
heard  of  this  unhandsom  Juggle,  and  gave  Jntelligence  thereof  to 
John  Jawert,  who  forthwith  came  up,  and  putt  in  his  humble  Request 
to  our  sd  well  respected  Lieutenant  Govern.''  and  his  hon'able  Coun- 
cil, we  had  the  sd  Tho:  Clark  assign'd  to  defend  or  Pleade  our 
Cause,  and  so  Jawert  paid  him  a  Fee  of  ten  Pounds,  but  to  this 
day  the  sd  Sprogel  still  stirs  his  stumps  in  the  Companies  lands  & 
Rents  without  the  least  Controlment. 

Since  all  this  there  arrived  divers  Letters   from  beyond  Sea, 

224  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

deciphering  pretty  fully  abundance  of  the  detestable  gulleries,  where 
by  he,  the  sd  Sprogel,  ensnared  &  trapan'd  the  Jmplicity  of  Upright 
&  plaindealing  people  in  Holland,  Admonishing  him  not  to  persist  in 
his  Evil-doings,  but  to  Confess  and  make  reparations  to  the  de- 
frauded, if  not  fourfold  as  peninent  Zaccheus  did,  Yet  as  far  as 
his  ill  gotten  Griff-graff  gains  should  reach,  &c.  And  further  there 
came  also  fresh  Letters  of  Attorney  from  all  the  Partners  of  the 
Francfort  Company  Living  in  Germany  Jmpow'ring  some  very  able 
Men  in  Philada.  to  redress  their  so  horribly  disdressed  Estate  in  this 
Province,  by  one  worse  than  the  worst  Land-Pirate  in  the  world 
could  have  done,  the  which  J  hope  they  will  undertake,  and  heartily 
wish,  that  the  Lord  (  :  who  is  called  a  Father  of  the  fatherless,  and  a 
Judge  of  the  Widows,  whereof  there  are  at  this  Jnstant  Several 
in  the  abovesd  Company:)  may  prosper  their  Just  Proceedings,  and 
all,  who  reverence  Righteousness  &  Equity,  Countenance  them 
therein  and  not  be  partakers  of  the  Spoil,  ( :  nor  of  the  Curse  entailed 
thereon:)  with  the  aforesd  John  Henry  Sprogel,  for  whom  not- 
withstanding the  foregoing  discoverey  of  his  unheard-of  Villainies 
J  retain  that  since  love  as  to  pray  to  God  Allmighty  to  Convict  & 
Convert  of  &  from  his  Perverseness,  that  he  forsake  his  diabolical 
lies,  pride,  bragging  and  boasting,  and  not  longer  continue 
the  Vasal  of  Satan  and  heir  of  Hell,  but  become  a  child  of  heaven, 
and  a  Follower  of  Christ,  our  Ever-blessed  Saciour,  who  as  he  is 
Truth  Jtself,  so  likewise  meek  and  lowly  in  heart,  leading  outof  all 
Cozening  Practices  into  the  way  of  holiness  &  Eternal  Felicity. 

Survey  of  Pastorus'   Land. 
(Original  in  the  Department  of  Internal  Affairs,  Harrisburg,  Pa. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  22^ 

Description  of  the  Map  of  Gcrmantown,  1688. 

Situation  der  Germantonship  in  Pennsilvania. 
6  Englische  Meil  von  Philadelphia  gelegen. 

Diese  Township  begriefft  5190  acker  landts,  deren  Lini  aus  gegenwartigem 
abrisz  von  Marckbaum  zu  marckbaum  kann  ersehen  werden.  Sie  komt  Eigen- 
thumlich  denen  ffurtischen  nnd  Crefeltn.  Kaiiffern  in  gleicher  Helffte  zu,  wie 
bereits  anderwerts  gemeldet. 

Die  Scolkill  num  2.  ligl  nur  eine  halbe  stund  darvon,  u.  konnen  wir  bey 
stillem  Wetter  den  daselbetigen  Wasserfall  num:   i.  deutl :  horen. 

Aus  gedm.  Scollkill  fieuszt  ein  bach,  von  den  Indianern  Wesehetkum 
genannt,  num  :  3.  in  etl.  noch  Kleinere  vertheilt,  durch  unsere  Township,  auch 
rinnt  noch  einander  bach  in  unser  land  nahmens  Wingacocum  num  4.  an 
welchem  Gerhard  Heinrichs  dicht  hinter  seinem  Vatter  eine  miihl  num.  5 
zu  bauen  Vorhabens  ist. 

Jn  der  vor  etl.  Jahren  angelegten  Statt  Germantown  sind  54.  Statt  Erb 
od  losen  auffgenommen,  und  bisz  auff  Sieben  bereits  beseht.  unsere  Compe 
hat  darum  SV2  losz  so  bisz  auf  eines  geclart  und  besaiimt ;  die  iibrige  aber  an 
Erbpachtsleut  ausgethan  worden.  Der  Compe.  los  sind  sub  num  6.  mit* 
notiret,  und  steht  deroselben  Haus  auff  denen  zwey  ersten.** 

Die  lange  strasz  mitten  durch  den  platz  ist  60  und  die  Zwerchgassen  40 
fusz  jedes  los  aber  14  ruthen  breit  die  Einwohner  sind  folgende  in  nachgsetz- 
ter  ordnung.  auff  der  ostseite  i.  Peter  Keurlis.  2.  Thunes  Kunders.  3.  Jan 
lensen.  4.  Lenert  Arets.  5.  Reinert  Tissen.  6.  Jan  Liicken.*  7.  Abraham 
Thunes. *  8.  et.  9.  Gerhart  Heinrix.  10.  David  Scherges.*  11.  Wolter 
Simens.*  12.  Derick  op  den  Kalck.*  13.  Wigart  Levering.  14.  Hermann 
von  Bonn.*  15.  Gerhard  Levering.*  16.  Heinrich  Sellen.  17.  Jsaac  Schafer.* 
18.  Heinrich  Buchholtz.*  19J/2.  die  Ffurte.  Compe.  20.  Cornelis  Bom.*  J/2. 
Jsaac  Dilbeck.*     22.  Ffurt.  Compe.     2sy2.  Jan  Duten.     24.  Andres  Suply. 

Auff  der  Westseite.  i.  Jann  Strepers.  2.  Derick  op  den  graef.  3. 
Hermann  op  den  graef.  4.  Abraham  op  den  graef.  5.  Willjam  Strepers.  6. 
Paul  Wulff.*  7.  Johannes  Bleikers.*  8  und  9.  Ffurte.  Compagnie.  10. 
Jacob  Schumacher.  11.  Jsaac  Jacobs.  12.  Jacob  Tellner.  13.  Heifert  Pape.* 
14.  Jacob  Kliimkes.*  15.  Cornelis  Sjoert.  16.  Hanns  Peter  Umbstet.  17^. 
Peter  Schumacher.  18^.  Jacob  Tellner.*  20^.  Baron  Wunderlich.*  21 J^. 
Andres  Kriskum.  22.  Claus  Tamson.*  23.  Hanns  Millan.*  24^.  Heinrich 

NB. :  Die  Nahmen,  worhinter  ein  *  stehet,  sind  unserer  Compe  Erb- 

Dieweilen  wir  Germantown  num  6.  angelegt,  ehe  uns  dz  land  zuge- 
messen  worden,  und  sich  nachgehendts  auf  der  Seite  nach  Philadelphia  weg 
der  Statt  Liberty  nicht  eben  viel  land  vor  uns  finden  laszen,  komt  es,  dasz 
sothan  Germantown  gleichsan  auff  der  fordersten  Spitz  der  township  lieget, 
damit  aber  nun  ebenwohl  das  hinter  land  auch  moge  employirt  und  genutzet 
werden,  haben  wir  zusammen  entschlossen,  ein  neu  Dorff  num.  7.  fast  am  end 
anzulegen,  auf  dasz  beede  platz  ihre  felder  und  Vietrifft  in  mitten  der  town- 
ship, und  also  so  nach  miiglich  bey  hand  haben  mogen.  Dieser  Neue  ort 
ist  noch  nicht  begonnen,  hat  auch  noch  Keinen  nahmen.  Diirffte  aber  nun 
bey  der  letztmahligen  Krisheimer  Freund  gliickln.  iiberkunfft  ein  an  fang 
alldar  gemacht  werden,  und  Johannes  Cassel  einer  von  den  ersten  alldort 
seyn.  worvon  mit  nechstem  umbstandlre  nachricht  ertheile. 

226  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Appendix  C. 
The  Pastorius  Family. 

The  name  Pastorius  (Pastor,  Pastoir)  was  doubtless 
originally  a  cognomen.  The  earliest  record  of  the  name  thus  far 
found  is  that  of  "Herrn  Pastor  von  Burtscheid,"  Feb.  ii,  1325. 
The  name  of  "Pieter  der  Pastoir"  with  that  of  his  father,  "Rittcr 
Ludwig  von  Cleberg,"  is  mentioned  as  a  "Burgmann"  of  the 
House  of  Grentzau,  Nov.  11,  1338.  Both  Pieter  and  his  father 
have  the  title  Ritter  von  Cleberg.  This  accounts  for  the  clover 
leaf  in  the  coat-of-arms  of  certain  branches  of  the  Pastorius 
family,  for  the  three  hills  on  the  datestone  of  Melchior  Adam 
Pastorius'  house  in  Sommerhausen  and  possibly  for  the  clover 
leaf  which  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  placed  on  the  seal  of  Ger- 

The  present  writer  has  been  able,  with  the  aid  of  newly  dis- 
covered sources,  to  trace  the  Westphalian  branch  of  the  Pastorius 
family,  the  ancestors  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  the  founder  of 
Germantown,  back  to  the  early  fifteenth  century.  The  name 
appears  in  the  Low  German  form  of  "Scepers"  in  the  list  of  the 
members  of  the  City  Council  (Stadtrat)  of  Warburg,  Westphalia, 
for  more  than  a  century,  as  the  following  names  and  dates  from 
the  list  of  the  Warburg  Council  will  show  : 

1439  Henrich  Scepers. 

1440  loan  Scepers. 

1 44 1  Henrich  Scepers. 

1442  loan  Scepers. 

1443  Henrich  Scepers. 

1444  loan  Scepers. 

1445  Henrich  Scepers. 
1447  loan  Scepers. 
1449  loan  Scepers. 

1 45 1  Henrich  Scepers. 

(Starb  in  diesem  Jahr. ) 

1452  loan  Scepers. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  227 

1459  Henrich  Scepers. 
1 46 1   Henrich  Scepers. 
1463  Henrich  Scepers. 
obiit  hoc  anno 
1475  Henrich  Scepers. 

1478,   1480,  1485,  1487,  1489,  1491,  1493,  1496,  149S.  1500, 
1504,  1506,  1508,  15 10,  1 5 12  Henrich  Scepers. 
1 5 13'  15 1?'  Hihebrand  Scepers. 

1 5 18  Henrich  Scepers. 

15 19  Hillebrand  Scepers. 

1520  Henrich  Scepers. 

1 52 1,  1523  Hillebrand  Scepers. 

1524  loan  Scepers. 

1525,  1527  Hillebrand  Scepers. 

1528,  1530  Henrich  Scepers. 

1531.  1533.  1535  Hillebrand  Scepers. 

1536  Henrich  Scepers. 

1537  Hillebrand  Scepers. 

1538  Henrich  Scepers. 

1539  Hillebrand  Scepers. 

(bekleidete  im  Stadtrate  das  Amt  eines  Weinherrn 
u.  starb  um  Ostern  des  Jahres. ) 

1540  Henrich  Scepers. 

1 541  Balzer  Scepers. 

In  the  Archives  of  Warburg  other  valuable  manuscript  docu- 
ments were  found  relating  to  the  Pastorius  family.  Among 
these  are  three  letters  written  by  Martinus  Pastorius  (or  Pastor 
as  he  signs  himself)  of  Erfurt,  to  recover  a  debt  due  him  from 
his  brother  Henrich  and  his  half-brother  Herbold  as  his  part 
of  the  inheritance — a  consideration  of  20  rix  dollars,  fixed  July 
24,  1618,  by  two  commissaries  of  the  Council,  Henrich  Thwing 
and  Jobst  Thoman,  as  one  letter  relates.  The  three  letters  are 
addressed  to  the  City  Council  of  Warburg  and  dated  Jan.  8,  1619 
(correcto  stilo),  Feb.  18,  1620,  and  Oct.  26,  1621,  respectively. 
In  the  letter  of  Oct.  26,  162 1,  we  learn  that  the  half-brother,  Her- 

228  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

bold,  robbed  his  old  father  and  cruelly  treated  him  and  that  the 
father  died  at  Easter  1620.-^ 

The  case  of  Martin  Pastor  against  his  brothers  was  finally 
decided  by  the  Juristic  Faculty  of  the  University  of  Jena  in  a 
document,  which  we  reproduce  here  photographically,  because  of 
its  interest  as  a  legal  form  of  the  time.  The  document  is  dated 
Oct.  17,  1621  (O.  S.). 

The  other  letter  found  among  the  Archives  of  Warburg 
is  addressed  by  Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  of  Windsheim  to  the 
Council  of  Warburg,  inquiring  about  his  ancestors.  Here  we 
learn  for  the  first  time  that  the  (High)  German  form  of  the  Pas- 
torius name  was  "SchalTer,"  and  that  the  family  were  weavers  by 
trade.  The  text  of  the  letter,  which  is  in  Melchior  Adam  Pas- 
torius' own  clear  hand,  is  printed  here  for  the  first  time : 

Wohledle  Fiirsichtige  undt  Hochweise 
Insonders  Grosgiinstige  Hochgeehrte  Herren. 

Denenselben  mag  ich  hierbey  nicht  verhalten,  wie  das  mein 
gelibter  Vatter  Martin  Pastor,  zu  Teutsch  Schaifer  genanth,  gewe- 
ster  assessor  des  lobl.  Chur  Mayntzischen  Gericht  inder  Statt  Er- 
ffurtt,  seel,  aus  dero  Statt  gebiirttig,  und  Eines  Warburgischen  Bur- 
gers Sohn  gewesen,  dessen  Briidere  dem  Verlauth  nach  ettwa  Zeug- 
webere  gewesen  sein  sollen  : 

Wann  dann  nun  durch  die  passirte  sowohlen  30.  lahrige,  als 
audi  nach  der  hand  niehr  gefolgte  Kriegs  Tuniulten  Ich  unter  andern 
obgedachten  Martin  Pastors  kindern  weith  in  die  frenibde  gerathen, 
und  mich  bey  3^  jahren  in  jtalien,  zu  Rom,  nachgehends  in  Franck- 
reich  und  Oestreich  uffgehalten,  bis  mich  durch  Gottlichen  Rath  und 
schickunge  in  dess  heyl.  Romischen  Reichs  Statt  Windsheimb  in 
Francken  hauslich  nidergelassen,  und  anfanglichen  eine  Raths:  nach 
der  handt  Burgemeisters  Stelle  sampt  andern  Ehren  Aemptern  ver- 
tretten,  auch  mitt  lieben  kindern  von  Gott  gesegnet  worden  bin,  so 
zum  theil  ihre  studia  absoluiret,  zuni  theil  aber  denen  noch  incum- 
biren,  vnd  nun  ich  sampt  diesen  posterirenden  lieben  Meinigen  sehr 
hohes  Verlangen  tragen  ettwas  wenigs  von  unserm  Origine  und 
lieben  VorEltern  in  notitiam  und  Wissenschafift  zu  bringen.  So  will 
solchem  nach  die  guete  zuuersicht  zu  Meinern  Grosgiinstig:  Hoch- 
geehrten  Herren  tragen,  die  werden  ob  solchen  meinem  hertzlichen 

°*  "Und  Montag  Anno  1622.  inn  den  heyligen  Osterman  mein  lieber  Vatter 
verstorben,"  &c. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  229 

Verlangen  nit  allein  kein  Missfallen  tragen,  sondern  auch  der  lieben 
Warheit  zu  steur  Mir  so  Viel  gutthat  und  freundschafift  erweisen, 
das  sie  aus  dero  Burger  Registern  sowohln,  als  dem  Statt  Tauffbuche 
Nachschlagen  und  uffsuchen  lassen,  all  der  ienigen  Schaffere  Nah- 
men  undt  hanthierungen,  welche  in  dero  lobl.  Statt  iemahls  gewohnet 
haben,  vnd  solche  (lurch  dero  verodneten  Syndicum  oder  Statt- 
schreiber  vmb  die  dancknehmige  gebiihr  extrahiren  und  vnter  dero 
Cantzley  Secret  expediren,  so  dann  Einem  Kauff:  oder  Handels- 
manne,  welcher  nacher  Franckfurtt  correspondiret  zuestellen  zu  las- 
sen,  deme  dann  alle  notificirende  spesen  und  Amptsgebiihren  durch 
He.  Caspar  Reinen  Meinen  genollmachtigten  mitt  hochstem  Dancke 
restituirt  werden  sollen. 

Vndt  gleich  wie  ich  mich  hierinn falls  hochgeneigter  gratifica- 
tion undt  willfahrigkeit  getroste,  als  werde  dise  mir  vor  meinem 
Ende  causirende  frewede  durch  meine  posteros  gegen  alle  War- 
burgische  Statt  Kinder  in  zuetragenden  gelegenheitten  aller  mog- 
ligkeit  nach  vergelten  lassen,  Inmassen  dann  nechst  heylwartiger 
Gottl.  empfehlunge  allsteths  bin  und  verbleibe: 

Meiner  Insonders  Grosgiinstigen  Hochgeehrten  Herren 

Dienst  bereith  ergebenster 
Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  J.  V.  D*". 
Aelterer  Burgemeister,  Scholarcha, 
und  Bawherr  in  des.  Heyl.  Rom.  Reichstatt 
Windsheimb  in  Francken. 

Datum  Windsheimb  den  23/13.  Jan.  1680. 

Pastorius  Genealogy.-^ 

Fridericus  Pastorius,  of  Warburg,  Westphalia,  died  at 
Easter,  1620  (Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  says  he  died  in  1640, 
leaving  an  only  son,  Martinus  Pastorius,  but  Martinus  in  a  let- 
ter addressed  to  the  Council  of  Warburg  mentions  two  brothers, 
Heinrich  and  Herbold,  designating  the  latter  as  "half  brother," 
and  stating  that  the  father  died  at  Easter,  1620).  Francis  Dan- 
iel Pastorius,  son  of  Melchior  Adam,  gives  the  name  of  his  great 
grandfather  as  Christian  and  not  Fridericus.  It  is  possible  that  he 
mistook  the  name  of  his  maternal  grandfather,  Christianus  von 
Flinsberg,  for  that  of  his  paternal  great  grandfather. 

"'  The  genealogy  printed  here  was  collected  by  the  late  Daniel  Pastorius 
Bruner.  No  attempt  has  been  made  to  complete  it.  It  is  printed  here,  with 
some  additions  and  corrections,  in  the  hope  that  some  member  of  the  family 
may  continue  it. 

230  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Children :  Martinus, 

Martinus   Pastorius    (Fridericus),^^   born   in   Warburg, 
Westphalia,  1576,  settled  in  Erfurt,  probably  in  16 18. 
Married  as  his  first  wife,  Eva  Rodiger. 
Children :    Casparus. 

Married  as  his  second  wife,  Brigitta  Flinsberger. 
Children :    Johannes  Augustinus, 

Margaretha  (married  Laurentius  Bebeler,  a  Chir- 
urgus  in  Elfeld), 



Melchior  Adam, 


Melchior  Adam  Pastorius  (Martinus,  Fridericus),  born 
at  Erfurt,  September  22,   1624,  died  at  Niirnberg,  February  4, 


Married  as  his  first  wife,  January  22,  1651,  Magdalena  Diez 
(born,  February  4,  1607,  died,  March  27,  1657). 

Children:     Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius. 

Married  as  his  second  wife,  February  9,  1658,  Eva  Mar- 
garetha Gelchsheimer  (daughter  of  Johann  Gelchsheimer,  Jurium 
Doctor  et  Jure  Consultus  in  Windsheim;  died,  June  14,  1661). 

Children:    Susanna  Eva    (born,    December  7,    1658,   died, 
January  4  [14],  1659). 
Susanna  Eva  (born,  June  10,  1660), 

Married  as  his  third  wife,  January  21,  1662,  Barbara  Greu- 
lichen  (or  Greulich  nee  Heider,  in  Hfflttenheim;  died,  March  26, 

No  issue. 

^'The  Christian  names  of  the  ancestors  back  to  Fridericus  are  given  in 
parenthesis  following  respective  subsequent  progenitors  as  here:  (Frideri- 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  231 

Marridjrl,  as  his  fourth  wife,  September  22,  1674,  Dorothea 

Esther  Volckmann  (or  Volckmanns,  daughter  of  Adam  Volck- 

mann,  in  Niirnberg). 

Children:    Johann  Samuel  (born,  Oct.  15,  1675,  died,  Aug. 
18,   1687). 
Anna  Catharina  (born,  March  20,  1678). 
Margaretha  Barbara  (born,  Aug.  14,  1680). 
Augustin  Adam  (born,  Aug.  5,  1682). 

Franciscus  Daniel  Pastorius  (Melchior  Adam,  Mar- 
tinus,  Fridericus),  born,  September  26,  1651,  in  Sommerhausen, 
Franconia;  died,  in  1719,  in  Germantown  Pennsylvania.  Mar- 
ried, November  26,  1688,  in  Germantown,  Enneke  Klostermann, 
of  Miihlheim-on-the-Ruhr  (died,  March  9,  1723). 

Children:    Johann  Samuel, 

Johann  Samuel  Pastorius  (Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior 
Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born,  March  30-31,  1690,^^  in 
Germantown;  died,  April  29,  1722. 

Married,  May  30,  1716,  Hannah  Lucken  (daughter  of  Jan 
Lncken),  passed  meeting  May  30,  1 716. 

Children  Daniel  (born,  December  22,  171 7). 

John  (born,  July  16,  1721 ;  died,  Jan.  2,  1749- 
50);  will  dated  November  2,  1749,  proven 
January  17,  1750,  buried  at  Germantown 
Meeting,  November  4,  1749. 

Heinrich  Pastorius  (Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam, 
Martinus,  Fridericus),  born,  April  i,  1692,  in  Germantown. 

Married  Sarah  Boutcher,  passed  meeting  November  30, 
1720.  (An  entry  in  the  Beehive  gives  date  of  marriage  thus: 
"Anno  1 720- 1  the  7th  day  of  February.") 

'^Pastorius  left  this  note  in  the  Beehive: 

"NB. :  This  child  being  born  on  a  First-day-night,  the  First  in  the  house 
we  now  dwell  in;"  &c.  Here  we  have  the  approximate  date  of  Pastorius' 
occupancy  of  the  Germantown  house. 

232  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Children:  Mary  (born,  January  18,  1722). 
Samuel  (born,  March  15,  1724). 
Hannah  (born,  March  i,  1726;  died,  August  12, 

Benjamin  (born,  August  4,  1728;  died,  October 

18,  1728). 
Ann    (born,   November  5,    1729;  married  John 

Wynn,  about  1750)  ;  died  Sept.  i,  1790. 

Daniel  Pastorius  (John  Samuel,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Mel- 
chior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born,  December  22,  171 7; 
died,  November,  1754. 

Married  Sarah  Shoemaker,  February  23,  1743. 

Children:    Hannah    (born  in  Germantown,   November   17, 

Abraham  (born,  October  10,  1745). 
Daniel  (born,  November  13,  1747). 
Samuel  (see  below). 

Ann  Pastorius  (Heinrich,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior 
Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born,  November  5,  1729;  died, 
September  i,  1790. 

Married  John  Wynn^"  (died,  April  19,  1787). 
Children:    Pastorius  (died,  April  25,  1787;  unmarried). 

Sarah  (married,  February  11,  1772,  James  Hall. 
Isaac  (born,  March  29,  1759;  died,  February  16, 
1798;  married,  July  8,  1784,  Mary  East- 
burn,  born  August  3,  1769;  died,  August 
26,  1803,  daughter  of  Robert  and  Esther 
(Franks)  Eastburn. 

Ann    (born,   August    i,    1765;  died,   August   5, 
1857;    married    May    15,    1789,    Thomas 

^  "The  above  family  usually  spelled  the  name  Wynne  without  the  "e"  as 
do  all  of  their  descendants  to  the  present  day." — J.  Clifford  Campion,  Jr. 

II.  3in  untttfjotften  Sail  thtt  kt^  om  Irtn^  ;iwirct!fn  mil  unfften  drbtn  mi 
(afi  jiiinStrcit  Kctfallen  in6cf)tc/  fell  folcfjea  ^nxfc^en  ^cn  ©Itctcm  ^(t  ©crellfcfiaflt/ 
cCcv  Dnfcvn  Dicfc  ton  6et)^cnI^etIfn:ncf)t  ^antj  uiii?ortbet}tra)  c\cbaltm  tt•ur^cn;'^urli 
mtt®Tactt/ba|j  Mcfe  jn?ct)mrcHte  <pcifcf)nfn'  etc  Mittc/njannitc  c«  iicthia  iwfitfn/ju 
•Ktc^  iicfimcn/nuff  2(ct  unb  ^cifi/  o[«  Ktjt  befc^rubcn  tvirt/  g:(cl)llcfttcttvcrt'cn;  OIciip 
licO  tic  crtt3Cl)ltc  Scfttc^« -5rcun^e  fdlm  flutf  wrtiinvHcn  ta^  ulI^  Cttb/  tn  ^^ctittcfcn 
licr  im#niacn  cpartt^f  t)cn/  o^fr  bcr'^  ©ct5cIliniW)tigten/  nacft  Cinruftiinc)  ©ortlic^m 
<8et)ftrtn&tf  /  unt>  retffltc^ct  M  i5na)cn  Uberlcfluug  /  ia6  SJcrcr  micf)  ibrcin  bcftm 
^afioiil  Uiit  @ut^uncfcll  ^urcf)  tf>re  Urttjril/  trann  |le  ^ic  <partf>crm  nlcfit  \jfTcjld» 
.  d)tn  ttnnen/  entfc^eifim.  3in  gad  aba  bicfc  ^rcr  nid)t  ctntjj  »cr^c1l/  o^cr  fie  mnftf 
©tumnoHrit^  aufifrnben  r6ntcn  /  fo  foKen  |lc  iTcf)  Ocn  cin  o^cr  jrecrcn  ^^uipt  -  parti- 
aptnttsi  ?}{attii  et^olen/  irnb  tamcui)  Mc  Urt^trt  tcrfalTcn  un^  ouiitrtcctcn :  ©ogc* 
flen  ^(tnoid&ct  ouf  friiie  Skifi  otcr^SBc  (\  ctroatf  fmtcr  gctl^aii/  gchan^clt  obtr  admitti- 
ttt Ottlxn foil/  anff Ww<ffitt6  oDft  25f^  mit  5Kc(^t  occr  ma  (gcttalt/  t>oii ftincm 
SRit^tft e6«9j^a»^c^/b<r8an$m^(t/mEuropao^o: America:  Un^^afrmjclnan^ 
^UtgegmfKfi  ju  (<r(Kn  otunaflcn  luoltf/  Toll  «t  e6  ipfo  frinc^  gan^cnSim^ril^  tcrlufri^ 
unc  ^arJU  Dt « Drt^ /  wo  tt  tw^urt/  allgonrinni  2lia«orfn»Sartfn  init  cinrr @mi^ 

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aU«  tmilict)  unl>  fonba  ©ffS^lx :  2Xflfn  }u  nw^rct  UrtunC  ift  gcc^cmvartt* 
9«  nat^  tfiffltt^  Utvcrltoung  ton  alien  Incercirentm  tiimiitMid)  (xlicbtct  ^ricflf/ 
imtrtoUtt  unt  jtlxt  rigraWnWgtn  Umft^^rtfft  tinD  tocrgfrnictttni  3n(ici]cl  ^nuMtf". 
ino^  oit^fmigrt/irab  jtglk^  Nflcn  rin  exemplar  jngffrtllrt/  and)  rtnce  ^u  ^cll  gc 
ittrinft^ffntc^  documencis  gtkgtt  ttOffcoi.     25«((&«  flfgcboi  ju  Srfliicf  furt  am 

Wml  Nnu.Novcmb.  anno  1686,  ,-^ 


'^^Tje^Tn-:  r^.' lOy^'c^ : 




r   /ct.«^/  ^ 

Signatures  op'  the  "Agrp:p:ment"  of  the  Fkankfurt  Company, 

November  12,  1686. 

(Original  in  the  Collection  of  George  C.  Thomas,  of  Philadelphia.) 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  233 

Hooton,  Jr.,  born,  July  20,  1866;  died,  June 
II,  1806,  son  of  Thomas  and  Bathsheba  (  ) 
Hooton  of  Evesham  Township,  Burlington 
Co.,  N.J.) . 

Abraham  Pastorius  (Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Franciscus 
Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born  in  German- 
town,  October  10,  1745,  in  1779  adjudged  a  traitor  and  lost  his 
property  by  confiscation,  after  which  he  went  with  his  family  to 
Canada,  died  in  New  Orleans,  in  May,  181 5. 

Married,  April  20,  1769,  Eleanor  Leech  (died  Feb.  29,  1779, 
and  buried  at  Oxford  Meeting  House. ) 

Children:  First  child  stillborn  (buried  at  the  Oxford  Meet- 
Eleanor  (born,  January  8,   1772;  died,  October 

5.  ^773)- 
Charles  (born,  February  15,  1774). 
Daniel  (born,  December,  1776). 
Margaret  (born,  October  4,  1777,  on  the  night  of 

the  battle  of  Germantown). 
Eleanor  Leech  (born,  February  29,  1779). 

Samuel  Pastorius  (Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Franciscus  Dan- 
iel, Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born  in  Germantown, 
September  13,  1747,  died  in  Philadelphia,  of  yellow  fever,  in 

Married,  Sarah  Lincoln  (died  of  yellow  fever  in  1798). 

Children ;    Sarah,  married  John  Tull,  and  had  a  large  fam- 


Francis  Daniel, 

Mary  (married  Mr.  Story). 

John  (born,  October  4,  1777,  on  the  night  of  the 

battle  of   Germantown;   died   in   February, 

1865,  unmarried). 
Esther  (died  in  childhood). 

234  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Abraham  (born  in  Philadelphia,  married  Char- 
lotte Wilson,  in  1816,  lost  at  sea  in  1825. 

Samuel  (married  and  lived  in  Baltimore;  no 

Rachel   (died  in  childhood). 

Ann  (married  John  Allen,  died  in  1876). 

Hannah  (died  in  infancy). 

Charles  Macknett. 

Daniel  Pastorius,  second  (Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Fran- 
ciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Affam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born  in 
Germantown,  will  dated  January  31,  1831,  proven  February  14, 

Married  Elizabeth  Mechlin,  April  19,  1786. 
Children:    Mary   (born,  September  5,   1788;  married  John 
Reiff,  of  Montgomery  Co.). 
Letitia   (born,  December  6,   1790;  married  Mr. 

Thomas ) . 
Joseph  (born,  March  7,  1793). 
Charles   (born,  October  5,   1795:  married  Mar- 
garet Broadus.     This  item  is  entered  also 
under  Joseph). 
Daniel  (born,  August  2.  1797). 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  second  (Samuel,  Daniel,  John 
Samuel,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Frideri- 

Married  Margaret 

Children :  A  daughter ;  married  Mr.  Lawrence  Shuster,  of 
Spring  Garden,  Philadelphia. 

Abraham  Pastorius  (Samuel,  Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Fran- 
ciscus Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born  in 

Married  Charlotte  Wilson  in  18 16. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  235 

Children :  Washington, 

Margaretta  (born  in  Phila.  July  2,  1820;  married 

Elton  Rogers ;  had  two  children ;  died  March 

31,  1849). 
John  (died  in  infancy). 
Francis  Daniel  (born,  May  i,  1825;  died,  1828). 

Charles  Macknett  (Samuel,  Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Fran- 
ciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus). 
Married  Ann  Rex  Hortter,  of  Germantown. 
Children:    Jacob  Macknett  (died,  October  11,  1832,  aged  4 
Rachel  (married  Lemuel  Zell,  and  had  a  number 

of  children). 
Anna  (born,  August  26,  1833). 
Charles  Macknett, 

Mary  Pastorius  (Daniel,  Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Franciscus 
Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born,  September 

Married  John  Reiff,  of  Montgomery  County. 
Children :    Jacob, 

Daniel  P., 






Daniel  Pastorius  (Daniel,  Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Fran- 
ciscus Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born, 
August  2,  1797;  died,  1864.  Married  Tacy  Styer,  daughter  of 
Charles  and  Tacy  Styer,  of  Whitpain  Township,  Montgomery 
County,  Pa. 

236  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius 

Children:    Myra  (died  in  infancy). 

John  (born,  1824;  unmarried). 

Mary  Macknett  (see  below). 

Elisabeth  Sheppard   (born,  February  20,   1828; 

married,   1866,  Rev.  John  S.  Cromlich,  of 

Pittsburg.     No  children). 
Daniel  (died  in  infancy). 
Francis    Daniel    (married    Frances    Beaver;    no 

Daniel  (see  below). 


\     (Twins  died  in  infancy). 

Washington  Pastorius  (Abraham,  Samuel,  Daniel,  John 
Samuel,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Frideri- 
cus),  born  in  Philadelphia,  January  4,  1818;  married  Mary  W. 

Children:    Henry  Wolff    (born  in  Germantown,  July    12, 
1855;  died,  August  11,  1869). 
Sallie   Wolff    (born   in   Germantown,   July    11, 

Washington  (born  in  Roxboro,  June  27,  1861). 
Francis    Daniel    (born   in    Roxboro,    September 

27,  1863). 
Charles  Sharpless   (born  in  Germantown,  April 

22,  1866). 
Charlotta    (born   in   Germantown,    January   23, 

Horace  Evans  (born  in  Germantown.  September 
II,  1876). 

Charles  Macknett  Pastorius  (Charles  Macknett,  Sam- 
uel, Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam, 
Martinus,  Fridericus),  born,  October  5,  1837;  died,  September 
28,  1870.    Married  Hannah  Nice,  of  Germantown. 

Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  237 

Children :    Samuel  Nice, 

Henry  Clay  Pastorius  (Charles  Macknett,  Samuel, 
Daniel,  John  Samuel,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchoir  Adam,  Mar- 
tinus,  Fridericus),  born,  February  7,  1850.  Married  Mary  de 
Huff  Smith. 

Children:  Jacob  Macknett  (died,  October  11,  1832), 
Cyrus  Tatman  (born,  1875). 
Henry  Clay  (born,  February,  1877). 

Mary  Macknett  Pastorius  (Daniel,  Daniel,  Daniel,  John 
Samuel,  Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Frideri- 
cus), born,  September  2,  1826.  Married,  August  i,  1849,  Davies 
E.  Bruner,  son  of  Ab.  Bruner,  of  Columbia,  Lancaster  County, 

Children:    Davies  Evans  (born,  September  12,  1850). 
Daniel  Pastorius  (born.  May  15,  1852). 
Rebecca  Tacy   (born,  December  2,   1857;  died, 

January  4,  1858). 
Abraham  (Abram),  (born,  January  9,  1859). 

Daniel  Pastorius  (Daniel,  Daniel,  Daniel,  John  Samuel, 
Franciscus  Daniel,  Melchior  Adam,  Martinus,  Fridericus),  born, 
March  6,  1836.  Married  Clara  Dalzell,  youngest  daughter  of 
William  Dalzell,  of  New  Jersey. 

Children:    Clara  Dalzell  (born,  November  3,  1869). 
Daniel  Berkley  (born,  July  31,  1871). 


PRIOR  TO  1846.^ 

Schiller  was  perhaps  the  most  permanently  influential  of  the 
German  poets  in  causing  the  introduction  and  spread  of  German 
literature  in  America.  Goethe  did  much,  but  he  also  excited 
violent  opposition,  and  hence  was  detrimental,  as  well  as  helpful. 
Jean  Paul  and  Herder  were  important  factors,  while  Lavater, 
Gellert,  Gessner  and  Klopstock  may  not  be  overlooked  in  sum- 
ming up  the  result. 

Of  the  great  names  of  the  eighteenth  century,  Lessing  and 
Wieland  seem  to  have  had  a  share  in  the  work  entirely  dispro- 
portionate to  their  position  in  the  literary  world.  While  their 
names  occur  in  the  magazines  more  frequently  than  some  of  their 
compeers  mentioned  above,  a  large  number  of  the  references 
are  unimportant,  their  best  works  were  comparatively  little 
known,  and  the  attitude  of  the  critics  toward  them  was  for  the 
most  part  unfavorable.  The  religious  skepticism  of  the  one  and 
the  erotic  tendencies  of  the  other  evidently  militated  strongly 
against  them.  The  present  paper  aims  to  make  this  clear  by  a 
brief  review  of  the  material. 

When  we  consider  the  fact  that  it  was  very  largely  through 
the  medium  of  the  drama  that  German  literature  first  made  its 
way  to  America,  it  may  seem  strange  that  we  find  so  little  trace 
of  Lessing  in  the  earlier  periods.  True,  Wilkens  records"  a 
translation  of  Miss  Sara  Sampson,  by  David  Rittenhouse,  of 
Philadelphia,  in  the  year  1789,  remarkable  as  perhaps  the  first 

*  Notes  supplementary  to  German  Literature  in  American  Magazines 
prior  to  I846.  Bulletin  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  1907.  Lack 
of  space  forbade  including  them  there ;  cf.  note  1,  p.  56.  For  brevity's  sake 
the  main  study  will  be  referred  to  here  simply  as  "bulletin  ;"  and  the  heavy- 
faced  numbers  in  the  following  foot-notes  refer  to  "List  A"  of  the  same. 

^  Early   Influence   of   German   Literature   in   America.     Americana    Ger- 
manica.  Ill,  103. 

Lessing  and  Wieland  239 

translation  of  a  German  drama  in  America;  but  he  finds  no  in- 
dication that  it  was  ever  staged,  and  I  have  found  no  reference 
to  it  in  the  magazines  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

He  cites  two  performances  of  Minna  von  Barnhelm,  one  in 
Charleston,  S.  C,  in  1795,  the  other  in  New  York  the  following 
year.  But  this  was  Johnstone's  English  version,  no  reprint  of 
which  was  made  here. 

Mr.  Viereck,  quoting  from  Learned,^  notes'*,  as  an  evidence 
of  the  progressiveness  of  the  Philadelphia  German  "Institute," 
that  its  students  were  acquainted  with  Nathan  as  early  as  1785, 
although  it  had  appeared  only  six  years  before.  But  no  further 
trace  of  this  drama  has  been  found,  either  among  the  transla- 
tions, or  in  the  magazines,  until  a  much  later  date. 

The  only  reference  I  find  to  Lessing  as  a  dramatist,  and  the 
only  mention  of  any  of  his  dramas,  prior  to  1800,  is  contained  in 
a  sketch  on  German  tragedy,  evidently  of  English  origin,  re- 
printed in  the  Massachusetts  Magadne  for  1795.^  Emilia  Ga- 
lotti  is  here  praised  in  the  conventional  manner  of  the  time  as 
joining  "elegance  and  neatness  of  diction,  beauty  of  cadence,  cor- 
rectness, chastity  and  regularity"  to  "high  strength  and  warmth 
of  conception." 

Aside  from  this,  Lessing  was  represented  in  the  American 
magazines  of  the  eighteenth  century  by  two  fables  and  two  brief 
poems  in  translation.* 

But  even  the  first  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century,  when 
Germany's  greatest  writers  begin  to  become  more  generally 
known  here,  shows  surprisingly  little  acquaintance  with  the  writ- 
ings of  Lessing.  According  to  Mr.  Wilkens'  investigation,  only 
one  of  his  dramas  was  reprinted  in  translation  here  during  that 
time,  Emilia  Galotti,  in  1810.     The  seven  magazine  references  to 

'  Cf.  Learned's  Inaugural  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1896. 
(Opening  of  the  Bcchstcin  Germanic  Library  Addresses,  p.  49.) 

*  German  Instruction  in  American  Schools.  In  Report  of  the  Commis- 
sioner of  Education,  for  1900-1901,  p.  545. 

°VII,  9.    On  page  2^3  of  the  same  volume  Lessing  is  again  mentioned. 
'Bulletin,  p.  11,  note  10. 

240  Lessing  and  Wieland 

Lessing  prior  to  1826  are  exceedingly  sporadic,  and,  with  a  single 
exception,  of  almost  negligible  importance.  There  are  two  brief 
poems  in  translation,  a  couple  of  anecdotes  of  his  absent-minded- 
ness, and  desultory  mention  of  the  Dramaturgy.'^ 

The  exception  noted  is  a  peppery  essay  "On  the  State  of 
Polite  Literature  in  Germany,"  upon  which  I  have  commented 
in  the  bulletin.^  The  writer,  who  takes  a  radical  view  of  Ger- 
man literature  in  general,  finding  all  its  writers,  except  Gessner 
and  Kotzebue,  utterly  deficient  in  the  matter  of  taste,  discusses 
Amelia  Galotti  (sic)  more  fully  than  any  of  the  numerous  works 
from  the  German  which  he  mentions.  This  was  the  drama  which 
had  been  reprinted  here  in  18 10,  but  whether  the  reviewer  knew 
it  in  translation  or  in  the  original,  we  cannot  say.  He  accords 
it  much  praise,  but  is  unsparing  in  his  censure  of  the  "lame  and 
impotent"  conclusion,  the  "unnatural  and  monstrous  catastro- 
phe." "All  is  pleasing,  beautiful,  and  correct,  till  the  last  scene ; 
we  are  fascinated  by  the  pencil  of  a  master  through  the  foregoing 
part,  and  are  suddenly  disgusted  and  pained  by  the  awkward 
contrivance  of  the  perverted  poet." 

Up  to  1826  there  had  not  appeared  a  single  biographical 
sketch  of  Lessing,  and,  with  the  one  exception  noted,  no  critical 
appreciation  of  his  work.  Even  the  Gottingen  men,  E.  Everett, 
Ticknor,  Bancroft,  Hedge  and  Calvert,  who  were  among  the 
foremost  exponents  of  the  merits  of  Goethe  and  Schiller,  seem 
to  have  paid  little  or  no  attention  to  Lessing. 

Not  until  1828  do  we  find  in  the  magazines  an  attempt  at  a 
summary  of  his  life  and  literary  career,  based  upon  a  study  of 
his  collected  works.  The  essay  of  which  this  discussion  forms  a 
part,  is  one  of  the  first  intelligent  attempts  at  a  comprehensive 
survey  of  the  history  of  German  literature  up  to  the  close  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  presented  to  American  magazine  readers,  and 
I  have  therefore  utilized  it,  as  a  sort  of  milestone  of  progress  in 
my  study.  ^ 

'  Bulletin,  Nos.  9,  34,  58,  127,  413,  667. 

•  P.  39.     The  article  is  in  the  Portico,  Baltimore.     II,  17 ;  for  1816. 

•  Bulletin,  p.  43,  and  Nos.  724,  751,  753. 

Lessing  and  Wieland  241 

About  a  page  of  it  is  devoted  to  a  brief  review  of  Lessing's 
life  and  character,  and  half  a  dozen  more  to  an  appreciation  of 
his  works.  He  is  praised  as  a  keen,  intellectual  and  fair-minded 
critic  and  controversialist,  and  designated  as  the  first  epoch- 
making  prose  writer  of  the  eighteenth  century  in  Germany.  His 
attitude  toward  Christianity  is  deplored,  but  not  censured.  The 
attempt  is  evidently  to  criticize  with  fairness. 

Of  the  works,  the  Dramaturgy  comes  in  for  the  most  praise, 
as  having  freed  the  Germans  from  the  thraldom  of  French 
classic  taste,  and  established  Shakespeare.  Of  the  Wolfenbiittel 
Fragments  a  brief  account  is  given,  but  the  writer  makes  no  at- 
tempt to  identify  himself  with  either  side  in  the  controversy.  He 
is  somewhat  chary  of  his  praise  of  the  dramas.  The  heroine  of 
Minna  von  Barnhclm  is  criticised  as  quite  too  forward ;  of 
Emilia  Galotti  it  is  said  that  "there  is  nothing  but  the  moral 
beauty  of  the  sacrifice  to  relieve  the  impression  of  horror."  And 
Nathan  is  rather  sharply  censured  as  to  its  religious  tendencies. 
The  snmma  summarnm  is :  'Tn  short,  Lessing  attacked  admir- 
ably, he  opposed  triumphantly ;  but,  except  through  his  influence, 
he  has  added  little  to  the  sum  of  human  happiness  and  intelli- 

From  the  severely  orthodox  temper  of  the  greater  part  of 
American  criticism  in  the  early  nineteenth  century,  it  is  but  nat- 
ural to  infer  that  the  free-thinker  Lessing  would  not  meet  with 
much  favor  here,  but  the  surprising  thing  is  that  so  little  was 
said  about  his  skepticism,  that  he  was  not  attacked,  as  Goethe 
was.  As  it  stands,  Americans  could  scarcely  have  learned  from 
the  magazines  prior  to  1828, — unless  it  were  from  purely  theo- 
logical articles,  of  which  I  have  taken  little  account, — that  he 
was  a  skeptic.  Only  one  essay,  of  the  year  1830,  entitled  "Relig- 
ion in  Germany;  By  a  German  Divine}^  is  outspoken  in  con- 
demnation of  this  side  of  Lessing's  activity,  referring  to  him  as 
having  written  "an  outrageous  book  against  religion,"  and  quot- 

"  Bulletin,  No.  857.    The  article  appears  in  Spirit  of  the  Pilgrims,  Boston, 
III,  57,  for  1830. 

242  Lessing  and  Wicland 

ing  his  letters  as  expressing  "the  feehngs  of  an  avowed  enemy  of 

From  this  time  on  there  is  nothing  worthy  of  note  on  Les- 
sing for  a  period  of  ten  years.  There  are  a  couple  of  fables,  Les- 
sing is  casually  mentioned  in  a  lengthy  article  on  the  European 
drama,  and  a  British  review,  republished  here,  discusses  his 
work  for  Shakespeare  in  an  essay  on  SJiakcspcarc  in  Germany}^ 

One  of  the  most  important  references,  however,  is  that  in 
the  New  York  Review,  for  1840.  It  is  a  forty-six  page  article 
on  Lessing  and  his  works,  sketching  his  life  quite  fully,  and 
dwelling  particularly  on  Laocoon,  Minna  von  Barnhclm  and 
Nathan,  the  Wise,  of  which  epitomes  and  numerous  passages  in 
translation  are  given.  Three  fables  are  also  reproduced.  The 
comment,  both  upon  the  writer  and  his  works,  is  favorable 
throughout.  Had  a  single  article  of  this  kind  appeared  in  a  lead- 
ing periodical  fifteen  years  earlier,  Lessing  would  have  been  as 
well  known  here,  perhaps,  as  any  of  his  compeers. 

During  the  remaining  five  years  of  our  period,  when  the 
interest  in  German  culture  was  at  its  height  here,  the  references 
to  Lessing  occur  somewhat  more  frequently,  perhaps  partially 
under  the  influence  of  the  essay  just  described.  A  Southern  trans- 
lator offers  two  more  fables,  we  find  two  new  poems,  a  quotation 
or  two,  and,  finally,  in  1844,  an  extended  synopsis,  with  many 
translated  extracts,  of  Emilia  Galotti,  the  drama  which  seems 
to  have  been  the  most  widely  known  of  any  of  Lessing's  works  in 
America.  ^- 

After  the  close  of  our  period,  1848-49,  the  Democratic  Re- 
view contains  complete  translations  of  Emilia  Galotti  and  Minna 
von  Barnheim,  and  an  investigation  of  the  magazines  since  that 
time^^  shows  that  Lessing  afterward  attained  greater  promi- 
nence here. 

"  Bulletin,  Nos.  915,  957,  999- 

"Bulletin,  Nos.  i337,  i339.  1363,  1387,  1632. 

"By  Dr.  M.  H.  Hacrtcl,  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin.  His  study,  a 
continuation  of  my  own,  covering  the  period  from  1846  to  1880,  is  now  pub- 
lishing as  a  university  bulletin.     See  the  discussion  of  Lessing,  p.  62  seq. 

Lessing  and  Wieland  243 

But  on  the  whole,  we  can  certainly  claim  for  him  no  very 
great  share  in  that  influence  which  brought  about  the  change  of 
American  sentiment  toward  things  German  in  the  first  half  of 
the  last  century. 

He  seemed  to  have  no  appeal  to  the  American  literary  pub- 
lic. Had  his  dramas  been  early  made  accessible  in  good  stage 
adaptations,  the  result  might  have  been  different.  As  it  was, 
they  were  known  only  through  cavilling  criticism.  Lessing's 
anti-religious  writings  seemed  to  excite  little  jittention  and  to 
evoke  little  opposition  here,  it  is  true,  but  they  doubtless  deterred 
Americans  to  some  extent  from  busying  themselves  with  him, 
nevertheless.  Writers  who  were  interested  in  German  literature, 
probably  felt  that  Lessing  could  hardly  prove  popular  here,  and 
hence  passed  him  by. 

And,  finally,  the  inestimable  services  of  his  criticism  to 
German  literature,  in  renovating  and  remodeling  it,  could  scarcely 
be  expected  to  appeal  strongly  to  a  young  nation  not  laboring 
under  the  same  difficulties,  but  with  entirely  different  battles  of  its 
own  to  fight. 

Thus  the  role  played  by  Lessing  here  was  entirely  incom- 
mensurate, not  only  with  his  importance  at  home,  but  also  with 
the  influence  exerted  by  his  compeers,  Goethe  and  Schiller. 

Wieland,  like  Lessing,  was  represented  up  to  1826  by  only 
two  works  in  translation,  but  Ohcron  proved  popular,  and,  if 
the  magazines  may  be  taken  as  evidence,  Wieland  was  far  more 
favorably  introduced  to  the  reading  public  than  the  great  critic. 
True,  his  fondness  for  voluptuousness  excites  adverse  comment, 
even  in  the  early  period,  but  since  this  feature  is  not  so  promi- 
nent in  Ohcron,  as  in  others  of  his  works,  and  since  Wieland 
himself  was  invariably  represented  as  a  venerable  and  pious  man, 
it  was  not  until  reviews  of  his  collected  works  began  to  appear, 
that  he  fell  into  disfavor,  if  not  disrepute. 

The  first  work  of  which  Mr.  Wilkens  has  found  an  Amer- 
ican reprint,  was  Socrates  Out  of  His  Senses;  or,  Dialogues  of 
Diogenes  of  Sinope.     The  first  volume  appeared  at  Newburgh, 

244  Lessing  and  Wieland 

in  1797.  No  trace  has  been  found  of  a  second.  Mr.  Wilkens 
supposes  that,  as  the  book  had  aroused  no  attention  in  England, 
it  probably  pro\ed  unpopular  here,  too;  a  supposition  which  the 
magazines  fully  confirm,  I,  at  least,  having  found  no  reference 
to  it.  The  only  mention  I  have  discovered  of  the  name  of  Wie- 
land in  the  magazines  of  the  eighteenth  century,  is  a  foot-note  to 
An  Essay  on  Hnuiour,  Translated  from  the  German,  appearing 
in  the  Columbian  Magazine  (old),  for  1790,^^  in  which  he  is 
mentioned  among  several  forgotten  and  half  forgotten  names 
as  one  of  "the  principal  humorous  writers  among  the  Germans." 

In  1805,  there  appears  a  five-page  biographical  sketch, ^^ 
probably  of  English  origin,  which  is  extremely  laudatory.  Wie- 
land is  forthwith  crowned  "Prince  of  the  German  bards"  by 
this  enthusiastic  admirer,  who  even  essays  such  flights  as  the 
following:  "As  in  the  angelic  picture  of  Raphael,  there  beams 
forth  in  his  countenance  the  tranquil  transfiguration  of  a  per- 
fected spirit  and  a  sainted  heart."  There  is  not  a  syllable  con- 
cerning the  erotic  tendencies  of  his  writings,  and  he  is  praised 
for  having  fired  his  genius  on  by  persistent  labor  to  rise  above 
the  religious  zealotism  of  his  youth.  Oberon  is  highly  praised, 
and  we  are  congratulated  that  the  English  translation  (Sothe- 
by's) is  fully  the  equal  of  the  original  in  poetical  merit. 

Since  this  article  appears  in  one  of  the  best  periodicals  of 
its  day,  it  is  perhaps  fair  to  assume  that  it  gained  a  considerable 
circulation  among  literary  people  and  paved  the  way  for  the 
reception  of  this  excellent  translation  of  Oberon. 

In  1807  a  contributor  to  the  Boston  Emerald'^^  expresses 
surprise  that  this  work  is  not  more  freely  circulated  in  America, 
and  appends  an  extract  which  he  thinks  is  well  worthy  of  atten- 

Oberon  evidently  excited  no  little  interest  when  it  was 
finally  reprinted  in  two  neat  volumes  in  Newport  and  Boston  as 

"  IV,  30. 

"  Bulletin,   No.  80.     The  article  appears  in   the  Literary  Magazine  and 
American  Register,  Phila. 

"II,  149.    Bulletin,  No.  133. 

Lessing  and  Wieland  245 

the  first  American  from  the  third  London  edition.  The  maga- 
zines contain  numerous  announcements,  notices  and  formal  re- 
views ;^^  but  since  Mr.  Wilkens  has  treated  the  subject  rather 
fully,  citing,  too,  J.  Q.  Adams'  unpublished  translation  of  the 
poem,  we  may  dismiss  it  briefly  here. 

Suffice  it  to  say  that  both  favorable  and  unfavorable  opin- 
ions were  advanced,  the  former  apparently  predominating.  One 
interesting  twelve-page  review,  not  heretofore  mentioned  in  this 
connection,  is  in  the  Philadelphia  Portfolio  for  1810,^^  and, 
judging  from  its  tone,  may  have  been  written  by  "Oliver  Old- 
school"  (Joseph  Dennie),  the  editor.  Oldschool  was  especially 
hostile  toward  Kotzebue,^''  and  the  German  drama,  and  was  not 
at  all  partial  to  German  literature  as  a  whole.  This  review 
opens  with  a  tirade  against  the  supernatural  tendencies  of  the 
latter.  Germany  "seems  the  church-yard  of  letters,  infested  with 
ghosts,  sprites,  hobgoblins,  fairies  and  monsters  of  all  sizes." 
The  Thames  is  tha  Styx,  over  which  Mr.  (M.  G.)  Lewis,  acting 
as  Charon,  is  ferrying  these  wraiths  in  such  numbers  as  greatly 
to  endanger  the  purity  of  English  taste.  "The  pages  of  this 
ghost-maker  abound  in  such  prodigies  that  he  often  makes  the 
grave  of  his  hero  the  punctum  saliens,  or  starting  point  of  his 
existence."  Kotzebue  is  a  disseminator  of  poisons.  "He  wore 
out  the  vigour  of  his  days  in  the  corruption  of  the  human  heart, 
and  became  at  last  the  hoary  pander  in  the  service  of  Infidelity 
and  Lust." 

But  after  this  most  unpromising  beginning,  the  writer 
passes  to  a  very  favorable  review  of  Oberon.  He  says  he  finds 
nothing  to  advance  against  the  propriety  of  this  book,  derives  a 
moral  of  heavenly  forgiveness  and  reward  for  repentance  and 
virtue,  and  welcomes  the  supernatural  agents  as  not  of  Ger- 
many's "celestial  monsters,"  but  of  a  race  rendered  venerable  by 
tradition.  His  chief  stricture  is  on  the  slow-moving  Spenserian 
stanza,  chosen  by  the  translator. 

"  Bulletin,  Nos.  133,  175.  182,  183,  186,  189,  203. 
"New  Series,  IV,  592;  Bulletin,  No.  189. 
"  Bulletin,  pp.  58-59- 

246  Lessing  and  Wieland 

For  a  decade  and  a  half  after  the  various  notices  called  forth 
by  Oheron,  we  hear  comparatively  little  of  Wieland.  There  are 
a  number  of  references  of  minor  importance,^"  two  brief  bio- 
graphical sketches,  a  review  of  his  published  correspondence, 
reproduced  from  the  Journal  des  Savans,  Wieland's  account  of 
his  interview  with  Napoleon,  and  a  story,  reprinted  from  an 
English  source.  The  comment  on  both  the  writer  and  his  works 
is  laudatory  throughout,  but  it  is  apparent  that  he  is  little  known, 
except  as  the  author  of  Oheron. 

The  article  which  has  been  referred  to  above,  and  in  the 
bulletin,  as  typical  of  the  attitude  of  American  criticism  toward 
German  literature  prior  to  the  vogue  of  German  letters  here  in 
the  thirties  and  forties,^^  is  one  of  the  first  to  come  out  squarely 
against  Wieland.  It  is  based  in  part  upon  a  study  of  the  com- 
plete works,  and  for  practically  the  first  time  we  hear  an  Amer- 
ican opinion  of  something  else  besides  Sotheby's  Oheron.  And 
another  essay  in  the  same  periodical,  a  few  volumes  later,^-  a 
searching  review  of  Wm.  Taylor's  Historic  Survey  of  German 
Poetry,  has  the  same  ring,  and  is  doubtless  by  the  same  writer. 
It  is  less  thorough,  and  devotes  less  attention  to  Taylor,  and  more 
to  German  authors,  than  Carlyle's  well-known  review  of  the  same 
work  (in  his  Critical  and  Miscellaneous  Essays),  but  the  writer 
is  fully  as  disinclined  to  accept  Taylor's  estimates  as  Carlyle. 

This  critic  refuses  Wieland  a  place  in  the  hierarchy  of 
genius,  and  points  out  his  weaknesses  with  unsparing  severity. 
He  grants  him  facility,  but  denies  him  all  originality.  He  con- 
demns him  as  a  pilferer  and  imitator,  insipid  and  vain.  "The 
study  of  his  works  has  not  taught  us  to  respect  him."  The  con- 
demnation of  his  immorality  and  frivolity  is  emphatic.  He  is 
contrasted  with  Klopstock;  the  latter  is  "an  eagle,  soaring 
through  the  clouds  to  the  sun;"  the  former,  "a  starling  that  in- 
sults   all  passers-by."      "We  venerate    the  erudition    and  great 

'°  Bulletin,  Nos.  203,  227,  231,  336,  346,  388,  504,  518,  636,  742. 
"  See  note  9  above. 

**  Bulletin,  No.  830.     Unfortunately  I  have  not  been  able  to  identify  this 

Lessing  and  Wieland  247 

variety  and  accuracy  of  knowledge  of  Wieland,  but  in  respect 
to  the  moral  of  his  writings,  he  seems  to  us  like  a  snail,  creeping 
over  the  best  things  in  life,  and  leaving  them  odious  by  the  filthy 
slime  which  marks  his  progress.'"  The  reviewer  "cannot  admire 
even  the  epic  poem  of  Oheron."  Agathon  fares  no  better  at  his 
hands.  "Strike  from  literature  the  entire  works  of  Wieland, 
and  nothing  would  be  lost  to  the  world." 

These  two  essays  appeared  in  1828  and  1830.  The  half 
dozen,  or  more,  pages  in  them  devoted  to  Wieland  probably  rep- 
resent the  most  influential  contributions  concerning  him  in  the 
magazines  of  our  period.  A  lengthy  review  of  his  works  in  a 
British  magazine,  republished  here,^^  which  takes  a  much  more 
charitable  view,  deploring  only  his  indifference  to  moral  gran- 
deur, doubtless  did  little  toward  counteracting  its  effect. 

After  this  time  Wieland  is  represented  by  only  two  stories, 
and  extracts  from  the  "Sympathies/' — in  the  hyper-emotional 
manner  of  his  early  writings — in  translation.-^  In  the  animated 
discussion  of  German  literature  during  the  thirties  and  early 
forties,  Wieland  rarely  finds  mention  and  receives  no  extended 

Toward  the  end  of  our  period,  Mr.  M.  M.  Backus  begins 
an  article  on  novels  and  novel-reading, — which  he  condemns  as 
"earthy,  downwards,  grovelling,"  in  tendency, — with  a  protest 
against  Wieland  as  a  venal  panderer  to  the  degenerate  taste  of 
"the  callow  debauchees  who  bought  Agathon/'  and  rejoices  that 
"Agathon  has  perished  from  the  roll  of  readable  novels."-^ 

Nor  does  Wieland  seem  to  have  gained  further  recog- 
nition here  after  this  time.-''  Thanks  to  Sotheby's  Oberon,  his  in- 
troduction had  been  far  more  favorable  than  Lessing's;  but  the 
latter  possessed  sterling  merit  that  finally  gained  him  a  hearing 
among  cultured  people,  if  not  general  popularity,  while  Wieland 

"  Bulletin,  No.  767. 
=*  Bulletin,  Nos.  798,     1099,  1165,  1209. 
"Bulletin,   No.   1627. 

*■  Mr.  Haertel,  (see  note  13  above),  has  listed  only  one  reference  to  him, 
a  biog.  crit.  article  of  the  year  1862. 

248  Lessing  and  Wieland 

had  no  message  for  a  public  whose  tastes  were  offended  by  his 
sensuous  gallantries.  Our  fathers  were  less  ready  to  for- 
give these,  it  seems,  than  an  honest  and  outspoken  skepticism  in 
religious  matters.  And  the  graces  of  literary  form  could  not 
atone  in  their  eyes  for  a  lack  of  moral  worth  and  dignity  in  the 

I  desire  to  avail  myself  of  the  opportunity  to  publish  the  following  table 
of  errata,  referring  to  the  bulletin : 

P.  11,  note  10,  line  4,  read:  "Galotti". 

P.  20,  note  28,  read:  "Treitschke". 

P.  27,  line  1,  read:  "and  in  a". 

P.  SO,  note  46,   read:   "pp.  83-6". 

P.  56,  note  1,  line  6,  read:  "Leipzig". 

P.  66,  line  27,  read :  "one  or  two". 

P.  74,  note  50,  line  3,  read :  "Goethe-Jahrbuch", 

P.  76,  note  57,  last  line,  read :  "Deity". 

List  A,  Nos.  13,  14,  126,  134,  159,  211,  214,  295,  297,  542,  594,  595,  596, 
read :  "Die  Spanier". 

List  A,  No.  729,  read:  "Fraternal". 

List  A,  No.  1024,  and  p.  62,  note  20,  II  24-26.  The  poem  is  J.  Kerner's 
(not  Koerner's,  as  printed  in  the  magazine),  "Wohl  auf  noch  getrunken", 
in  translation.     Insert  1024  under  Kerner,  List  B. 

List  A,  No.  1667,  read:  "Mr.  Quint",  and  "Miss  W.  Barrington". 

List  B,  p.  243,  read:  "Apenzellee  {sic)". 

List  B,  p.  243,  under  Brentano,  second  date,  read:  "(1842)".  Further, 
the  entries  under  "Brentano"  should  have  been  made  under  "Arnim",  and 
those  under  "Fallersleben,"  under  "Hoffman". 

List  B,  p.  246,  read:  "Handel". 

List  B,  p.  250,  strike  out  "Skleit".  Evidently  a  magazine  misspelling  for 
"Kleist";  cf.  List  A,  Nos.  1685  and  1803.  Hence,  "(1845)  1803"  should  be 
entered  under  "Kleist",  p.  247. 

List  B,  p.  251,  line  3,  read:  "(1818)  346". 

List  B,  p.  251,  read:  "Zacharia". 

List  B,  p.  251,  read:  "Zincgreff". 

List  B,  p.  251,  under  "Zschokke",  read  1142  before  1166. 

S.  H.  Goodnight, 
Univ.  of  Wisconsin. 

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Mr.  Sanford  H.  Cobb,  Minister  of  the  High  Dutch  Churches 
of  Schoharie  and  Saugerties,  as  a  tribute  to  the  sturdy  German 
stock  from  which  his  parishioners  descended,  published  (Put- 
nams,  N.  Y.,  1897),  The  Story  of  the  Palatines,  an  Episode  in 
Colonial  History.  He  gives  first  a  brief  history  of  the  region 
from  which  they  came,  carrying  the  name  that  has  become  syn- 
onymous with  German  sturdy  loyalty  to  religion  and  to  the  coun- 
try that  gave  them  refuge. 

Driven  by  the  hardships  inflicted  by  the  French  invading 
armies,  and  by  the  greater  injustice  shown  them  by  their  own 
petty  sovereign,  in  his  zeal  for  the  Roman  Catholic  religion, 
which  they  refused  to  adopt,  nearly  three  thousand  Palatines 
landed  in  New  York  in  June  and  July,  1710.  They  were  but  a 
part  of  the  many  thousands  who  found  an  outlet  through  Protes- 
tant Holland  and  a  welcome  in  Protestant  England,  where  Queen 
Anne  and  her  Whig  Ministers  set  an  example  of  liberal  help,  fol- 
lowed by  generous  aid  from  all  of  her  broad  and  catholic  spirit. 
Some  were  sent  to  Ireland  and  there  established  useful  indus- 
tries. The  first  band  of  Palatines  to  come  to  America  found 
settlement  in  New  Jersey,  in  1707,  and  left  a  posterity  that  still 
flourishes  near  Schooley's  Mountains,  in  Morris  County.     Their 


252  The  Palatines  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania 

experiences  are  told  in  "The  Story  of  an  Old  Farm"  by  Mellick, 
himself  a  descendant  of  this  stock.  Pastor  Kocherthal,  an  Evan- 
gelical minister,  led  a  little  band,  helped  by  royal  bounty  and 
with  a  grant  of  a  glebe  of  500  acres  to  Kocherthal — most  of  them 
were  farmers,  one  a  weaver,  one  a  stocking  maker,  one  a  black- 
smith, one  a  carpenter — all  trades  that  ought  to  have  made  them 
welcome  as  useful  settlers.  Their  first  experience  was  a  hard 
and  trying  one,  but  in  1713,  they  received  a  grant  of  land  known 
as  the  German  Patent,  on  the  lower  Hudson,  near  Newburg.  In 
1 710,  Kocherthal  brought  a  larger  company  and  secured  for  them 
land  in  the  same  region,  and  exercised  a  paternal  care  over  both 
parties.  He  died  in  171 9,  at  West  Camp,  on  the  Hudson,  his 
grave  is  marked  with  this  quaint  inscription  in  High  German: 

"Know,  wanderer,  under  this  stone  rests  a  right  wanderer, 
the  Joshua  of  the  High  Dutch  in  North  America,  the  pure  Lu- 
theran preacher  of  them  on  the  East  and  West  sides  of  the 
Hudson.  His  first  arrival  was  with  Lord  Lovelace  in  1707-8, 
the  I  St  January.  His  second  with  Col.  Hunter,  1710,  the  14  June. 
His  voyage  back  to  England  was  prevented  by  the  voyage  of  his 
soul  to  Heaven  on  St.  John's  Day,  1719.  Do  you  wish  to  know 
more?  Seek  in  Melanchthon's  Fatherland,  who  was  Kocherthal, 
who  Herschias,  who  Winchenbach?" 

Twenty-three  years  after  his  death,  in  1742,  this  memorial 
was  put  upon  his  grave,  and  in  1895  placed  as  a  mural  tablet  in 
the  church  at  West  Camp. 

From  the  stony  hillsides  on  the  Hudson,  the  Palatines  lis- 
tened to  the  tale  of  more  fertile  farms  in  Pennsylvania,  whither 
many  of  the  settlers  at  the  Camps  and  Schoharie  had  migrated, 
and  departed  to  join  their  compatriots  in  the  valleys  of  the  Swa- 
tara  and  Tulpehocken.  A  year  after  the  departure  of  Kocher- 
thal and  his  first  company  from  the  Palatinate,  as  Conrad  Weiser, 
then  a  boy  of  twelve,  describes  it  in  his  autobiography,  "a  migrat- 
ing epidemic  seized  on  the  stricken  people,  and  as  a  wave,  thirty 
thousand  Germans  washed  along  the  shores  of  England."  The 
Queen  set  the  example  of  generous  provision   for  the   I3,cx)0 

The  Palatines  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  253 

Palatines  thus  gathered  in  London,  and  £135,000  were  raised  and 
spent  in  caring  for  them.     £24,000  were  voted  by  ParHament  to 
send  3,800  to  Ireland,  where  they  were  settled  in  1709,  in  Mun- 
ster,  and  in  1840,  a  German  traveller.  Kohl,  wrote  that  "they 
had  not  lost  their  home  character  for  probity  and  honor,  and 
were  much  wealthier  than  their   neighbors."     A  second  large 
body  was  sent  in  1709  to  the  Carolinas,  under  a  native  of  Berne, 
de  Graffenried,  whose  ambition  to  found  a  principality  under  his 
lordship,  gave  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  and  ended  in  his  self  exile 
to  the  settlement  of  Germans  established  in  Northern  Virginia, 
by  Gov.  Spottiswood,  at  Germanna,  where  fifty  years  later  an- 
other Graffenried,  probably  the  Baron  Palatine's  grandson,  figured 
with  no  great  credit.    Spottswood  himself  at  the  end  of  his  term 
of  office,  retired  to  Germanna  and  built  a  home  of  palatial  pro- 
portions for  the  time  and  place,  and  it  is  still  the  subject  of  tradi- 
tion and  the  home  of  unrecorded  romance.     Ten  or  fifteen  years 
later,  a  company  of  Germans  from  Pennsylvania,  doubtless  Pal- 
atines from  Berks  County,  came  to  Virginia,  took  up  40,000 
acres  in  the  lower  Shenandoah  Valley,  founded  Strasburg,  just 
over  the  mountains  from  Germanna,  and  to  this  day  their  de- 
scendants are  an  element  of  value,  represented  among  others  by 
the  Wirts,  Conrads,  Scheffers,  Kempers,  Koiners  and  Spreeces. 
The  largest  immigration  in  one  body  to  America  was  that 
of  the  Palatines,  about  3,000,  in  ten  ships,  and  as  the  voyage 
lasted  from  January,  17 10,  until  June,  with  all  the  discomforts 
incidental  to  the  sea  then,  naturally  the  deaths  on  shipboard  and 
after  landing  were  very  numerous,   reported  at  470,   by  Gov. 
Hunter,  the  great  advocate  of  this  addition  to  the  Province  of 
which  he  was  then  made  Governor.     His  faith  in  his  scheme  for 
making  these  industrious   Palatines  profitable  to  the   Province 
and  to  the  Mother  Country,  cost  him  dearly  in  reputation,  and 
caused  great  suffering  to  the  new  comers.     The  most  prominent 
man  among  them  was  John  Conrad  Weiser,  father  of  Conrad, 
then  a  boy  of  twelve,  who  was  to  play  a  leading  part  in  bring- 
ing his  countrymen  from  the  harsh  treatment  meted  out  in  New 

254  ^/^^  Palatines  in  Nciv  York  and  Pennsylvania 

York,  to  the  gentle  and  hospitable  welcome  in  Pennsylvania, 
where  Conrad  Weiser  served  his  adopted  country  by  zealous  and 
useful  dealing  with  the  Indians,  and  helped  them  and  the  Pro- 
prietary government  of  Pennsylvania  and  indeed  all  the  Col- 
onies, by  his  good  reputation  with  Indians  and  Whites. 

Among  the  children  apprenticed  to  earlier  settlers,  were  two 
brothers  of  Conrad  Weiser,  who  were  lost  to  their  family  for- 
ever, and  a  lad  of  thirteen,  John  Peter  Zenger,  an  orphan,  whose 
father  had  died  at  sea,  apprenticed  to  William  Bradford,  the 
early  printer  of  New  York.  Zenger  is  made  famous  by  his  trial 
for  libel,  when  his  counsel,  Andrew  Hamilton,  of  Philadelphia, 
enforced  the  law  that  the  jury  were  judges  of  what  was  a  libel, 
and  thus  through  Zenger,  secured  the  vindication  of  the  liberty 
of  the  press,  fifty  years  before  Erskine  made  his  fame  by  doing 
it  in  England.  Released  at  last  from  confinement  on  what  is  now 
Governor's  Island,  after  another  heavy  loss  of  life,  250  dying 
in  New  York  after  months  of  misery  on  sea  and  shore,  some 
1,200  Palatines  settled  three  villages  on  the  Hudson,  and  the 
names  still  mark  the  advance  of  the  Palatines,  from  Newburg 
and  Rhinebeck,  Germantown  on  Livingston  Manor,  Blenheim, 
Oberweiserdorf,  Weisersdorf,  Middleburg,  Hartmandorf,  Brun- 
nendorf,  to  the  Schoharie  and  Mohawk  Rivers,  where  their  ad- 
vance is  easily  traced  in  Kneiskerndorf,  Stone  Arabia,  Newkirk, 
Ephrata,  Palatine,  Minden,  Mannheim,  Oppenheim,  and  German 
Flats,  while  their  descendants  still  bear  German  patronymics, 
often  sadly  changed  in  lapse  of  years.  The  name  of  Herkimer 
perpetuates  one  of  their  number,  the  gallant  leader  at  the  battle 
of  Oriskany,  where  his  monument,  erected  by  German  Ameri- 
cans, is  still  the  gathering  place  of  those  who  delight  to  honor 
the  gallant  soldier  who  gave  up  his  life  in  a  battle  that,  while 
a  defeat  in  one  sense,  was  a  victory,  in  that  it  broke  the  plan  of 
the  British  and  contributed  to  Burgoyne's  surrender  at  Saratoga. 

The  story  of  the  sufferings  of  the  Palatines  between  the 
harsh  task  masters,  the  Dutch  Patroons  and  the  government  in- 
fluenced by  them,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  invading  French  with 
their  Indian  allies  on  the  other,  is  a  sad  one,     Conrad  Weiser 

The  Palatines  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  255 

led  those  who  were  bold  enough  to  go  out  to  the  frontier  lands 
on  the  Schoharie  and  Mohawk,  but  wearied  by  disputes  over 
titles  to  the  land,  they  sent  Weiser  with  two  companions  to  Lon- 
don to  appeal  to  the  King  for  justice  and  redress  These  agents 
suffered  all  sorts  of  hardships,  capture  by  pirates,  poverty  and 
prison,  and  only  on  the  failure  of  relief,  did  Weiser,  after  five 
years  of  fruitless  trials  in  London,  return  in  1723.  As  early  as 
1 71 7  three  ships  loaded  with  Palatine  emigrants  began  that 
steady  stream  of  Germans,  over  30,000  names  on  record  for 
thirty  years,  for  the  363  first  to  arrive,  were  followed  by  an  ever 
increasing  body,  thus  responding  to  the  hearty  welcome  prom- 
ised thirty  years  before  by  Penn.  As  early  as  1685  a  band  of 
Mennonites  settled  in  Germantown,  and  ten  years  later  Kelpius 
led  his  company  of  Pietists  to  the  Wissahickon,  and  in  1719  the 
Dunkers  settled  in  Germantown,  and  later  came  the  Newborn, 
the  Disciples  of  Ephrata,  the  Schwenkf elders,  in  1734,  and  in 
1735,  the  Moravians.  Meeting  Weiser  at  Albany,  Governor 
Keith  told  him  and  the  Palatines  of  Schoharie,  that  Pennsylva- 
nia would  welcome  them,  and  leaving  many  of  the  settlers  there, 
only  to  suffer  in  1757  in  the  raid  of  the  French  and  their  Indian 
allies,  the  bolder  spirits  to  the  number  of  300,  accepted  Gover- 
nor Keith's  invitation,  and  first  in  1723  and  later  in  1728,  came 
to  the  Tulpehocken  and  Swatara  region.  A  whole  village  under 
Hartman  Vinedecker  led  by  Indian  guides,  crossed  the  moun- 
tains to  the  upper  waters  of  the  Susquehanna,  built  canoes  and 
putting  the  women  and  children  in  them  floated  down  the  river 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Swatara,  while  the  men  drove  their  horses 
and  cattle  by  land,  following  the  course  of  the  Swatara  and  find- 
ing a  new  home  at  its  head,  and  at  the  sources  of  the  Tulpe- 
hocken, they  made  their  first  settlement,  calling  it  Heidelberg. 
In  1728,  Conrad  Weiser,  then  twenty-six  years  old,  led  another 
body  and  settled  with  them  at  Womelsdorf.  Commissioned  Col- 
onel by  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  he  served  with  credit  in 
frequent  Indian  difficulties  and  through  the  old  French  War. 
His  daughter  married  Henry  Melchior  Muhlenberg,  and  their 
three  sons,  Peter,  Frederick  and  Henry,  were  by  turns  and  with 

256  The  Palatines  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania 

equal  distinction,  clergymen,  soldiers  and  statesmen.  Through 
the  example  and  influence  of  Conrad  Weiser,  the  stream  of  Ger- 
man emigrants  flowed  into  the  region  now  Berks,  Lebanon  and 
Lehigh  Counties,  and  their  names  of  towns  and  villages,  and  the 
names  of  the  people,  their  speech,  their  churches,  their  homes, 
their  customs,  still  show  their  German  origin.  What  they  have 
done  for  the  Colony  and  the  State  and  the  country  that  thus 
gave  them  refuge  from  suffering  in  the  Palatinate  and  hardship 
in  New  York,  has  often  been  told.  In  1738,  Lt.  Gov.  Thomas 
said  in  an  address  to  the  Pennsylvania  Council : 

"This  Province  [Penna.]  has  been  for  some  years  the 
Asylum  of  the  dispersed  Protestants  of  the  Palatinate  and  other 
parts  of  Germany,  and  I  believe  it  may  with  truth  be  said  that 
the  present  flourishing  condition  of  it  is  in  a  part  measure  owing 
to  the  Industry  of  these  People." 

In  1766,  Franklin  told  a  committee  of  the  House  of  Com- 
mons that  of  the  160,000  whites  in  Pennsylvania,  about  one-third 
were  Germans,  "a  people  who  brought  with  them  the  greatest 
of  all  wealth,  industry,  and  integrity,  and  characters  that  had 
been  superpoised  and  developed  by  years  of  suffering  and  perse- 
cution." Franklin  and  the  Germans  of  Pennsylvania  did  not  love 
one  another,  and  he  and  others,  inspired  by  political  differences, 
mainly  the  sturdy  loyalty  of  the  Pennsylvania  Germans  to  their 
first  friends,  the  Penns  and  their  successors  in  the  proprietary 
government,  said  unkind  things  of  one  another,  reproaches  which 
are  still  re-echoed  by  those  who  like  to  find  fault  at  long  range. 
Even  in  our  own  days  the  Pennsylvania  Germans  are  made 
targets  of  attack  and  ridicule,  and  the  local  novelist  has  of  late 
made  them  the  subject  of  exaggerated  abuse  for  their  want  of 
taste  and  elegance,  but  on  the  other  hand  their  descendants 
in  books  and  historical  addresses,  in  verse  and  prose,  have  praised 
their  ancestors  with  perhaps  too  lavish  eulogy.  However,  to- 
day the  Pennsylvania  German  may  gladly  renew  the  study  of 
the  actual  facts  of  the  toilsome  path  travelled  from  the  Palati- 
nate to  Pennsylvania. 

J.  G.  R. 


The  Growth  of  the  German  American  Collection  of  the  New  York 
Public  Library  during  1906- 1907. 

Its  Importance  for  Historical  and  Literary  Studies. 

(A  German  version  of  this  report,  omitting  the  third  paragraph  of  the 
introduction  and  with  some  changes  toward  the  end,  was  published  in 
"Deutsch-Amerikanische  Geschichtsblatter,"  vol.  8,  pp.  138-153,  Chicago,  Octo- 
ber, 1908.) 

Great  libraries  may  properly  be  called  literary  quarries  and 
workshops  for  scholars  and  authors.  It  is  a  matter  of  course, 
that  such  people  will  avail  themselves  of  the  opportunities  for 
work  on  their  particular  subjects,  if  the  materials  for  research 
are  to  be  found  fairly  complete  at  some  library  of  easy  access. 
Librarians  know  from  experience,  that  even  historians  of  note 
and  other  specialists  at  times  work  only  along  the  paths  of  least 
resistance.  One  may  unhesitatingly  blame  the  prevailing  com- 
mercial spirit  for  this.  The  number  of  those,  who  do  not  stop 
at  the  question  of  expense  and  sacrifice  of  time  without  the 
prospect  of  tangible  financial  return,  is  small.  This  factor  ex- 
plains the  insufficient  recognition,  which  the  German  American 
element  has  thus  far  received  in  works  of  American  history 
and  literature.    The  reproach  of  wilful  neglect  is  unjustifiable. 

If  the  German  Americans  and  their  descendants  had  seen  to 
it  at  all  times,  that  the  complete  materials  for  the  study  of  their 
history,  viz.,  records,  documents,  printed  matter,  German  Amer- 
ican newspaper  files,  etc.,  were  gathered  and  preserved  for  fu- 
ture use  in  the  large  libraries  and  historical  societies  of  this 
country,  the  field  would  have  ere  long  been  worked  more  thor- 
oughly by  American  historians. 

The  growing  German  American  collection  in  the  "New  York 


258  German  American  Researches 

Public  Library"  therefore  meets  a  long  felt  want.  Some  account 
of  the  origin  and  idea  underlying  this  collection  may  be  in  place 
here.  The  "Lenox  Library"  (founded  in  1870,  and  since  1895. 
by  an  act  of  consolidation  part  of  the  "New  York  Public  Library, 
Astor,  Lenox  and  Tilden  Foundations"),  is  famous  for  its  valu- 
able collections  of  early  printed  and  rare  books,  most  of  which 
relate  to  North  and  South  America  and  the  adjoining  islands, 
also  for  its  rich  collections  of  manuscripts  relating  to  American 
history.  Mr.  James  Lenox,  the  noble  founder  (born  in  1800, 
died  in  1880),  began  gathering  these  treasures  about  1840.  Na- 
turally rare  books  in  the  German  language  relating  to  America 
were  purchased  by  him  also.  Among  them  may  be  named  here 
the  German  edition  of  the  letter  of  Christopher  Columbus,  giv- 
ing the  earliest  information  of  his  great  discovery,  printed  at 
Strassburg,  by  Bartholomew  Kuestler,  in  1497.  A  reprint  of 
this  German  edition,  with  an  introduction  by  Prof.  Konrad  Haeb- 
ler,  was  published  in  1900.  The  later  German  books  of  the  six- 
teenth to  the  eighteenth  centuries  with  reference  to  America,  are 
too  numerous  to  be  noted  here. 

George  Bancroft's  Library  and  Manuscript  Collection. 

In  1893  the  "Lenox  Library"  purchased  the  entire  collection 
of  486  volumes  of  manuscripts  and  about  19,250  printed  books 
and  pamphlets  of  the  famous  historian  and  statesman,  the  Hon. 
George  Bancroft,  who  died  January  17,  1891.  This  acquisition 
is  of  the  utmost  importance,  as  it  greatly  supplements  the  col- 
lections of  Americana.  The  Bancroft  library  included  the 
greater  part  of  the  series  of  the  "Deutsche  Pionier,"  (of  which 
eighteen  volumes  were  issued  in  Cincinnati  from  1869-1886), 
most  of  the  works  of  Friedrich  Kapp  and  other  publications 
about  the  German  element  in  the  United  States. 

The  volumes  of  manuscripts,  which  Mr.  Bancroft  had  gath- 
ered during  the  course  of  many  years  for  his  monumental  work, 
"The  History  of  the  United  States,"  contain  among  other  things 

German  American  Researches  259 

many  original  documents  and  transcripts  from  the  public  and 
private  archives  of  Germany  and  England,  relating  to  the  Amer- 
ican Revolution.  There  are  46  volumes  made  up  of  letters, 
documents  and  reports  of  officers  of  the  Hessian,  Anspach  and 
of  the  Brunswick  troops  under  General  Riedesel,  letters  of  Fred- 
erick the  Great;  included  in  this  lot  are  26  diaries,  regimental 
histories  and  descriptions  of  the  campaigns  of  the  German  aux- 
iliary troops  in  America,  viz.,  Biel,  Dinklage,  Doehla,  Doppel, 
Ewald,  Lotheisen,  Malsburg,  Papet,  Reuber,  Rueffer  von  Mel- 
sungen,  Schueler,  Wiederhold,  diary  of  the  "Hessische  Jager 
Battalion,"  the  Waldeck  Regiment,  etc.  Bancroft  was  Ameri- 
can Minister  at  Berlin  from  1867- 1874.  His  influential  position 
and  intimate  acquaintance  with  scholars  and  persons  eminent  in 
political  and  social  circles,  greatly  facilitated  the  acquisition  of 
original  material  and  transcripts.  M.  A.  de  Wolfe  Howe,  in  his 
"The  Life  and  Letters  of  George  Bancroft,"  published  in  two 
volumes  some  months  ago  by  Charles  Scribner's  Sons,  New  York, 
gives  a  chapter  of  112  pages  to  these  years,  which  cover  one  of 
the  most  eventful  periods  of  the  modern  history  of  Germany. 

Many  of  these  manuscripts  were  shown  in  the  German 
American  exhibition  at  the  "Lenox  Library  Building,"  held  from 
March  t9  May,  1902.  Time  does  not  permit  now  to  give  a  de- 
tailed account  of  these  documents;  an  attempt  will  be  made  at 
a  later  date.  It  may  be  of  general  interest  to  German  Ameri- 
cans, that  the  dark  spot  in  the  history  of  the  Germans  in  Amer- 
ica, namely,  the  service  of  the  German  mercenary  troops  in  the 
American  Revolution,  hired  by  Great  Britain  to  help  in  subdu- 
ing the  colonists  fighting  for  independence,  is  considered  without 
prejudice  by  American  historians  of  to-day,  as  also  by  cultured 
Americans  in  other  walks  of  life.  It  has  now  become  common 
knowledge,  that  Great  Britain  often  before  hired  foreign  troops 
to  serve  in  its  wars  in  Europe  and  the  colonies.  The  case  of  the 
German  troops,  as  well  as  that  of  the  American  Loyalists,  is 
now  treated  in  the  true  historical  sense. 

26o  German  American  Researches 

Original  Researches  in  England. 

Although  it  may  be  beyond  the  scope  of  "German  Ameri- 
can Annals,"  I  wish  to  call  attention  here  to  a  significant  service 
of  the  "New  York  Public  Library"  to  further  the  study  of  the 
history  of  the  American  Loyalists,  as  a  similar  work  may  be 
undertaken  in  course  of  time  in  regard  to  the  German  element  in 
the  United  States.  About  ten  years  ago  the  management  of  this 
library  came  to  an  understanding  with  the  "Public  Record 
Office"  in  London,  to  have  copied  at  our  expense  unpublished 
documents  relating  to  the  Loyalists.  This  task  was  performed 
by  experts.  Their  transcripts  cover  75  folio  volumes,  which  are 
now  kept  in  the  manuscript  department  at  the  "Lenox  Library 
Building."  This  invaluable  mine  still  awaits  the  exploitation  of 
historians.  At  the  outbreak  of  and  during  the  American  Revo- 
lution many  families  of  quality  and  wealth  were  on  the  side  of 
the  Loyalists.  Wherever  the  American  patriots  gained  power, 
the  Loyalists  were  relentlessly  persecuted,  driven  away  and  their 
property  confiscated.  Many  of  them  made  their  flight  to  Can- 
ada and  Nova  Scotia,  where  the  British  government  indemnified 
the  refugees  for  their  losses  by  granting  them  land  and  advanc- 
ing money.  Most  of  these  transactions  are  accurately  recorded 
in  the  75  volumes  of  transcripts  mentioned  before.  There  were 
also  Germans  among  the  Loyalists.  This  fact  cannot  and  must 
not  be  hushed  up,  above  all  not  by  those  who  demand  "fair  play" 
on  the  part  of  Americans.  Strict  historical  science  demands  the 
naked  truth,  and  besides,  the  present  generation  of  German 
Americans  has  no  good  reason  to  be  ashamed  of  the  Germans 
among  the  Loyalists.  My  own  time  (outside  of  library  hours), 
is  too  much  absorbed  with  the  work  of  the  general  upbuilding 
of  our  German  American  collection  and  the  correspondence  con- 
nected therewith,  to  allow  me  to  dig  out  the  German  element 
from  the  75  volumes  of  Loyalist  papers.  Here  is  an  opportun- 
ity for  some  one  else,  who  has  the  time  to  pursue  the  research 

German  American  Researches  261 

Planned  Researches  in  Germany. 

Among  those  who  manifest  an  intelhgent  interest  to  fur- 
ther the  study  of  the  history  of  the  German  element  in  this  coun- 
try and  the  history  of  the  various  reciprocal  relations  between 
Germany  and  the  United  States,  the  need  has  been  felt  long  ago, 
to  have  a  thorough  examination  of  German  archives,  public  and 
other  libraries  in  Germany  made  for  the  purpose  of  locating  and 
calendering  unpublished  material.  In  many  cases  it  would  be 
desirable  to  have  the  documents  copied  without  delay.  A  strong 
plea  for  the  necessity  of  this  work  was  made  by  Dr.  Joseph  G. 
Rosengarten,  Honorary  President  of  the  "German  American 
Historical  Society,"  in  an  address  entitled  "German  Archives 
as  Sources  of  German  American  History,"  delivered  in  October, 
1907,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  "Pennsylvania-German  Soci- 
ety" (not  to  be  confounded  with  the  "German  Society  of  Penn- 
sylvania" in  Philadelphia).  This  suggestive  address  has  been 
published  in  "German  American  Annals,"  November-December 
No.,  1907,  pages  357-369. 

Whether  or  in  how  far  the  "New  York  Public  Library"  will 
participate  in  this  work,  cannot  be  said  at  this  time.  In  view  of 
the  manuscripts  about  the  German  auxiliary  troops  in  the  Amer- 
ican Revolution  and  the  large  German  American  collection  of 
printed  books  and  pamphlets  in  the  possession  of  the  library,  it  is 
to  be  wished,  that  it  could. 

Accomplished  Facts,  1906- 1907. 
(Propaganda,  Donations,  Purchases,  Use  made  of  the  Collection.) 

An  enterprise  like  this  German  American  collection,  to  the 
growth  of  which  since  October,  1903,  about  500  persons,  insti- 
tutions, organizations  and  societies  (all  of  great  diversity)  in 
more  than  160  cities  in  the  United  States,  Canada  and  Europe 
have  contributed,  must  be  a  matter  of  general  interest.     During 

262  German  American  Researches 

the  vears  1906- 1907  there  were  sent  out  in  connection  with  the 
work  1,357  letters,  post  cards  and  other  mail  matter.  Acknowl- 
edgments for  gifts  are  not  included  in  this  figure.  I  would  cheer- 
fully inclose  with  these  formal  documents  a  personal  apprecia- 
tion of  each  donation  and  write  reviews  of  historical  and  liter- 
ary works,  as  I  have  been  requested  to  do  on  various  occasions. 
But  many  of  the  esteemed  donors  have  not  the  least  idea  of  the 
demands  upon  my  time.  During  library  hours  many  other  du- 
ties devolve  upon  me,  which  have  absolutely  nothing  to  do  with 
the  German  American  collection. 

It  is  the  purpose  of  the  following  paragraphs  to  win  new 
friends  and  donors  for  the  collection,  and  to  give  suggestions. 
On  October  6,  1907,  at  the  time  of  the  biennial  convention  of 
the  "National  German  American  Alliance"  in  New  York,  an 
article  was  published  in  the  "New  Yorker  Staats-Zeitung," 
wherein  I  gave  an  account  of  some  phases  of  the  origin  and 
growth  of  the  German  American  collection.  I  also  made  a  plea 
for  the  official  support  of  the  "National  German  American  Alli- 
ance." In  response  the  convention  passed  and  adopted  unani- 
mously, at  the  recommendation  of  the  Committee  on  Historical 
Research,  the  following  resolutions : 

Resolved,  That  the  public  and  the  press  be  requested  to  sup- 
port the  German  American  collection  in  the  New  York  Public 
Library  to  the  best  of  their  ability  and  to  send  material  to  the 
address  below. 

Resolved,  That  the  State,  local  and  other  organizations  be 
requested  to  gather  printed  and  other  documents  in  their  re- 
spective districts  and  to  send  the  same,  if  possible,  collectively, 
to  the  "New  York  Public  Library,  care  of  Richard  E.  Helbig, 
5th  Ave.  and  70th  St.,  New  York." 

These  resolutions,  as  also  the  article  in  the  "New  Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung"  have  been  embodied  into  the  proceedings  of  the 
convention,  pages  86-87  and  1 17-120  respectively.  They  are  of 
no  avail  if  left  dormant  in  that  volume.     Every  intelligent  Ger- 

German  American  Researches  263 

man  American  should  lend  a  hand,  even  without  direct  solicitation 
on  my  part,  to  carry  on  the  good  work  of  gathering  material  for 
future  research.  In  order  to  make  clear  the  scope  of  the  collec- 
tion to  persons  becoming  newly  interested,  I  will  repeat  what 
has  been  said  about  it  in  the  press  on  former  occasions. 

The  scope  of  the  collection  embraces  manuscript  material, 
books,  pamphlets  and  smaller  printed  documents,  periodicals, 
newspapers,  etc.,  bearing  on  the  history,  biography  and  geneal- 
ogy of  the  German  element  in  America,  literary  and  scientific 
works  produced  by  German  Americans  (in  English  as  well  as 
in  German),  works  about  the  United  States  in  the  German 
language  and  material  about  the  various  reciprocal  relations  be- 
tween Germany  and  this  country. 

The  foregoing  indicates  a  fixed  program.  Its  carrying 
out  in  the  past  has  been  to  me  an  arduous  and  often  thankless 
task.  The  further  pursuit  of  the  program  means  an  increase 
of  the  work,  for  which  I  will  gladly  continue  to  sacrifice  my  own 
time.  Enthusiasts  and  optimists  have  not  died  out  yet.  At 
times  even  such  might  become  discouraged,  when  one  gradu- 
ally finds  out,  that  many  of  the  "Hurrah-shouters"  in  the  Ger- 
man American  camp  are  unwilling  to  do  anything,  unless  their 
personal  vanity  is  satisfied  thereby  or  that  financial  gain  accrues 
to  them. 

The  German  American  collection  is  built  up  on  a  broad  and 
solid  basis,  such  as  is  possible  only  in  a  large  public  library. 
Apologetic  explanations  should  really  be  needless.  My  efforts 
have  been  approved  by  the  Director  of  the  library  and  the  prog- 
ress of  the  collection  has  been  made  known  in  his  official  annual 
reports  for  1906  and  1907,  published  in  the  "Bulletin  of  the 
New  York  Public  Library,"  October,  1906,  page  507,  and  Feb- 
ruary, 1908,  page  97.  To  offset  the  argument  about  the  restric- 
tions to  the  use  of  the  collection  on  the  premises  only,  it  must 
be  stated  that  this  rule  is  the  best  safeguard  for  its  permanency 
and  security.     Moreover,  every  part  of  the  collection  can  thus 

264  German  American  Researches 

be  made  available  at  once  to  the  public  during  library  hours 
(which  will  be  extended  in  the  new  building,  at  least  until  10  P. 
M.),  without  long  winded  application.  This  advantage  cannot 
be  overestimated. 

The  Support  of  the  Press. 

Every  endeavor  for  the  promotion  of  some  public  good 
needs  for  its  progress  the  good  will  of  the  press.  I  have  earn- 
estly striven  to  win  the  latter  for  our  German  American  collec- 
tion. Now  it  is  my  pleasant  duty  to  give  some  account  of  the 
ready  assistance  received.  Newspapers  are  among  other  things, 
perhaps  one  may  say  in  the  first  place,  business  undertakings. 
Therefore  the  gratuitous  publication  of  articles  of  propaganda 
and  appeals  to  send  material  for  the  collection  is  to  be  highly 

Of  the  greatest  importance  in  this  line  has  been  the  "New 
Yorker  Staats-Zeitung,"  whose  columns  I  have  made  most  use 
of.  Among  the  other  New  York  papers  must  be  named,  above 
all,  the  "New  Yorker  Echo,"  then  "Deutsch-Amerikanische 
Apotheker  Zeitung,"  "Deutsche  Vorkamper,"  "Evening  Post," 
"Morgen  Journal,"  "New  Yorker  Herold,"  "New  Yorker  Revue," 
all  of  which  have  published  notices,  etc.,  about  the  collection. 

The  out  of  town  papers  have  not  in  all  instances  sent  in 
"marked"  copies,  so  I  can  only  mention  those  which  did.  A 
letter  to  the  "Amerika,"  a  St.  Louis  daily,  from  the  pen  of  the 
generous  and  ever  active  friend  of  the  collection,  the  Rev.  John 
Rothensteiner,  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  urging  support  of  the  work, 
made  the  round  through  various  Western  papers,  among  them 
"Illinois  Staats-Zeitung"  in  Chicago,  "Columbia"  in  Milwau- 
kee, "Luxemburger  Gazette"  in  Dubuque,  Iowa. 

At  the  time  when  an  abridgment  of  my  report  on  the  prog- 
ress of  the  collection  during  1904-1905  appeared  in  the  "New 
Yorker  Staats-Zeitung"  March  11,  1906  (published  in  full  in 
"German  American  Annals,"  May,  1906,  page  147-157),  I  pur- 

German  American  Researches  265 

chased  a  quantity  of  this  paper.  Copies  were  sent  to  news- 
papers and  periodicals  in  other  cities  with  the  request  to  reprint 
the  article  in  full  or  extracts  therefrom,  or  at  least  to  call  atten- 
tion to  the  collection  editorially.  The  following  extended  this 
courtesy  (in  sequence  of  time  of  publication)  :  "Illinois  Staats- 
Zeitung,"  "Buffalo  Demokrat,"  "Deutscher  Correspondent," 
Baltimore;  "Tagliche  Demokrat,"  Davenport,  Iowa;  "Buffalo 
Volksfreund;"  "Belletristisches  Journal,"  New  York;  "Milwau- 
kee Sonntagspost ;"  "Daytoner  Volks-Zeitung;"  "Portsmouth 
Correspondent;"  "Sonntagsbote,"  Milwaukee;  "Akron  Ger- 
mania;"  "Deutsch-Amerikanische  Geschichtsblatter,"  Chicago; 
"Monatshefte  fiir  deutsche  Sprache  und  Padagogik,"  Milwaukee; 
"Zeitschrift  des  Allgemeinen  Deutschen  Sprachvereins,"  Berlin; 
"The  Nation,"  New  York;  "Library  Journal,"  New  York;  "The 
Pennsylvania-German,"  East  Greenville,  Pa. ;  "Iowa  Journal  of 
History  and  Politics,"  Iowa  City;  "American  Historical  Re- 
view;" "Catholic  Fortnightly  Review,"  Techny,  111. 

In  order  to  arouse  interest  for  German  American  research 
and  history  in  New  York  State,  I  wrote  an  "appeal  to  all  friends 
and  promoters  of  German  American  history  and  literature"  for 
the  souvenir  programme  of  the  annual  convention  of  the  Ger- 
man American  Alliance  of  the  State  of  New  York,  held  June  22 
and  23,  1907,  in  Troy.  To  this  appeal  I  had  joined  a  list  of 
publications  about  the  Germans  in  New  York,  including  material 
about  the  settlement  of  the  "Palatines"  on  the  Hudson  and  in 
the  Mohawk  Valley,  on  General  Nicholas  Herkimer  and  his  fam- 
ily, the  battle  of  Oriskany,  furthermore  publications  about  the 
Germans  of  the  19th  century  to  the  present  time  in  other  locali- 
ties of  the  state,  with  the  exception  of  New  York  City.  The 
latter  would  have  been  too  extensive  for  the  souvenir  programme. 
In  all,  yy  titles  were  given.  Both  the  appeal  and  the  list  were 
also  published  in  extenso  at  the  time  in  the  "New  Yorker  Staats- 
Zeitung"  and  the  "Buffalo  Freie  Presse,"  in  part  in  "Utica 
Deutsche  Zeitung,"  "Buffalo  Demokrat,"  "Rochester  Abendpost," 

266  German  American  Researches 

"Troy  Record."  The  resolutions  in  favor  of  our  German  Amer- 
ican collection,  passed  by  the  convention  in  Troy,  were  published 
in  the  (morning,  evening  and  Sunday  issues)  "New  Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung,"  "Morgen  Journal,"  "New  Yorker  Echo,"  "Troy 
Freie  Presse,"  "Buffalo  Demokrat"  and  even  at  Berlin,  in  the 
"Vossische  Zeitung." 

On  the  occasion  of  the  35th  annual  meeting  of  the  "National 
German  American  Teachers'  Association,"  held  June  30  to  July 
3,  1907,  in  Cincinnati,  I  sent  a  letter  entreating  the  teachers  to 
aid  us  in  the  acquisition  of  publications  relating  to  German 
American  schools,  the  study  of  the  German  language  in  the 
United  States,  etc.  A  list  of  periodicals,  books  and  pamphlets 
already  in  the  library,  also  a  list  of  desiderata  belonging  to  the 
subject,  were  added  to  the  letter.  It  was  resolved  to  embody 
the  letter  and  the  lists  into  the  proceedings  of  the  meeting,  which 
were  published  in  Milwaukee,  in  "Monatshefte  fiir  deutsche 
Sprache  und  Padogogik,"  September-October,  1907  issue,  pages 
200-203.  The  greater  part  of  my  letter  and  the  list  of  desid- 
erata were  published  in  the  "New  Yorker  Staats-Zeitung,"  July 
3,  in  conjunction  with  the  telegraphic  report  on  the  meeting  in 

The  interest  of  the  German  element  in  Ohio  I  endeavored 
to  win  by  writing  a  letter  to  the  annual  convention  of  the  Ger- 
man American  State  Alliance,  held  in  Toledo,  August  3-4,  1907. 
Typewritten  copies  of  this  letter  were  directed  at  about  the  same 
time  to  32  German  newspapers  in  Ohio,  with  the  solicitation  to 
publish  it.  To  my  knowledge  only  the  following  complied : 
"Akron  Germania;"  "Unsere  Zeit,"  Chillicothe;  "Cincinnati 
Freie  Presse;"  "Daytoner  Volks-Zeitung ;"  "Der  Deutsch  Amer- 
ikaner"  (official  organ  of  the  State  Alliance);  "Lorain  Post;" 
"Portsmouth  Correspondent;"  "Youngstown  Rundschau."  The 
"N.  Y.  Staats-Zeitung"  published  the  letter  on  August  4. 

German  American  Researches  267 

Newspapers  and  Periodicals  as  Source  Material. 

The  English  historian,  Thomas  Babington  Macaulay,  re- 
marked, "that  the  true  history  of  a  country  is  to  be  found  in  its 
newspapers."  But  they  can  only  be  made  available  for  use 
through  the  agency  of  libraries.  On  account  of  the  enormous 
space  required  for  newspaper  files  of  many  years,  American 
libraries  have  resorted  to  division  of  labor  among  themselves. 
It  shall  be  left  to  each  state  and  locality  to  gather  and  preserve 
in  their  libraries  and  historical  societies,  the  files  of  newspapers 
published  within  their  boundaries.  By  this  method  the  demands 
upon  the  available  shelf  room  are  kept  within  reasonable  limits. 
In  the  case  of  large  institutions  like  the  "New  York  Public  Li- 
brary," "Library  of  Congress,"  "Boston  Public  Library,"  "State 
Historical  Society  of  Wisconsin"  and  others  of  this  type,  a  wider 
scope  in  the  acquisition  of  newspaper  files  is  possible.  But  even 
at  these  libraries  various  circumstances  may  bring  on  the  need 
of  restrictions. 

For  some  time  past  I  have  attempted  to  induce  the  pub- 
lishers of  German  American  newspapers  to  place  the  address 
of  our  library  upon  their  free  lists.  The  management  of 
this  library  aims  to  cover  all  fields  of  knowledge  in  making 
purchases.  But  the  limits  of  the  actual  funds  at  hand  for  that 
purpose  do  not  allow  to  keep  up  in  all  departments.  So  payment 
for  the  annual  cost  of  all  newspapers  is  out  of  the  question.  The 
binding  of  the  volumes  alone  swallows  a  large  sum  each  year. 
The  publishers  of  German  newspapers  ought  to  consider  the 
support  of  our  collection  as  a  patriotic  duty  and  send  us  their 
papers  gratis.  The  "New  York  Public  Library"  has  on  file 
in  the  periodical  room  at  the  "Astor  Library  Building"  over 
6,000  current  periodicals,  of  which  over  1,000  are  in  the  Ger- 
man language.  Most  of  these  periodicals  are  subscribed  for, 
some  are  obtained  in  exchange  for  our  "Bulletin"  and  a  small 
number  are  received  free  of  charge.  But  the  labor  of  handling 
and  binding  them  is  also  a  continual  expense  to  the  library. 
Shall  I  call  attention  furthermore  to  the  many  thousands  of 

268  German  American  Researches 

books  in  the  German  language  in  this  Hbrary,  of  which  about 
5,000  are  in  the  music  department  alone?  To  the  librarians  this 
is  an  everyday  affair.  It  is  questionable  whether  the  average 
German  American  is  aware  of  this  large  amount  of  material  in 
the  library,  which  serves  as  a  means  to  transmit  German  culture 
and  science  in  this  country. 

List  of  Nezvspapers  and  Periodicals  Received  Gratis. 

Little  Rock:     "Arkansas  Staats-Zeitung." 

Chicago:      "Neues    Leben,    socialistisches    Wochenblatt ;"    "Der 
Pfaffenspiegel ;"    "Vorbote,   Wochenblatt   der   Chicago 
Arbeiter-Zeitung. " 

Indianapolis :      "Deutsch-Amerikanische    Buchdrucker-Zeitung." 

Boston:     "Der  Herold  der  Christian  Science." 
Lawrence:     "Anzeiger  und  Post." 

Grand  Rapids:    "Germania;"  "Sonntagsbote." 

St.  Paul:    "Volkszeitung." 

St.  Louis:    "Arbeiter-Zeitung;"  "Brauer-Zeitung;"  "Herold  des 
Glaubens;"  "Pastoral-Blatt." 

New  Jersey. 
Newark:    "Altenheims-Bote ;"  "New  Jersey  Freie  Zeitung." 

German  American  Researches  269 

New  York. 

Buffalo:     "Buffalo  Volksfreund." 

New  York:  "Amerikanische  Schweizer-Zeitung ;"  "Badische 
Landes-Zeitung;"  "Bahn  Frei"  (organ  of  the  N.  Y. 
Turnverein)  ;  "Belletristisches  Journal;"  "Deutsch- 
Amerikanische  Apotheker-Zeitung ;"  "Hessen-Darm- 
stadter  Zeitung  und  Hessische  Blatter ;"  "Morgen-Jour- 
nal;"  "New  Yorker  Echo;"  "N.  Y.  Handels-Zeitung;" 
"N.  Y.  Herold;"  "N.  Y.  Staats-Zeitung;"  "N.  Y. 
Volks-Zeitung ;"  "Technologist,  Organ  des  Deutsch- 
Amerikanischen  Techniker- Verbandes. " 

Syracuse:    "Syracuse  Union." 

Troy:    "Troy  Freie  Presse." 

Utica :    "Utica  Deutsche  Zeitung." 

"Akron  Germania." 
Canton:     "Ohio  Volks-Zeitung." 
Chillicothe:     "Unsere  Zeit." 

Cleveland:     "Deutsch-Amerikansiche  Krieger-Zeitung." 
Columbus:      "Express   und   Westbote;"    "Ohio    Sonntagsgast ;" 

Hamilton:      "Der    Deutsch-Amerikaner,    offizielles    Organ    des 

Deutsch-Amerikanischen  Staats- Verbandes  von  Ohio." 
"Lorain  Post." 

"Portsmouth  Correspondent." 
"Youngstown  Rundschau." 

"Hazleton  Volks-Journal." 
"Johnstown  Freie  Presse." 
Pittsburg:    "Alleghenier-Pittsburger  Sonntagsbote ;"  "Volksblatt 

und  Freiheits-Freund." 
Reading:     "Allgemeine  Sanger-und  Musik-Zeitung." 

Rhode  Island. 
"Providencer  Anzeiger." 

270  German  American  Researches 

Brenham :    "Texas  Volksbote." 
"Fredericksburger  Wochenblatt." 
San  Antonio:     "Deutsch-Texanische  Monatshefte." 

Milwaukee:      "Amerikanische    Turnzeitung ;"    "Die    Deutsche 

Hausfrau;"  "Der  Freidenker." 
West  Bend :    "Beobachter. ' ' 

(This  Hst  was  closed  in  May,  1908.) 

Donations  During  1906- 1907. 

During  the  two  years  3,864  volumes  and  pamphlets  have 
been  received  from  297  donors  in  87  cities,  distributed  over  24 
states  of  the  Union.  A  small  number  of  the  pieces  are  not  Ger- 
man-Americana, but  were  shipped  to  the  library  with  such  by 
some  German  donors.  Since  I  began  in  October,  1903,  to  solicit 
gifts  for  the  collection,  about  5,200  volumes  and  pamphlets  were 
contributed  until  the  end  of  1907.  A  list  of  all  donors,  arranged 
by  states  and  cities,  has  been  compiled,  covering  11  folio  pages. 
It  is  consequently  too  long  to  be  printed  here.  Space  allows  only 
short  accounts  of  the  principal  benefactors. 

Rev.  John  Rothensteiner,  in  St.  Louis,  has  continued  his 
generous  gifts,  contributing  during  1906-07  a  total  of  261  vol- 
umes and  pamphlets.  This  lot  includes  many  volumes  of  the 
"Pastoral-Blatt,"  a  Catholic  monthly  published  in  St.  Louis.  It 
has  been  completed  since  from  volume  1-42  (1866- 1908).  Fur- 
thermore, we  received  24  volumes  of  "Der  Sendbote,"  also  a 
Catholic  monthly,  published  in  Cincinnati.  Some  gaps  in  this  set 
were  filled  without  charge  by  the  publishers,  completing  it  from 
volume  4-35  (1877-1908).  Mention  must  be  made  also  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  "Deutscher  Romisch-Katholischer  Central- 
Verein,"  of  which  the  library  now  has,  1878,  1880,  1881,  1883, 
1885,  1886,  1889-91,  1894,  1896,  1897,  1 900- 1 905,  1907.    Other 

German  American  Researches  271 

noteworthy  publications  presented  by  Rev.  Rothensteiner  are  the 
"Schematismus  der  deutschen  und  der  deutsch-sprechenden 
Priester.  .  .in  den  Ver.  Staaten.  .  .,"  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  1882,  com- 
piled by  Rev.  W.  Bonenkamp  and  J.  Jessing  and  J.  B.  Miiller; 
"Schematismus  der  katholischen  Geistlichkeit  deutscher  Zunge  in 
den  Ver.  Staaten  Amerikas"  by  J.  N.  Enzlberger,  Milwaukee, 
Wis.,  1892. 

Mr.  Herman  Ridder,  President  of  the  "New  Yorker  Staats- 
Zeitung,"  made  ^  surprisingly  large  donation,  numbering  1,727 
volumes  and  44  pamphlets,  in  November,  1907.  The  greater 
part  consists  of  volumes  of  the  "Staats-Zeitung,"  morning, 
evening,  weekly  and  Sunday  editions,  completing  our  series  from 
1863  to  date.    These  volumes  are  of  great  value  for  research. 

Mr.  Henry  Metzner,  New  York,  who  gave  already  more 
than  200  pieces,  chiefly  relating  to  the  "Turnvereine"  (German 
gymnastic  societies)  some  years  ago,  has  added  48  volumes  and 
pamphlets  during  1906-07. 

Prof.  Karl  Knortz,  North  Tarrytown,  N.  Y.,  has  turned 
over  to  the  library  748  letters  and  post  cards,  being  a  selection 
from  his  literary  correspondence.  This  example  should  be  fol- 
lowed by  all  German-American  literary  people,  when  they  make 
their  will.  Among  the  116  pieces  sent  to  the  library  by  Prof. 
Knortz  during  1906-07,  is  a  large  percentage  of  German  Ameri- 

Dr.  H.  E.  ^Schneider,  Hoboken,  N.  J.,  presented  in  July, 
1906,  forty  volumes  of  the  "Belletristisches  Journal."  By  gifts 
of  some  early  volumes  from  other  persons  and  some  purchases 
the  file  has  been  improved  and  added  to.  The  library  now  has 
volumes  1-40,  42-48,  50,  51,  53  to  date.  This  New  York  weekly 
was  founded  in  1852,  by  Rudolph  Lexow,  under  the  name  "New 
Yorker  Criminal-Zeitung."  Of  the  later  editors  and  collabora- 
tors may  be  named  Friedrich  Lexow,  Udo  Brachvogel,  Prof.  Dr. 
Julius  Goebel,  Alfred  Philippi,  Henry  F.  Urban  and  others.  The 
earlier  volumes  contain  contributions  by  many  of  the  well  known 
literary  people  in  Germany  and  the  United  States.     Before  the 

2^2  German  American  Researches 

era  of  the  competition  of  the  great  Sunday  newspapers  set  in, 
the  "Belletristisches  Journal"  had  at  one  time  about  40,000  sub- 
scribers, many  of  them  in  the  Western  states.  The  plentiful 
information  therein  about  the  German-Americans  of  the  period 
make  it  useful  for  future  research. 

At  the  instance  of  Dr.  Friedrich  Grosse,  the  New  York 
branch  of  the  "Alldeutscher  Verband"  donated  to  the  library  in 
July,  1906,  most  of  the  publications  of  this  society.  They  in- 
clude the  series  "Der  Kampf  um  das  Deutschtum,  Heft  1-19;" 
"Flugschriften  des  Alldeutschen  Verbandes,  Heft  1-25;"  "All- 
deutsche  Blatter,"  a  weekly  (the  library  only  lacks  volumes  1-3, 
1891-93);  "Handbuch  des  Alldeutschen  Verbandes." 

The  "Schwabische  Schillerverein"  in  Marbach,  Germany, 
sent  us  in  September,  1906,  No.  2-10  (1898-1906)  of  its  "Rech- 
enschaftsberichte."  This  action  was  occasioned  by  our  under- 
taking in  1905  to  collect  all  souvenir  publications,  programs 
and  newspaper  reports  of  the  Schiller  centenary  in  the  United 

Mr.  Maurice  Reinhold  von  Stern  in  Linz,  Upper  Austria, 
who  lived  in  the  United  States,  chiefly  in  New  York,  from  1880- 
85,  presented  to  the  library  in  September,  1906,  ten  of  his  works, 
consisting  of  poetry,  drama  and  fiction. 

Dr.  Louis  Weyland,  New  York,  enriched  the  collection  in 
September  and  December,  1906,  by  a  gift  of  31  volumes  and 
pamphlets,  mainly  relating  to  German  singing  societies. 

Mr.  Hermann  Alexander,  publisher  and  editor  of  the  "New 
Yorker  Echo,"  enabled  us  to  acquire  volume  1-7  (1902-08),  vol. 
5  to  date  by  gift,  furthermore  12  volumes  and  pamphlets. 

Mr.  Alexander  Schlesinger,  New  York,  contributed  from 
November,  1906,  to  March,  1907,  a  miscellaneous  lot  of  26 
volumes,  263  pamphlets,  90  smaller  printed  documents,  46  period- 
icals, 26  newspapers  and  24  photographs. 

Mr.  Wilhelm  Thiese,  New  York,  gave  96  volumes  and 
pamphlets  in  November,  1906.  Among  these  are  unbound  num- 
bers of  volume  1-12  (1883-94)  of  "Masonia,  Organ  fiir  die  In- 

German  American  Researches  273 

teressen  der  Freimaurerei  in  den  Ver.  Staaten,"  which  was  pub- 
lished monthly  in  New  York.  As  the  volumes  on  hand  are  in- 
complete and  in  places  mutilated,  it  is  to  be  wished  that  the  Ger- 
man Freemasons  will  aid  us  in  obtaining  a  complete  and  perfect 
file  of  the  "Masonia."  In  addition  to  the  foregoing  Mr.  Thiese's 
gift  includes  67  publications  of  the  ''United  Ancient  Order  of 
Druids"  and  12  volumes  of  "Der  Erz-Druide,"  the  monthly 
organ  of  this  mutual  benefit  society. 

Mr.  Henry  Freudenthal,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  the  Supreme  Sec- 
retary of  the  "United  Ancient  Order  of  Druids,"  has  cheer- 
fully added  about  140  publications  and  4  volumes  of  "Der  Erz- 
Druide."  The  latter  was  published  from  1866-90,  first  in  Quincy, 
111.,  later  in  Albany,  N.  Y.  Our  file  lacks  vols.  3,  7-13,  and 
Nos.  4  and  8  of  vol.  24,  which  we  are  anxious  to  obtain. 

Mrs.  Woerishoffer,  daughter  of  the  late  Oswald  Ottendorfer 
and  his  noble  wife,  Anna  Ottendorfer,  offered  194  volumes  as 
a  gift  to  the  library  in  November,  1906,  which  were  gladly 
accepted.  Many  of  these  books  have  excellent  bindings.  There 
is  only  a  small  percentage  of  German  Americana  among  them. 
But  the  gift  deserves  mention  here,  as  it  came  from  one  of  the 
foremost  German  American  families.  It  includes  an  "edition 
de  luxe,"  weighing  about  16  pounds,  of  "Prince  Henry  of  Prus- 
sia in  America,  historical  review  of  His  Royal  Highness'  Amer- 
ican travels,"  published  1903,  in  New  York,  by  Heinrich  Charles. 

Mr.  E.  W.  Redeke,  New  York,  for  many  years  the  diligent 
secretary  of  various  German  societies,  brought  a  package  in  De- 
cember, 1906,  with  6  volumes,  75  pamphlets  and  54  pieces  of 
smaller  printed  matter  for  the  German  American  collection. 

Mr.  Karl  A.  M.  Scholtz,  Baltimore,  Md.,  who  had  sent 
some  gifts  in  1903  and  1905,  forwarded  again  21  pamphlets 
about  the  Germans  in  Baltimore,  in  August,  1907.  He  also  in- 
duced the  "German  Publishing  Co."  to  give  to  the  library  a  copy 
of  their  tastefully  prepared  work  "Das  neue  Baltimore,  mit  be- 
sonderer  Beri'icksichtigung  der  Deutsch-Amerikaner  im  Ge- 
schaftsleben,  1905." 

274  German  American  Researches 

Prof.  C.  O.  Schoenrich,  also  of  Baltimore,  is  another  active 
friend  of  the  collection.  We  are  indebted  to  him  for  i8  vol- 
umes, 60  pamphlets,  besides  smaller  printed  matter,  received  in 
February,  1907.  At  his  instance  the  Hon.  Alcaeus  Hooper,  ex- 
Mayor  of  Baltimore,  sacrificed  for  our  collection  his  copy  of 
"Baltimore,  seine  Vergangenheit  und  Gegenwart,  mit  besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung  des  deutschen  Elementes,"  published  in  1887, 
by  the  "Deutsches  Literarisches  Bureau."  During  the  great  fire 
in  Baltimore,  February,  1904,  many  copies  of  this  book  were 
destroyed,  which  makes  it  something  of  a  rarity.  Even  before 
the  fire  my  efforts  to  get  this  work  for  our  library  were  unsuc- 

The  publishers  of  the  "Daytoner  Volks-Zeitung"  in  Dayton, 
Ohio,  shipped  a  box  in  June,  igo6,  containing  bound  copies  of 
"Gedenk-Blaetter"  (a  supplement  to  the  Sunday  issue  of  their 
newspaper),  volumes  1-7,  9-12,  1894-1906.  In  May,  1907,  a 
package  arrived  with  2  volumes  and  40  pamphlets,  nearly  all 
issued  from  their  press  and  chiefly  relating  to  German  societies 
in  Dayton. 

Prof.  Dr.  Otto  Heller  of  "Washington  University"  in  St. 
Louis,  expressed  his  warm  interest  for  the  collection  in  a  letter 
received  March,  1907.  In  the  beginning  of  June  he  sent  tangible 
proof  of  his  interest  in  the  shape  of  2  volumes,  22  pamphlets 
and  a  number  of  periodicals. 

From  the  Rev.  Dr.  Pedro  Ilgen,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  were  re- 
ceived during  1906-07  by  gift  9  volumes  and  3  pamphlets,  in- 
cluding 5  of  his  own  collections  of  poetry  and  volume  1-6  of 
"Protestantisches  Familienblatt."  This  periodical  was  published 
in  St.  Louis,  from  1873-86,  and  edited  by  Rev.  J.  G.  Eberhard, 
the  predecessor  of  Rev.  Ilgen.  Who  is  in  the  position  to  supply 
to  the  library  vol.  7-13  (1880-86)  ? 

Mr.  Georg  F.  Lehmann,  editor  of  "Buffalo  Freie  Presse," 
presented  in  July,  1907,  a  lot  of  31  publications  of  German 
societies  and  institutions  of  Buffalo. 

The  "National  German  American  Alliance"  sent  October, 

German  American  Researches  275 

1907,  through  its  secretary,  Mr.  Adolph  Timm,  in  Philadelphia, 
a  gift  of  I  volume,  39  pamphlets,  125  circulars  and  printed 
documents,  nearly  all  of  them  issued  by  the  Alliance.  The  state 
and  local  federations  should  follow  this  example  now.  It  would 
be  best  to  have  secretaries  and  other  members  of  societies,  gather 
material  on  their  own  account  and  send  it  to  our  address.  Long 
drawn  debates  and  resolutions  at  meetings  seem  to  be  needless 
and  useless  in  this  matter. 

Mr.  C.  F.  Huch,  Philadelphia,  member  of  the  library  com- 
mittee of  the  "German  Society  of  Philadelphia,"  has  contributed 
to  our  collection  until  the  end  of  1907,  4  volumes  and  32  pam- 
phlets. In  addition  he  sent  us  regularly  the  numbers  of  "Mit- 
teilungen  des  Deutchen  Pionier-Vereins  von  Philadelphia." 

The  executive  committee  of  the  "Allgemeiner  Deutscher 
Sprachverein"  in  Berlin,  gave  to  the  library  in  October,  1907,  in 
response  to  the  solicitation  of  Dr.  Georg  Rodemann,  chairman  of 
the  New  York  branch  of  the  society,  volumes  1-21  (1886-1906) 
of  its  "Zeitschrift  .  .  .,"  and  nos.  1-29  of  its  "Wissenschaftliche 
Beihefte,"  (issued  since  1891). 

Mr.  F.  H.  Lohmann,  teacher  at  the  German  school  in  Com- 
fort, Comal  County,  Texas,  furnished  some  publications  I  had 
long  sought  for  in  vain,  namely,  volume  i  (1888-89)  of 
"Deutsch-Amerikanische  Dichtung,"  edited  by  Konrad  Nies  and 
Hermann  Rosenthal  and  published  in  New  York,  of  which  we 
had  vol.  2  already.  Mr.  Lohmann  presented  furthermore  the 
third  edition  (1870)  of  a  collection  of  poetry  by  well-known 
German  American  authors  of  the  time.  It  is  entitled  "Heimath- 
griisse  aus  Amerika"  and  was  published  by  E.  Steiger  in  New 
York.  Noteworthy  are  also  volumes  1-8  (1884-91 )  of  the  "Leh- 
rerpost,  officielles  Organ  des  Deutsch-Americanischen  Lehrer- 
bundes."  The  following  are  lacking  from  our  set:  Jahrgang  i. 
Heft  i;  Jahrg.  2,  Heft  7-9;  Jahrg.  3,  Heft  5-7;  Jahrg.  4,  Heft 
1-3,  9;  Jahrg.  5,  Heft  10,  14,  15,  17,  18;  Jahrg.  6,  Heft  5,  6,  8, 
18,  20,  21.    Who  can  help  us  to  fill  these  gaps? 

276  German  American  Researches 

The  "Frcidcnker  Publishing  Co.,"  Milwaukee,  presented 
toward  the  close  of  December,  1907,  vols.  1-18  (1885-1902)  of 
the  "Amerikanische  Turnzeitung"  and  vols.  14-27  (1885-1898) 
of  "Der  Freidenker."  The  later  volumes  of  these  two  had 
been  received  previously  as  current  numbers.  Now  we  still  need 
vols.  1-13  of  "Der  Freidenker."  The  publishers  have  kindly 
offered  to  print  an  appeal  to  the  readers  of  their  two  periodicals 
to  supply  the  missing  volumes  of  "Der  Freidenker,"  as  also  publi- 
cations relating  to  the  German  Freethinkers,  the  German  gym- 
nastic societies  and  German  American  schools. 

A  Carl  Schurz  album,  two  large  scrapbooks  in  black  mo- 
rocco binding,  containing  eulogies,  necrologies  and  character 
sketches  from  American,  German  and  English  newspapers,  came 
into  possession  of  the  library  on  December  31,  1907.  The  diverse 
opinions  expressed  in  these  newspaper  articles  make  the  album 
valuable  as  source  material  for  the  future  impartial  biographer  of 
Schurz.  The  collection  was  made  by  Otto  Spengler,  proprietor 
of  the  "Argus  Press  Clipping  Bureau,"  by  order  and  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  "German  Carl  Schurz  Memorial  Committee,"  to  be 
permanently  deposited  in  the  "New  York  Public  Library."  The 
committee  was  made  up  of  representatives  of  19  well-known 
German  societies  in  New  York  City. 

F.  A.  Sorgc's  Library. 

In  connection  with  the  accounts  of  the  principal  gifts  for  the 
German  American  collection,  it  may  be  appropriate  to  mention 
here  the  donation  of  F.  A.  Sorge's  private  library.  It  consisted 
of  more  than  700  volumes,  1425  pamphlets,  about  1000  numbers 
of  newspapers  and  239  manuscript  letters  addressed  to  him  by 
Karl  Marx,  Friedrich  Engels,  Johann  Philip  Becker,  Joseph 
Dietzgen  and  others,  during  the  years  1 867-1 895.  These  letters 
relate  chiefly  to  the  modern  labor  movement,  the  tactics  and  in- 
ternal affairs  of  the  socialistic  parties  and  their  leaders,  as  also  to 
political  events  in  Europe  and  America.    Most  of  the  letters  were 

German  American  Researches  277 

published  in  the  summer  of  1906,  under  the  editorship  of  Sorge, 
by  "J-  H.  W.  Dietz  Nachfolger"  in  Stuttgart.  The  greater  part 
of  the  printed  material  from  Sorge's  library  bears  on  the  same 
subjects  as  treated  in  the  letters.  Mr.  Sorge  turned  his  material 
over  to  the  "New  York  Public  Library"  in  about  6  installments, 
all  of  which  were  delivered  at  the  "Astor  Library  Building." 
The  first  shipment  was  received  in  1899  and  the  last  some  time 
after  Mr.  Sorge's  death,  which  occurred  in  October,  1906.  It 
was  beyond  my  control  to  determine  the  percentage  of  German 
Americana  in  the  entire  lot.  The  most  noteworthy  item  is  part 
of  the  series  "Der  Pionier,"  a  radical  weekly,  founded  and  edited 
by  Karl  Heinzen  in  1854  at  Louisville,  Ky.  Shortly  thereafter  it 
was  transferred  to  New  York.  In  1859  Heinzen  moved  to 
Boston,  Mass.,  where  he  continued  the  publication  until  his  death 
in  1880.  The  file  in  our  library  covers  vols.  5-19  (1858-1872), 
but  it  lacks  the  following:  Vol.  6  (1859),  nos.  30  and  52;  vol.  9 
(1862),  no.  2;  vol.  19  (1872),  nos.  33,  45-52.  We  are  very 
anxious  to  obtain  these  numbers,  likewise  the  missing  vols.  1-4, 


Gradually  several  hundreds  of  duplicates  have  accumulated. 
These  are  being  used  in  exchange  with  other  libraries,  to  obtain 
similar  material.  The  following  institutions  are  considered : 
"German  Society  of  Pennsylvania"  in  Philadelphia;  "Society  for 
the  History  of  the  Germans  in  Maryland"  (founded  in  1886)  in 
Baltimore;  "German  American  Historical  Society  of  Illinois" 
(founded  in  1901)  in  Chicago;  "Library  of  Congress"  and  the 
library  of  the  "Bureau  of  Education"  in  Washington,  D.  C,  and 


As  the  library  has  no  special  fund  as  yet  for  the  purchase  of 
everything  in  the  line  of  German  Americana,  not  all  of  my  267 
recommendations  submitted  during  the  years  1906-07  could  be 
acted  upon.     Nevertheless,  the  number  of  works  bought,  about 

278  German  American  Researches 

175  titles,  is  gratifying.  Only  the  more  important  ones  can  be 
noted  here : 

"Amerikanische  Schulzeitung,  Organ  des  Deutsch-Ameri- 
kanischen  Lehrerbtindes,"  since  June,  1875,  continued  under  the 
title  "Erziehungs-Blatter  fiir  Schule  und  Haus,"  Jahrgang  1-12, 
15-29,  nos.  1-9  (September,  1870 — June,  1899,  publication 
ceased).  Besides  the  missing  volumes  13  and  14,  our  set  lacks 
no.  I  of  vol.  3  (September,  1872)  ;  no.  8  each  of  vol.  6  (May, 
1876),  vol.  7  (May,  1877),  vol.  9  (May,  1879),  which  are 
urgently  wanted  for  completion.  This  monthly  periodical  was 
founded  by  W.  N.  Hailmann  in  Louisville,  Ky.  After  a  few 
years  it  was  transferred  to  Milwaukee.  Of  the  later  editors  may 
be  named  Carl  H.  Doerflinger,  Dr.  L.  R.  Klemm,  Dr.  H.  H.  Pick, 
Dr.  M.  P.  E.  Groosmann,  etc. 

"Atlantis,  eine  Monatsschrift  fiir  Wissenschaft,  Politik  und 
Poesie,"  published  and  edited  by  Christian  Essellen,  1853-59.  At 
present  the  library  has  only  the  following :  New  series,  vols.  2-6 
(January,  1855-December,  1857)  ;  vol.  8,  nos,  i,  2  and  6  (Janu- 
ary, February  and  June,  1858)  ;  vol.  9,  nos.  1-4  (July-October, 
1858).  Essellen  established  the  "Atlantis"  in  Detroit,  then 
moved  it  successively  to  Milwaukee,  Chicago,  Cleveland,  back  to 
Detroit,  next  to  Buffalo  and  finally  to  New  York,  where  he  died 
in  indigent  circumstances  at  the  hospital  on  Ward's  Island,  in 
May,  1859.  Lack  of  support  of  his  literary  undertaking,  above 
all  the  non-payment  of  his  subscribers  ruined  him.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  the  gaps  in  our  file  of  the  "Atlantis"  may  be  filled  in 
course  of  time. 

"Vorwarts.  Eine  Zeitschrift  fiir  wissenschaftliche  und  re- 
ligiose Bildung,"  edited  by  Robert  Clemen,  Columbus,  Ohio, 
Jahrgang  1-2,  (1847-49,  no  more  published). 

"Waechter  am  Ohio,"  Portsmouth,  O.,  published  by  J.  M. 
Broome,  Jahrgang  i,  nos.  3-31,  33-39,  42-46,  48-52  (October  5, 
1860-August  29,  1 86 1,  ceased  publication).  Broome  then  en- 
tered the  military  service  of  the  United  States  as  first  lieutenant 

German  American  Researches  279 

of  a  German  company,  which  joined  the  brigade  under  the  com- 
mand of  General  August  WilHch. 

Benjamin  Franklin's  "Memorial  of  the  case  of  the  German 
emigrants  settled  in  the  British  colonies  of  Pensilvania  and  the 
back  parts  of  Maryland,  Virginia,  etc.,"  London,  1754. 

"Nachrichten  von  den  vereinigten  deutschen  evangelisch- 
lutherischen  Gemeinen  in  Nord-America,  absonderlich  in  Pen- 
sylvanien"  (better  known  as  "Halle'sche  Nachrichten" ) ,  Halle, 
1787,  2  vols. ;  also  the  new  edition  in  2  vols.,  edited  with  critical 
notes  and  furnished  with  an  index,  by  W.  J.  Mann,  B.  M. 
Schmucker  and  W.  Germann,  Allentown,  Pa.,  1886,  and  Phila- 
delphia, 1895.  An  English  translation  by  Dr.  J.  Oswald  was 
published  in  2  volumes  in  Philadelphia,  1880-81,  of  which  we 
have  only  the  second  volume  thus  far.  In  1882  another  transla- 
tion by  C.  W.  Schaeffer  was  issued  in  Reading,  Pa.,  which  is  not 
yet  in  the  library.  The  "Halle'sche  Nachrichten"  forms  a  rich 
mine  for  the  history  of  the  German  element  during  the  eighteenth 
century,  particularly  of  the  Lutherans. 

Gotthilf  H.  Miihlenberg's  "Eine  Rede  gehalten  den  6.  Juni, 
1787,  bey  der  Einweihung  von  der  Deutschen  Hohen  Schule  oder 
Franklin  Collegium  in  Lancaster,  Pa."  (the  present  "Franklin  and 
Marshall  College"). 

Moritz  von  Fiirstenwarther's  "Der  Deutsche  in  Nord-Amer- 
ika,"  Stuttgart,  181 8.  Fiirstenwarther  came  to  this  country  to 
investigate  about  the  prospects  for  German  immigration. 

Emil  Klauprecht's  "Deutsche  Chronik  in  der  Geschichte  des 
Ohio-Thales  und  seiner  Haupstadt  Cincinnati  .  .  .,"  Cincin- 
nati, 1864. 

L.  Stierlin's  "Der  Staat  Kentucky  und  die  Stadt  Louisville, 
mit  besonderer  Beriicksichtigung  des  deutschen  Elementes," 
Louisville,  1873. 

"Pennsylvania-German  Society,  proceedings,"  vol.  i  (1891), 
for  which  I  had  been  on  the  lookout  for  years,  and  vols.  15-16. 

Rev.  F.  B.  Bess'  "Eine  populare  Geschichte  der  Stadt  Peoria, 

28o  German  American  Researches 

111.,"  1906,  being  a  general  history  of  the  city,  with  a  detailed 
account  of  the  German  element. 

J.  W.  Wayland's  "The  German  element  of  the  Shenandoah 
Valley  of  Virginia,"  Charlottesville,  Va.,  1907. 

Adolf  Falbisaner's  "Aus  Hermann's  friiheren  Tagen,  his- 
torische  Skizzen,"  about  the  German  settlement  of  Hermann,  Mo. 
This  is  a  scrapbook  containing  84  articles  from  the  "Hermanner 
Wochenblatt,"  1901-03. 

William  G.  Bek's  "The  German  Settlement  Society  of  Phila- 
delphia and  its  colony  Hermann,  Missouri,"  Philadelphia,  1907 
(Americana  Germanica,  new  series,  no.  5). 

Hermann  Schliiter's  "Die  Anfange  der  deutschen  Arbeiter- 
bewegung  in  Amerika,"  Stuttgart,  1907. 

All  important  German  works,  descriptive  of  the  United 
States  in  general,  issued  during  1906-07,  have  been  bought. 
Space  does  not  permit  to  name  here  all  separately. 

Subscriptions  for  the  following  periodicals  have  been  con- 
tinued: "German  American  Annals,"  Philadelphia,  Pa.  (since 
1897)  ;  "The  Pennsylvania-German,"  East  Greenville,  Pa.  (since 
1900)  ;  "Deutsch-Amerikanische  Geschichtsblatter,"  Chicago,  111. 
(since  1901);  "Die  Glocke,"  Chicago,  111.  (since  1906);  "Der 
Deutsche  Vorkiimpfer,"  New  York  (since  1907). 

Use  Made  of  tJie  German  American  Collection. 

"Klappern  gehort  zum  Handwerk,"  some  one  may  fling  out 
jocosely  to  the  librarian,  who  ventures  to  speak  of  the  book 
treasures  of  his  institution  and  the  use  made  of  them.  But  the 
numerous  donors  and  patrons  of  our  collection,  who  are  scattered 
all  over  this  great  land,  have  a  good  claim  to  be  informed  about 
the  extent  of  the  services  rendered  by  the  collection  to  authors, 
historians  and  the  general  public.  It  has  been  impossible  to  keep 
detailed  statistics  thereon.  The  work  most  called  for  is  T.  F. 
Chamber's  "The  early  Germans  of  New  Jersey,  their  history, 
churches  and  genealogies,"   1895;  secondly,  the  publications  of 

German  American  Researches  281 

the  "Pennsylvania-German  Society;"  next,  the  monthly  period- 
ical, "The  Pennsylvania-German." 

Thousands  will  probably  remember  the  stirring  article,  "The 
Germans  in  America,"  by  Herbert  N.  Casson,  in  "Munsey's  Mag- 
azine," March,  1906.  Many  German  American  newspapers 
printed  a  translation  of  it ;  others  gave  it  editorial  attention.  The 
article  has  been  prepared  chiefly  with  the  aid  of  our  collection. 
My  enthusiasm  in  the  matter  prompted  me  to  give  up  hours  of 
my  own  time  to  assist  Mr.  Casson  to  dig  into  the  subject. 

The  authors  of  several  volumes  of  the  monograph  series, 
"Americana  Germanica,  new  series,"  edited  by  Prof.  M.  D. 
Learned,  have  made  exhaustive  use  of  our  library,  notably  Dr.  E. 
Z.  Davis  for  his  "Translations  of  German  poetry  in  American 
magazines,  1741-1810;"  Dr.  E.  C.  Parry  for  his  "Schiller  in 
America,  a  contribution  to  the  literature  of  the  poets'  centenary, 
1905,"  and  Prof.  Learned  for  his  edition  of  "Philipp  Waldeck's 
diary  of  the  American  Revolution." 

At  the  suggestion  of  the  late  Prof.  Edward  Gaylord  Bourne, 
of  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  Messrs.  Luther  An- 
derson and  Gilbert  G.  Benjamin  came  to  New  York  to  make  use 
of  our  collection  in  the  preparation  of  their  dissertations  for  the 
degree  "Doctor  of  Philosophy."  Mr.  Anderson  took  up  the  his- 
tory of  the  immigration  and  settlement  of  the  Salzburger  Luther- 
ans in  Georgia  during  the  eighteenth  century.  Our  volumes  of 
Samuel  Urlsperger's  "Ausfiihrliche  Nachrichten  von  den  Saltz- 
burgischen  Emigranten  .  .  .,"  Halle,  1 735-1 752,  and  his  "Amer- 
icanisches  Ackerwerk  Gottes,  oder  zuverlassige  Nachrichten  den 
Zustand  der  americanisch  englischen  Pflanzstadt  Ebenezer  in 
Georgien  betrefTend  .  .  .,"  Augsburg,  1 754-1 757,  have  been  the 
principal  sources  for  his  work. 

Mr.  Benjamin  selected  for  his  subject  the  history  of  the 
German  settlers  in  Texas.  He  has  enlarged  his  dissertation  for 
publication  in  "German  American  Annals."  Eventually  the  re- 
sults of  his  continued. researches  may  be  issued  in  book  form. 

282  German  American  Researches 

Mr.  Rudolf  Cronau,  New  York,  a  well  known  German 
American  author,  has  made  diligent  use  of  the  library  in  the 
preparation  of  his  work,  "Das  deutsche  Element  in  den  Vereinig- 
ten  Staaten,"  for  which  the  $2,000  prize  of  the  "Conrad  Seipp 
Memorial  German  Prizes"  was  recently  awarded  to  him. 

One  of  the  principal  managers  of  this  prize  contest,  the  Ger- 
man Consul  General  in  Chicago,  Dr.  Walther  Wever,  received 
written  information,  upon  his  request,  about  illustrations  suitable 
for  the  prize  winning  books.  In  November,  1907,  Dr.  Wever 
visited  the  "Lenox  Library  Building"  in  the  interest  of  the  same 

Even  to  Paris,  France,  knowledge  of  our  German  American 
collection  has  spread.  Prof.  Camille  Pitollet,  of  that  city,  a  con- 
stant contributor  to  the  "Revue  Germanique"  (published  since 
1905),  is  writing  a  biography  of  Gottfried  Kinkel.  The  recent 
publication  of  Carl  Schurz's  memoirs  has  anew  made  more  widely 
known  the  remarkable  rescue  of  Kinkel  by  Schurz  from  the 
prison  at  Spandau  and  Kinkel's  sojourn  in  the  United  States. 
Prof.  Pitollet  wrote  me,  that  he  needs  extracts  for  his  Kinkel 
biography  from  the  "Deutsche  Schnellpost,"  published  in  New 
York  from  1843-47,  and  from  the  "New  Yorker  Republikaner," 
published  about  1852.  Unfortunately  I  have  been  unable  thus 
far  to  procure  these  newspapers  for  our  library,  or  even  to  find 
out  whether  they  have  been  preserved  elsewhere.  In  the  mean- 
time I  have  been  able  to  comply  with  another  request  of  Prof. 
Pitollet,  namely,  to  hunt  up  data  in  old  volumes  of  the  "New 
Yorker  Staats-Zeitung"  and  copy  the  same.  Science  is  inter- 
national, therefore  I  have  willingly  sacrificed  my  own  time  to 
examine  the  old  volumes  at  the  "Staats-Zeitung  Building."  Who 
owns  or  knows  the  whereabouts  of  the  "Deutsche  Schnellpost" 
and  the  "New  Yorker  Republikaner"  and  allows  me  to  use  them, 
so  that  Prof.  Pitollet  may  be  assisted  in  the  work  on  his  merito- 
rious Kinkel  biography  ? 

Prof.    Dr.   Otto  Heller,  of   "Washington  University,"    St. 

German  American  Researches  283 

Louis,  is  editing  a  new  critical  edition  of  the  works  of  Karl 
Postel  (Charles  Sealsfield).  For  this  purpose  he  has  made  re- 
searches at  our  library  in  old  New  York  newspapers,  containing 
contributions  by  Postel.  Prof.  Heller  took  leave  of  absence  for 
one  year,  in  order  to  make  further  investigations  in  Europe. 
While  there,  data  bearing  on  his  work  has  been  sent  to  him  by 

Dr.  Albert  J.  W.  Kern,  Jamaica,  N.  Y.,  is  assiduously  en- 
gaged upon  an  historical  work,  for  which  he  has  made  diligent 
use  of  the  resources  of  the  library.  Detailed  information  about 
his  work  will  be  given  out  later. 

Mr.  Otto  Lohr,  who  hails  from  the  Swabian  shore  of  the 
Lake  of  Constance  (Bodensee),  but  is  now  settled  in  New  York, 
has  planned  to  write  monographs  upon  the  following  subjects: 
I.  The  Germans  in  New  Amsterdam  and  in  the  colony  of  New 
York  during  the  seventeenth  century.  2.  The  Immigration  of 
the  "Palatines."  3.  John  Conrad  Weiser.  4.  History  of  the 
Wiirttembergers  in  the  United  States.  5.  Swabian  American 
biographies.  His  careful  and  exhaustive  studies  at  our  library 
will  assuredly  produce  valuable  contributions  to  the  history  of  the 
Germans  in  America. 

Suggestions  for  Future  Work. 

Lack  of  space  and  time  oblige  me  to  omit  from  this  report 
an  enlarged  list  of  German  American  authors  of  belles-lettres, 
whose  works  are  now  in  the  library.  The  first  list  of  such  authors 
appeared  in  my  report  for  1904-1905,  in  "German  American 
Annals,"  1906,  page  150.  Our  collection  of  this  literature  has 
been  considerably  augmented  since  then,  but  is  not  quite  com- 
plete yet.  The  time  may  be  near,  when  it  will  be  sufficiently 
built  up,  to  begin  the  compilation  of  a  list  of  authors  and  titles, 
with  short  annotations.  The  extent  of  this  belles-lettres  collection 
will  surprise  many,  even  some  of  those  Germans  who  have  been 
lecturing  on  the  subject.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  some  scholar  with 
the  necessary  qualifications  of  an  impartial  critic  and  literary  his- 

284  German  American  Researches 

torian  will  find  it  opportune  to  write  a  history  of  German  Ameri- 
can literature. 

The  library  has  a  collection  of  over  200  German  works,  de- 
scriptive of  the  United  States  and  its  people.  Only  a  hint  can  be 
given  here  that  this  material  contains  much  data  for  investigators 
in  various  fields.  Let  me  quote  an  opinion  on  this  class  of  works 
expressed  in  1864  by  Henry  T.  Tuckerman  in  his  book,  "America 
and  her  commentators,  with  a  critical  sketch  of  travel  in  the 
United  States,"  page  302  :  "Some  of  the  most  just  views  and 
candid  delineations  have  emanated  from  German  writers.  Their 
political  sympathies,  extensive  information  and  patient  tone  of 
mind  alike  fit  them  for  the  task  of  investigating  and  reporting 
physical  and  social  facts."  The  same  may  be  claimed  for  most 
German  writers  on  the  United  States,  from  the  date  of  Tucker- 
man's  appraisal  up  to  the  present  time.  To  my  knowledge  no 
comprehensive  survey  of  the  literature  of  observation  and  travel 
in  the  United  States  since  the  Civil  War  has  been  issued  in  book 
form.  In  these  days  of  specialization  some  American  literary 
person,  similarly  equipped  for  the  task  as  Tuckerman  was,  might 
take  up  the  German  literature  of  travel  in  our  country,  including 
all  of  the  earlier  publications  discussed  by  Tuckerman.  This 
"commentary"  should  by  all  means  be  written  by  a  native  Ameri- 
can, as  a  German  American  might  be  too  easily  suspected  of 
"prejudice  in  favor  of  everything  German." 

In  years  to  come,  writers  on  the  economic  and  social  devel- 
opment of  the  American  people  during  the  nineteenth  century  will 
want  to  examine  critically  the  share  and  influence  which  the 
millions  of  German  immigrants  have  had  therein.  In  tlie  chapter 
of  this  report  on  "newspapers  and  periodicals  as  source  material," 
I  have  already  referred  to  the  importance  of  old  German  news- 
paper files.  Here  I  wish  to  call  attention  to  the  value  of  proceed- 
ings, reports,  constitutions  and  by-laws  and  all  other  printed 
matter  of  the  various  religious  denominations,  schools,  mutual 
aid  organizations,  charitable  institutions,  societies  for  the  cultiva- 
tion of  literature,  music  and  singing,  physical  education  and  sport, 

German  American  Researches  285 

etc.  Although  we  have  obtained  a  good  quantity  of  such  material, 
much  more  remains  to  be  gathered.  The  indifference  to  my 
efforts  of  some  of  the  officers  of  these  organizations  is  indeed 
discouraging.  It  may  be  merely  thoughtlessness  on  their  part. 
Holding  to  this  view,  I  shall  approach  these  officers  and  societies 
again  with  requests  and  mention  the  result  in  a  later  report  on  the 
German  American  collection.  But  as  fruitless  labor  represents 
also  sacrifices  of  my  time,  I  shall  not  hesitate  to  publish  the  names 
of  such  "Inaccessables"  in  the  press.  Perhaps  some  other  people 
will  stir  them  up  then. 


It  is  customary  with  most  organizers  of  German  American 
undertakings,  to  appoint  an  "Honorary  Committee."  This  for- 
mality has  been  ignored  in  the  upbuilding  of  the  German  Ameri- 
can collection.  In  the  first  place,  thanks  for  the  furtherance  of 
the  work  is  due  to  the  Director  of  the  "New  York  Public  Li- 
brary," Dr.  John  S.  Billings,  and  to  my  immediate  superior  at  the 
"Lenox  Library  Building,"  the  Chief  Librarian,  Mr.  Wilberforce 
Eames,  who  have  permitted  me  to  agitate  in  the  name  of  the 
library  in  favor  of  the  collection.  My  canvass  for  material  and 
solicitations  in  the  press  have  given  the  impression  to  some  Ger- 
man American  editors  and  other  persons,  that  I  must  be  the  chief 
of  a  "German  Department"  of  the  library.  In  order  to  correct 
this  wrong  view,  I  wish  to  state  that  officially  no  such  "Depart- 
ment" exists  as  yet.  My  position  is  "Assistant  Librarian"  at  the 
"Lenox  Library  Building." 

The  many  donors  and  friends  of  the  collection,  especially 
newspaper  publishers  and  editors,  who  have  supported  my  efforts, 
are  to  be  considered  as  an  active  "Honorary  Committee."  With- 
out this  great  help  the  growth  of  the  collection  would  have  been 

limited  to  the  purchases. 

Richard  E.  Helbig, 

Lenox  Library  Building, 

5th  Ave.  and  70th  St.,  New  York. 

By  Edwin  M.  Fogel,  Ph.  D. 

One  of  the  many  interesting  features  of  German  culture  in 
Pennsylvania  is  the  tenacity  with  which  the  Pennsylvania  Ger- 
mans have  retained  the  dialectal  and  cultural  peculiarities  of  the 
period  of  their  immigration  to  America.  It  is  not  necessary  to 
restate  here  the  close  relationship  between  the  dialects  of  the 
Palatinate  and  Swabia  and  that  of  the  Pennsylvania  Germans. 
More  than  three-fourths  of  a  collection  of  Pennsylvania  German 
superstitions  which  the  writer  is  about  to  publish  are  of  German 
origin.  In  like  manner  the  Himmelshrief  comes  from  Germany. 
It  is  the  purpose  of  the  present  article  to  print  a  number  of  inter- 
esting, heretofore  to  my  knowledge  untreated  specimens  of  the 

A  comparison  of  these  survivals  in  Pennsylvania  with  the 
several  versions  found  in  Bartsch^  2.341  fT.  and  elsewhere,  shows 
that  in  the  German  superstitions  the  cabalistic  element  is  very 
pronounced,  whereas  in  the  Himmelshrief  current  among  the 
Pennsylvania  Germans  no  external  cabalistic  trace  is  left.  The 
presence  of  these  cabalistic  letters,  etc.,  shows  clearly  that  there 
is  a  close  connection  between  the  Zaiiberspnich,  Segensformel 
and  the  black  art  of  the  Middle  Ages,  on  the  one  hand,  while  on 
the  other  hand,  we  have  in  reality  in  the  Himmelshrief  the  old 
heathenism  under  the  garb  of  Christianity : 

"Wenn  nicht  alle  Anzeichen  triigen,  so  fallt  die  Entstehung 
unserer  meisten  christlichen  Sagen  in  die  Zeit,  wo  mit  der  zweiten 
Halfte  des  XI  jh.  die  geistliche  Dichtung  in  der  Volkssprache  einen 

'  Karl  Bartsch,  Sagen,  M'drcheu  iind  Gebrduche  aus  Meklenburg.     Wien 


The  Himmelsbrief  287 

neuen  Aufschwung  nahm  und  dann  bis  gegen  den  Ausgang  des  XII 
jh.  mit  Eifer  gepflegt  wurde.  Sie  traten  damals  an  die  Stelle  der 
alten,  vielfach  verkiimmerten  und  verwilderten,  allitterierenden 
Spriiche,  deren  Ursprung  grosstenteils  ins  Heidentum  zuriickreicht. 
Hatten  diese  auch  schon  frijh,wie  derWiener  Hundsegen  und  auch 
der  Weingartner  Reisesegen  lehren,  christliche  Zusatze  und  Umbil- 
dung  erfahren,  so  liegt  uns  doch  kein  vollstandig  durchgereimter 
Spruch  vor  jener  Epoche  vor.  Von  da  an  aber  lasst  sich  neben  der 
miindlichen  auch  eine  schriftliche  Tradition  bis  auf  unsre  Tage  hinab 
verfolgen  und  mit  leichter  Miihe  liesse  sich  mancher  Spruch  aus 
spaten  Aufzeichnungen  in  das  XII  jh.  zuriickfiihren."  (Cf.  Miillen- 
hoff-Scherer  Denkmaler,  p.  427.^) 

In  each  version  of  the  Himmelsbrief  the  element  of  super- 
stition is  so  strong  that  we  may  suggest  several  points  of  con- 
tact between  it  and  the  ordinary  pow-wowing  formula.  That  the 
pow-wowing  formula  is  of  undeniably  heathen  origin  is  proved 
by  the  Mersehurger  Zauberspriiche,  the  Lorscher  Bienensegen, 
etc.,  and  the  Anglo-Saxon  Spruch  gegen  Hexenstich  und  Hexen- 
schuss.     (Cf.  Kogel.  i.  i.  93.  ^) 

The  two-fold  element  in  the  German  segensformel,  to  which 
the  late  lamented  Elard  Hugo  Meyer  has  called  attention,  (cf. 
Wuttke,  p.  168)^  is  present  in  the  Pennsylvania  German  pow- 
wowing formula,  viz.,  the  narrative  and  the  imperative.  The 
following  taken  direct  from  the  mouth  of  the  people  may  serve 
as  examples,  the  first  to  illustrate  the  simple  narrative,  and  the 
second  the  distinct  command : 

1.  Uf  Grischtus  graab  waxe  drei  rose: 
Die  erscht  is  rot, 

Die  zwett  is  dot,  • 

Un  die  dritt  schtillt  blut. 

2.  Maerge  laaft  en  Jungfraa  iwwers  lant, 
Hot  en  feiericher  brand  in  der  hant. 
Brand,  brenn  nix  !    Brand,  lesch. 

*  Miillenhoflf-Scherer,  Denkmaler  deutscher  Poesie  und  Prosa  aus  dent 
VIII-XII  Jahrhundert.   Berlin.    1864. 

^R.  Kogel,  Geschkhte  der  deutschen  Litteratur  bis  zum  Ausgange  des 
Mittelalters.    Strassburg.    1894. 

*A.  Wuttke,  Deutscher  Aberglaube  der  Gegenzvart.  Driite  Bearbeitung 
von  Hugo  Elard  Meyer.   Berlin.   1900. 

288  The  Himmelsbrief 

The  essential  differences  between  the  pow-wowing  formula, 
or  charm,  and  the  Himmelsbrief  consist  in  this,  that  the  former 
is  occasional ;  the  latter,  general ;  the  former  is  used  in  a  specific 
case  and  for  the  healing  of  a  specific  disease ;  the  latter,  to  escape 
disease,  disaster  or  the  devil;  the  former  is  remedial;  the  latter, 
preventive ;  the  former  is  usually  spoken  only  in  a  whisper  or  even 
inaudibly ;  the  latter  is  spread  broadcast  and  is  to  be  found  in 
many  families;  it  is  even  carried  on  one's  person,  particularly  in 
times  of  great  danger,  difficulty  or  distress,  and  in  this  sense 
both  the  pow-wowing  formula  and  the  Hiuiinclsbricf  partake  of 
the  nature  of  the  charm. 

The  following  are  extant  among  the  Pennsylvania  Germans : 

1.  Der  Himmelsbrief,  welcher  .  .  .  zu  sehen  ist  in  der  St. 
Michaelis  Kirche  zu  St.  Germain.    No  date. 

2.  The  Holstein  Himmelsbrief,  1724. 

3.  The  Mechelburg  Himmelsbrief  in  dem  Lande  Britania,  1725. 

4.  Die  sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel.  1750. 

5.  The  letter  shown  to  Count  Philip  of  Flanders. 

6.  The  Magdeburg  Himmelsbrief,  1783. 


Of  this  there  are  three  versions,  which  we  shall  designate 
as  A,  B  and  C,  respectively.  A  is  the  reprint  by  G.  Kiibn  in  New- 
Ruppin;  B,  that  of  Der  Unabhdngige  Republikancr,  Allentown, 
Penna. ;  C,  that  of  the  York  Gazette,  York,  Penna. 

The  content  of  all  three  is  virtually  the  same,  except  that 
C  contains  some  additional  material  not  found  in  A  and  B.  In 
C  the  letter  is  called  Grodoria,  whereas  in  A  we  find  the  name 
Credoria.  Moreover,  A  differs  completely  from  the  version 
found  in  Bartsch,'^  although  it  is  also  reprinted  by  G.  Kiihn. 

'  Bartsch  2,  341-343- 

The  Himmelsbrief  289 

Jesus  Christus  zii  finden  ist 

Im  Wort,  da  man  von  Jesu  lies't. 

Jesus  gibt  Heil  und  Seligkeit 

Dem,  der  ihm  dienct  allezeit. 

Wer  sich  des  Namens  Jesu  trost't, 

Der  wird  durch  Jesum  Christ  erlos't. 

Jesu,  dem  lieben  Kindelein, 

Dem  herzlieben  Jesulein 

Sei  Lob  und  Preis !  O  Jesu  mild, 

Schiitz'  du  uns  stets  durch  deinen  Schild. 

Gib  uns,  Herr  Jesu,  deine  Gnad', 

Dass  uns  Welt,  Teufel,  Tod  nicht  schad'. 

Gewiss  ist  der  Tod,  ungewiss  ist  der  Tag. 
Die  Stund'  auch  niemand  wissen  mag, 
Drum  trau'  auf  Gott  und  denk'  dabei 
Dass  jede  Stund'  die  letzte  sei. 
Im  Leiden  habe  guten  Mut, 
Und  liebe  den,  der  Leid  dir  tut. 

Freu'  dich  von  Herzen  in  Schwachheit, 
Das  ist  die  ganze  Vollkommenheit, 
So  geht  es  zu  in  aller  Zeit, 
Tu'  mir  die  Lieb',  ich  tu  dir  Leid, 
Hilf  mir  auf,  ich  stoss  dich  nieder, 
Ehr'  mich  gross,  ich  schand'  dich  wieder, 
Sage  nicht  alles,  was  du  weisst, 
Glaube  nicht  alles,  was  du  horst, — 
Richte  nicht  alles,  was  du  siehst. 

Ach  Gott,  dies  ganze  Haus  bewahr' 
Vor  Feuer,  Schaden  und  Gefahr. 
Mit  Gnad'  und  Segen  iiber  uns  wait, 
Und  uns  dein  reines  Wort  erhalt'|. 
Herr  Jesu !  durch  den  Namen  dein 
Gib  mir  ein  selig  Stiindelein ; 
Stehe  mir  bei  am  letzten  End', 
Nimm  meine  Seel'  in  deine  Hand'. 


Also  gebiete  ich  euch,  dass  ihr  des  Sonntags  nicht  arbeitet  an 
euren  Giitern,  und  sonst  keine  Arbeit  tut,  sondern  sollt  fleissig  zur 
Kirche  gehen  und  mit  Andacht  beten,  cure  Haare  nicht  krauseln,  und 

290  The  Himmelsbrief 

Hoffahrt  in  der  Welt  treiben,  und  von  eurem  Reichtum  den  Armen 
mitteilen  vmd  glauben,  dass  ich  diesen  Brief  von  meiner  Hand,  in 
JESU  CHRISTO.,  ausgesandt,  damit  ihr  nicht  tut  wie  die  unver- 
niinftigen  Tiere.  Ich  gebe  euch  sechs  Tage,  eure  Arbeit  fortzusetzen, 
und  am  Sonntage  friih  in  die  Kirche  zu  gehen,  die  heilige  Predigt 
und  Gottes  Wort  zu  horen ;  werdet  ihr  das  nicht  tun,  so  will  ich  euch 
strafen  mit  Pestilenz,  Krieg  und  teurer  Zeit.  Ich  gebiete  euch,  dass 
ihr  des  Sonnabends  nicht  zu  spat  arbeitet,  des  Sonntags  friih  in  der 
Kirche  mit  Jedermann,  Jung  und  Alt,  andachtig  fiir  eure  Siinden 
betet,  damit  sie  euch  vergeben  werden.  Schworet  nicht  boshaftig 
bei  meinem  Namen,  begehret  nicht  Silber  oder  Gold,  und  sehet  nicht 
auf  fleischliche  Liiste  und  Begierden ;  denn  sobald  ich  euch  erschafifen 
habe,  solbald  kann  ich  euch  auch  wieder  vernichten.  Einer  soil  den 
andern  nicht  todten  mit  der  Zunge,  und  sollet  nicht  falsch  gegen 
euren  Nachsten  hinter  dem  Riicken  sein.  Freuet  euch  eurer  Giiter 
und  cures  Reichtums  nicht.  Ehret  Vater  und  Mutter.  Redet  nicht 
falsch  Zeugnis  wider  euren  Nachsten,  so  gebe  ich  euch  Gesundheit 
und  Segen.  Wer  aber  diesen  Brief  nicht  glaubet  und  sich  darnach 
nicht  richtet,  der  wird  kein  Gliick  und  Segen  haben.  Diesen  Brief 
soil  einer  dem  andern  geschrieben  oder  gedruckt  zukommen  lassen : 
und  wenn  ihr  so  viel  Siinden  getan  hattet,  als  Sand  am  Meere,  Laub 
auf  den  Baumen  und  Sterne  am  Himmel  sind,  sollen  sie  euch  ver- 
geben werden,  wenn  ihr  glaubet  und  tut,  was  dieser  Brief  euch  lehret 
und  saget;  wer  das  aber  nicht  glaubet,  der  soil  sterben.  Bekehret 
euch,  oder  ihr  werdet  ewiglich  gepeinigt  werden,  und  ich  werde  euch 
fragen  am  jiingsten  Tage,  dann  werdet  ihr  mir  Antwort  geben 
miissen  wegen  eurer  vielen  Siinden.  Wer  den  Brief  in  seineni  Hause 
hat  oder  bei  sich  tragt,  dem  wird  kein  Donnerwetter  schaden,  und 
ihr  sollt  vor  Feuer  und  Wasser  behiitet  werden.  Welche  Frau  den 
Brief  bei  sich  tragt,  und  sich  darnach  richtet,  die  wird  eine  liebliche 
Frucht  und  frohlichen  Anblick  auf  die  Welt  bringen.  Haltet  meine 
Gebote,  die  ich  euch  durch  meinen  Engel  Michael  gesandt  habe. 

Ein  schones  christliches  Gebet,  alle  Tage  und  Stunden  zu  beten. 

Gott  bescheeret,  Hoffnung  ernahret.  Ach  Gott,  ich  bitte,  verlass 
mich  nicht.  Wer  Gott  vertraut,  hat  wohl  gebaut,  den  will  er  nicht 
verlassen;  ob  schon  die  Feinde  dich  verfolgen  und  hassen,  so  trau' 
auf  Gott,  er  wird  dich  auch  in  keiner  Not  verlassen.  Je  grosser  die 
Not,  je  naher  ist  Gott.  Trink  und  iss,  Gott  und  die  Armen  nicht 
vergiss.  Gottes  Giit'  und  Treu'  ist  alle  Morgen  neu.  Was  Gott  tut 
erquicken,  kann  Niemand  unterdriicken.  Gott  lasst  die  Seinen 
sinken  aber  nicht  ertrinken.     Ich  trau'  auf  Gott  allein,  menschliche 

The  Himmelsbrief  291 

Hilfe  ist  zu  klein ;  Gott  weiss  wohl  Hilfe  unci  Rat,  wenn  Menschen- 
hilf  ein  Ende  hat.  Mitt  Gott  fang'  deine  Sachen  an,  so  wird  es 
guten  Fortgang  ha'n.  Gott  hab'  vor  Augen  und  sein  Wort,  dann 
geht  dir's  wohl  so  hier  als  dort.  Wer  willig  gibt  den  Armen,  dessen 
wird  sich  Gott  erbarmen.  Wer  zum  Himmel  ist  erkoren,  stechen 
taglich  Disteln  und  Donien.  Jammer,  Kreuz,  Elend,  Angst  und  Not, 
ist  aller  Christen  taglich  Brot.  Im  Ungliick  hab'  ein'  Lowenmut,  auf 
Gott  trau',  es  wird  werden  gut,  ja  besser,  als  man  hoffen  tut.  Zu  dir, 
Herr  Jesu,  Gottes  Sohn,  steht  meines  Herzens  Freud'  und  Wonn'. 
Mein  Ruhm,  mein  Trost,  mein  hochstes  Gut  ist  mir  Herr  Christ, 
dein  teures  Blut.  Sorg'  und  sorge  nicht  zu  viel,  es  geschieht  doch, 
was  Gott  haben  will.  Der  Christen  Herz  auf  Rosen  geht,  wenn's 
mitten  unterm  Kreuze  steht.  Verzage  nicht  im  Kreuze  dein,  nach 
Regen  folget  Sonnenschein.  Herr  Jesu,  der  siisse  Name  dein, 
erquicke  mir  die  Seele  mein.  Herr  Jesu  Christ,  mein  Trost  und 
Freud',  ich  trau'  auf  dich  zu  jeder  Zeit.  O  frommer  Christ,  hier  leid' 
und  meid',  bald  kommt  darauf  die  gute  Zeit.  Vielleicht  kommt  der 
wohl  liber  Nacht,  der  aller  Not  ein  Ende  macht.  Kirchengehen 
versaumet  nicht,  Almosen  geben  armet  nicht.  Bete  rein,  und  schatz' 
dich  klein;  arbeite  fein,  trau  auf  Gott  allein,  die  Sorge  lasz  Gott 
befohlen  sein !    Amen. 

Gott,  der  du  deine  Lust  im  Himmel  hast  zu  wohnen, 
Im  Wesen  einig  bist,  dreieinig  in  Personen : 
Gott  Vater,  Sohn  und  Geist,  all'  die  dich  rufen  an, 
Kein  Gott  mir  ohne  dich  den  Himmel  geben  kann. 

(Druck  u.  Verlag  von  Gustav  Kiihn  in  Neu-Ruppin.) 


Welcher  mit  goldenen  Buchstaben  geschrieben,  und  zu  sehen  ist  in 
der  St.  Michael's  Kirche  zu  St.  Germain,  allwo  er  iiber  dem 
Taufsteine  schwebet.  Wer  ihn  angreifen  will,  von  dem  weichet 
er,  wer  ihn  aber  abschreiben  will,  zu  dem  neiget  er  sich  und 
thut  sich  selber  auf;  auf  welche  Art  er  in  der  Welt  verbreitet 

Unterweise  mich,  dass  ich  bewahre  dein  Gesetz.     Gib  mir,  mein 

Sohn,  dein  Herz. 

Also  gebiete  ich  euch,  dass  ihr  Sonntags  nicht  arbeitet  an  euren 
Giitern,  auch  sonst  keine  Arbeit  thut,  sondern  fleissig  zur  Kirche 
gehen  und  mit  Andacht  beten   soU't.     Ihr   soUt   cure   Haar  nicht 

292  The  Himmelshrief 

krausen  noch  lloffart  in  der  Welt  treiben  unci  von  eurem  Reichthum 
dftn  Armen  mittheilen  und  glauben,  dass  ich  diesen  Brief  durch  meine 
gottliche  Hand,  von  Jesu  Christo  ausgesandt,  auf  dass  ihr  nicht  thut 
wie  die  unverniinftigen  Thiere;  ich  gebe  euch  sechs  Tage  um  eure 
Arbeit  fortzusetsen  und  am  Sonntage  sollt  ihr  friih  in  die  Kirche 
gehen,  die  heilige  Predigt  und  Gottes  Wort  zu  horen.  Werdet  ihr 
das  nicht  thun,  so  will  ich  euch  strafen  mit  Pestilenz,  Krieg  und 
theuren  Zeit.  Ich  gebiete  euch,  dass  ihr  des  Samstags  nicht  zu  spat 
arbeitet,  und  des  Sonntags  zeitig  in  der  Kirche  mit  Jedermann,  Jung 
und  Alt,  in  Andacht  fiir  eure  Siinden  bittet  und  betet,  dass  sie  euch 
vergeben  werden  mochten.  Schworet  nicht  boshaftig  bei  meinem 
Namen,  begehret  nicht  Silber  und  Gold  und  sehet  nicht  auf  fleisch- 
liche  Liste  und  Begierden ;  so  schnell  ich  euch  erschafifen  habe,  so  bald 
kann  ich  euch  wieder  zerschmettern.  Einer  soil  den  Andern  nicht 
todten,  und  mit  der  Zunge  seit  nicht  falsch  gegen  euren  Nachsten 
hinter  dem  Riicken.  Freuet  euch  eurer  Giiter  und  cures  Reichthums 
nicht.  Ehret  Vater  und  Mutter,  redet  nicht  falsche  Zeugnisse  wider 
euren  Nachsten,  so  gebe  ich  euch  Gesundheit  und  Frieden ;  und  wer 
dem  Brief  nicht  glaubet,  und  sich  nicht  darnach  richtet,  der  wird 
weder  Gliick  noch  Segen  haben.  Diesen  Brief  soil  Einer  dem  Andern 
abschreiben :  und  wenn  ihr  so  thut,  und  ihr  so  viel  Siinden  gethan  als 
Sand  am  Meer,  so  viel  Laub  auf  den  Baumen  und  Sterne  am  Himmel 
sind,  so  sollen  sie  euch  vergeben  werden.  Glaubet  ganzlich  was  die- 
ser  Brief  euch  lehret  und  sagt ;  wer  das  nicht  glaubet,  der  soil  sterben. 
Bekehret  euch  oder  ihr  werdet  ewig  gepeinigt  werden,  und  ich  werde 
euch  fragen  am  jiingsten  Tage,  und  ihr  werdet  miissen  Antwort 
geben,  von  wegen  eurer  grossen  Siinden.  Wer  den  Brief  im  Hause 
hat  oder  bei  sich  tragt,  dem  wird  kein  Donnerwetter  schaden,  auch 
sollt  ihr  vor  Feuer  und  Wasser  behiitet  werden.  Welche  Frau  diesen 
Brief  bei  sich  tragt,  die  wird  eine  lobliche  Frucht  und  frohlichen 
Anblick  auf  die  Welt  bringen.  Haltet  meine  Gebote  die  ich  euch 
durch  meinen  Engel  Michael  gesandt  habe. 

Ein  schones,  christliches  Gchct,  zu  alien  Stunden  cu  sprechen. 

Gott  der  Du  deine  Lust  im  Himmel  hast  zu  wohnen, 
Im  Wesen  bist  Du  Eins,  dreifaltig  in  Personen. 
Gott  Vater,  Sohn  und  Geist!  allein  Dich  ruf  ich  an, 
Kein  Gott  mir  ausser  Dir  den  Himmel  geben  kann. 

Wer  Gott  vertraut,  hat  wohl  gebaut. 

Den  will  er  nicht  verlassen. 

Obschon  die  Feinde  dich  verfolgen  und  hassen. 

So  trau  auf  Gott,  er  wird  dich  in  keiner  Noth  verlassen. 

The  Himmelshrief  293 

Je  grosser  die  Noth,  je  naher  Gott! 

Trink  und  iss :  Gott  und  die  Armen  nicht  vergisss. 

Gottes  Giit'  und  Treu'  wird  alle  Morgen  neu, 

Was  Gott  will  erquicken,  kann  Niemand  unterdrPcken  : 

Gott  lasst  die  Seinigen  sinken  aber  nicht  ertrinken. 

Ich  trail  auf  Gott  allein,  Menschenhulf  ist  klein. 

Gott  weiss  wohl  Hiilf  und  Rath,  menschliche  Hiilfe  ein  Ende  hat. 

Mit  Gott  deine  Sachen  thu  fangen  an, 

So  wird  es  guten  Fortgang  hab'n 

Hab'  Gott  vor  Augen  und  sein  Wort, 

So  wird  es  dir  wohlgehen  hier  und  dort. 

Wer  willig  gibt  den  Armen, 

Desz  wird  sich  Gott  erbarmen. 

Wer  zum  Himmel  ist  erkoren 

Stechen  taglich  Disteln  und  Dornen. 

Jammer,  Kreuz,  Elend  und  Noth 

Ist  aller  Christen  taglich  Brod. 

Im  Ungliick  habe  Lowenmuth, 

Vertraue  Gott  es  wird  noch  werden  gut, 

Ja  besser  als  man  hoffen  thut! 

Zu  dir  Herr  Jesu,  Gottes  Sohn,  steht  meines  Herzens  Freud, 

Und  all  mein  Ruhm,  mein  Trost  mein  hochstes  Gut 

Ist  mir  Herr  Jesu  Christ  dein  theures  Blut. 

Sorg'  und  sorg'  auch  nicht  zu  viel, 

Es  geschieht  doch  was  Gott  haben  will. 

Des  Christen  Herz  auf  Rosen  geht, 

Wenn's  mitten  unterm  Kreuze  steht. 

Verzage  nicht  im  Kreuze  dein, 

Nach  Regen  folget  Sonnenschein. 

Herr  Jesu,  der  siisse  Name  dein 

Erquicke  mir  die  Seele  mein. 

Herr  Jesu  Christ  mein  Trost  und  Freud, 

Ich  trau  auf  dich  zu  jeder  Zeit. 

O  frommer  Christ,  hier  leid  und  meid, 

Bald  kommt  darauf  die  gute  Zeit. 

Vielleicht  kommt  der  Tod  iiber  Nacht. 

Der  jedem  Ding  ein  Ende  macht. 

Kirchen-gehen  versaume  nicht, 

Almosen  geben  armct  nicht. 

Bete  rein,  schatze  dich  klein, 

Arbeite  fein,  traue  Gott  allein, 

Deine  Sorge  lass  Gott  befohlen  sein. 

Jesus  Christus  zu  finden  ist, 

294  ^^^  Himmchbrief 

Im  Wort  da  man  von  Jesu  liest. 

Jesus  gibt  Heil  und  Seligkeit 

Dem,  der  dient  ihm  allezeit. 

Wer  sich  des  Namens  Jesu  trost't 

Der  wird  durch  Jesum  Christum  erl5st 

Jesum  dem  lieben  Kindelein, 

Dem  Herzen  lieben  Jesulein : 

Sei  Lob  und  Preis  o  Jesu  mild 

Schiitz  uns  Jesu  durch  deinen  Schild, 

Gib  uns  Herr  Jesu  deine  Gnad, 

Dass  uns  Welt,  Teufel,  Tod  nicht  schad'. 

Nicht  Teufel,  Welt  und  Tod,  soil  mich  von  Jesu  wenden, 

Denn  Jesus  ist  mein  Schatz,  ich  bin  in  seinen  Handen. 

Gewiss  ist  der  Tod,  ungewiss  ist  der  Tag, 

Die  Stund  auch  Niemand  wissen  mag. 

Drum  traue  Gott  und  denk  dabei : 

Dass  jede  Stund  die  letzte  sei. 

Im  Leiden  habe  einen  guten  Muth, 

Und  Hebe  den  der  dir  Leides  thut. 

Freue  dich  von  Herzen  der  Schwachheit, 

Das  ist  die  ganze  Vollkommenheit. 

So  geht  es  zu,  zu  aller  Zeit : — 

Thu'  mir  Lieb,  ich  thu'  dir  Leid ; 

Hilf  mir  auf,  ich  stoss  dich  nieder, 

Ehr'  mich  hoch,  ich  schand'  dich  v^ieder. 

Sag  nicht  Alles  was  du  weist, 

Thu  nicht  Alles  was  man  dich  heisst. 

Erlaub  nicht  Alles  was  du  horst, 

Richt  nicht  Alles  was  du  siehst. 

Ach  Gott,  dies  ganze  Haus  bewahr' 

Vor  Feuer-Schaden  und  Gefahr! 

Mit  Gnad'  und  Segen  iiber  uns  wait', 

Und  uns  Dein  reines  Wort  erhalt'. 

Herr  Jesu !  durch  den  Namen  Dein 

Gib  mir  ein  seliges  Stiindelein  ; 

Steh'  mir  bei  bis  an's  letzte  Ende 

Und  nimm  mein'  Seel'  in  Deine  Hande.    Amen. 

The  Himmelshrief  295 

Unterweise  mich,  das  ich  bewahre  dein  Gesetz,  und 
halte  es  von  ganzem  Herzen. 
Psalm  112,  Vs.  34. 

Gieb  mir  mein  Sohn  dein  Herz,  und  lass  deinen 

Augen  nieine  Wege  wohl  gefallen. 

Spriiche  Salomonis,  23,  Vs.  26. 


Welcher  mit  goldencn  Buchstahen  gescJirichen,  und  zu  sehen  ist  in 
der  St.  Michaelis  Kirche  su  St.  Germain,  zvird  gcnannt  Grodoria, 
alhvo  der  Brief  ilber  die  Taufe  schwebet.  Wer  ihn  angreifen 
will,  von  dem  weichet  er,  wer  ihn  abschreiben  will,  zu  dem  neiget 
er  sich,  und  thut  sich  selber  auf. 

Also  gebiete  ich  euch,  class  ihr  des  Sonntags  nicht  arbeitet  an 
euren  Giitern,  auch  sonst  keine  Arbeit  thut,  sollt  fleissig  zur  Kirche 
gehen,  und  mit  Andacht  beten,  und  eure  Haare  nicht  krauseln,  noch 
Hoffart  in  der  Welt  treiben,  und  von  euren  Reichthum  den  Armen 
mittheilen,  und  glauben,  dass  ich  diesen  Brief  mit  meiner  gottlichen 
Hand  von  Jesu  Christo  ausgesandt,  dass  ihr  nicht  thut,  vvie  die 
unverniinftigen  Thiere :  Ich  gebe  euch  sechs  Tage  eure  Arbeit  fort- 
zusetzen,  und  am  Sonntag  friih  in  die  Kirche  zu  gehen,  die  heilige 
Predigt  und  Gottes  Wort  zu  horen;  werdet  ihr  das  nicht  thun,  so 
will  ich  euch  strafen  mit  Pestilenz,  Krieg  und  theure  Zeit.  Ich 
gebiete  euch,  dass  ihr  des  Samstags  nicht  zu  spat  arbeitet,  des  Sonn- 
tags friihe  in  der  Kirche  mit  Jedermanniglich,  Jung  und  Alt,  mit 
Andacht  fiir  eure  Sitnden  bittet  und  betet,  dass  sie  euch  vergeben 
werden  ;  schworet  nicht  boshaftig  bei  meinem  Namen,  begehret  nicht 
Silber  noch  Gold,  und  sehet  nicht  auf  fleischliche  Liiste  und  Begier- 
den ;  sobald  ich  euch  geschaffen  habe,  sobald  kann  ich  euch  zer- 
schmettern ;  einer  soil  den  andern  nicht  todten  mit  der  Zunge ;  seid 
nicht  falsch  euren  Nachsten  hinter  den  Riicken,  freuet  euch  eurer 
Giiter  und  Reichthums  nicht;  ehret  Vater  und  Mutter,  redet  nicht 
falsches  Zeugniss  wider  euren  Nachsten^  so  gebe  ich  euch  Gesund- 
heit  und  Friede;  und  wer  dem  Brief  nicht  glaubet,  und  sich  nicht 
darnach  richtet,  der  wird  weder  Gliick  noch  Segen  haben.  Den  Brief 
soil  einer  dem  andern  abschreiben  ;  und  wenn  ihr  so  viel  Siinden 
gethan  hattet,  als  Sand  am  Meer,  und  so  vie'i  Laub  auf  den  Baumen 
und  Sterne  am  Himmel  sein,  sollen  sie  euch  vergeben  werden : 
Glaubet  ganzlich,  was  dieser  Brief  euch  lehret  und  saget;  wer  das 
nicht  glaubet,  der  soil  sterben.  Bekehret  euch,  oder  ihr  werdet 
ewiglich  gepeinigt  werden,  und  ich  werde  euch  fragen  am  jiingsten 

296  The  Himmelshrief 

Tage,  und  ihr  werdet  mir  miissen  Antwort  geben  von  wegen  eurer 
grossen  Siinde.  Wer  den  Brief  in  seinem  Hause  hat,  oder  bei  sich 
tragt,  dem  wird  kein  Donnerwetter  schaden,  und  sollet  ihr  vor 
Feuer  und  Wasser  behiitet  werden.  Welche  Frau  diesen  Brief  bei 
sich  tragt,  die  wird  eine  lobHche  Frucht  und  frohlichen  AnbHck  auf 
die  Welt  bringen.  Haltet  meine  Gebote,  die  ich  euch  durch  meinen 
Engel  Michael  gesandt  habe. 

Ein  schon  christliches  Gebet,  alle  Stundcn  zu  sphcchen: 

Gott,  der  du  deinc  Lust  im  Himmel  hast  zu  wohnen 
In  Wesen  einig,  und  dreifaltig  in  Personen, 
Gott  Vater,  Sohn  und  Geist,  allein  dich  ruf  ich  an, 
Kein  Gott  mir  ohne  dich  den  Himmel  geben  kann. 

Gott  bescheret,  Hoffnung  ernahret:  ach  Gott!  ich  bitt,  verlass 
mich  nicht.  Wer  Gott  vertraut,  hat  wohl  gebaut,  den  will  er  nicht 
verlassen,  obschon  die  Feinde  dich  verfolgen  und  hassen;  so  trau 
auf  Gott,  er  wird  auch  dich  in  keiner  Noth  verlassen.  Je  grossere 
Noth,  je  naher  Gott.  Trink  und  iss;  Gott  und  der  Armen  nicht 
vergiss,  Gottes  Giit  und  Treu,  wird  alle  Morgen  neu.  Was  Gott  will 
erquicken,  kann  Niemand  unterdriicken.  Gott  lasst  die  Seinigen 
sinken,  aber  nicht  ertrinken.  Ich  trau  auf  Gott  allein,  Menschen 
Hiilf  ist  klein.  Gott  weiss  wohl  Hiilf  und  Rath,  menschliche  Hiilf 
ein  Ende  hat.  Mit  Gott  dein  Sach  du  fangen  an,  so  wird  es  guten 
Fortgang  han.  Hab  Gott  vor  Augen  und  sein  Wort,  so  geth  es  dir 
wohl  hier  und  dort.  Wer  willig  giebt  den  Armen,  des  wird  sich 
Gott  erbarmen.  Wer  zum  Himmel  ist  erkohren,  stechen  taglich 
Disteln  und  Dorn.  Jammer,  Kreuz,  Elend  und  Noth,  ist  aller 
Christen  taglich  Brod.  Im  Ungliick  hab  einen  Lowen  Muth ;  trau 
Gott  es  wird  noch  werden  gut,  ja  besser  als  man  hoffen  thut.  Zu 
dir,  Herr,  Jesus,  Gottes  Sohn,  steht  meines  Herzens  Freud  und 
Wonn.  Mein  Ruhm,  mein  Trost,  mein  hochstes  Gut,  ist  mir  Herr 
Christ !  dein  theures  Blut.  Sorg  und  sorg  auch  nicht  zu  viel,  es 
geschieht  doch,  was  Gott  haben  will.  Der  Christen  Herz  auf  Rosen 
geht,  wenns  mitten  unterm  Kreuze  steht.  Verzage  nicht  im  Kreuze 
dein,  nach  dem  Regen  folget  Sonnenschein.  Herr  Jesu !  der  siisse 
Name  dein,  erquicke  mir  die  Seele  mein.  Herr  Jesu  Christ;  mein 
Trost  und  Freud,  ich  trau  auf  dich  zu  jeder  Zeit.  O  frommer 
Christ!  hie  leid  und  meid,  bald  kommt  darauf  die  gute  Zeit. 
Vielleicht  kommt  der  wohl  iiber  Nacht,  der  alien  Dingen  ein  Ende 
macht.  Kirchen  gehen  saumet  nicht.  Almoscn  geben  armet  nicht. 
Bete  rein,  schatze  dich  klein,  arbeite  fein,  traue  Gott  allein,  die  Sorge 
lass  Gott  befohlen  sein. 

The  Himmelsbrief  297 

Nicht  Teufel,  Welt  und  Tod  soil  mich  Ton  Jesu  zvcnden, 
Denn  Jesus  ist  mein  Schatz,  ich  bin  in  seinen  Hdnden. 

Jesus  Christ  zu  finden  ist  Freu  dich  von  Herzen  in  Schwachheit, 

Im  Wort  da  man  vom  Jesu  liest.  Das  ist  die  eanze  Vollkommenheit : 

Jesus   giebt   Heil   und   Seligkeit,  So   gcht   es   zu,   zu   aller   Zeit : 

Dem,  der  dient  Jesu  alle  Zeit.  Thu   mir   Lieb.   ich  thu   dir   Leid, 

Wer  sich  des  Namens  Jesu  trost,  Hilf  mir  auf,  ich  stoss  dich  niedcr, 

Der  wird  durch  Jesum  Christ  erlost,  Ehr  mich  hoch,  ich  schand  dich  wieber. 

Jesum,  dem  lieben  Kindelein,  Sag  nicht  alles,  was   du  weisst, 

Dem    Herzen    lieben    Jesulein,  Thu  nicht  alles,  was  man  dich  heisst, 

Sei  Lob  und  Preis,  o  Jesu  mild.  Glaube  nicht  alles,  was  du  horst, 

Schiitz  uns  Jesu,  durch  deinen  Schild,  Richte  nicht  alles.  was  du  siehst. 

Gieb  uns  Herr  Jesu !  deine  Gnad,  Ach  Gott !  dies  ganze  Haus  bewahr 

Das  uns  Welt,  Teufel,  Tod  nicht  schad.  Fiir  Feucr.   Schaden  und  Gefahr, 

Gewiss  ist  der  Tod,  ungewiss  der  Tag,  Mit  Gnad  und  Segen  iiber  uns  wait, 

Die  Stund  auch  Niemand  wissen  mag,  Und  uns   dein   reines   Wort  erhalt. 

Drum  traue  Gott  und  denk  dabei  Herr  Jesu !  durch  den  Namen  dcin. 

Das  jede  Stund  die  letzte  sei.  Gieb  mir  ein  selios  Stiindelein. 

Im  Leiden  hab  einen  euten  Muth,  Stch  mir  bei  bis  ans  letzte  End, 

Und  liebe  den  der  dich  leid  thut.  Und  nimm  meine  Seel  in  deine  Hand. 



Bartsch^  gives  four  versions  of  the  Holstein  Himmelsbrief , 
and  none  of  them  Hke  the  one  given  below,  which  is,  to  say  the 
least,  a  very  poor  and  unsatisfactory  translation  of  probably  No. 
1629  of  Bartsch: 

In  the  name  of  the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  as 
Christ  stopped  at  the  Mount,  sword  or  guns,  shall  stop  whoever 
carries  this  letter  with  him !  He  shall  not  be  damaged  through  the 
enemies  guns  or  weapons,  God  will  give  strength !  that  he  may  not 
fear  robbers  or  murderers  and  guns,  pistols,  sword  and  musket 
shall  not  be  hurt  through  by  the  cannon  of  angel  Michael.  In  the 
name  of  the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost.  God  be  with 
you  and  whosoever  carries  this  letter  with  him  shall  be  protected 
against  all  danger,  and  who  does  not  believe  in  it  may  copy  it  and 
tie  it  to  the  neck  of  a  dog  and  shoot  at  him  he  will  see  this  is  true. 
Whosoever  has  this  letter  shall  not  be  taken  prisoner  nor  wounded 
by  the  enemy.  Amen.  As  true  as  it  is  that  Jesus  Christ  died  and 
ascended  to  heaven  and  suffered  on  earth  by  the  living  God,  the 
Father,  the  Son,  the  Holy  Ghost,  I  pray  in  the  name  of  Christ's 


298  The  Himmelsbrief 

blood,  that  no  ball  shall  hit  me,  be  it  of  gold,  silver,  lead,  or  metal. 
God  in  Heaven  may  deliver  me  of  all  sins  in  the  name  of  the  Father, 
the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost. 

This  letter  was  found  in  Holstine,  1724,  where  it  fell  from 
heaven ;  it  was  written  with  Golden  letters  and  moved  the  Baptism 
of  Madaginery  and  when  they  tried  to  seize  it,  it  disappeared  until 
1 79 1.  That  everybody  may  copy  it  and  communicate  it  to  the  world 
then  it  is  further  written,  whoever  works  on  Sunday  he  shall  be 
condemned ;  neither  shall  you  not  work  on  Sunday  but  go  to  church 
and  give  the  poor  of  our  wealth,  for  you  shall  not  like  the  reasonless 
animal.  I  command  you  six  days  you  shall  work  and  on  the  seventh 
day  you  shall  listen  to  the  holy  word  of  God,  if  you  do  not  do  so  I 
will  punish  you  with  hard  times,  epidemics  and  war.  I  command 
you  that  you  shall  not  work  too  late  on  Saturday.  Let  you  be  rich 
or  poor  you  shall  pray  for  your  sins  that  they  may  be  forgiven.  Do 
not  swear  by  His  name,  do  not  desire  gold  or  silver,  do  not  fear 
the  intrigues  of  men  and  be  sure  as  fast  as  I  can  crush  you.  Also 
be  not  false  with  your  tongue,  respect  father  and  mother,  do  not  bear 
false  witness  against  your  neighbor  and  I  will  give  you  good  health 
and  peace,  but  he  who  does  not  will  not  believe  in  it  he  shall  not  have 
happiness  or  blessing.  If  you  do  not  convert  yourself  you  certainly 
will  be  punished  at  the  day  of  judgment  when  you  cannot  account 
for  your  sins.  Whoever  has  this  letter  in  his  house  no  lightning 
shall  strike  it  and  whosoever  carries  this  letter  shall  bring  forward 
fruits,  keep  my  commandments  which  I  have  sent  you  through  my 
angels  in  the  name  of  my  son  Jesus  Christ.     Amen. 


In  many  respects  this  is  the  most  interesting,  for  its  ascrip- 
tion of  praise  to  Christ  has  a  strong  primitive  Germanic  flavor 
and  reminds  one  of  the  Hcliand,  whereas  the  ascriptions  of  praise 
to  the  Virgin  show  the  great  influence  of  the  Mary  cult. 

Das  ist  die  Copey  der  griindlichen  Abschrift  des 
Heiligen  Erz-Engels  Sanct  Michaels  Brief. 

Ich  wahres  Jesus  Gottes  Sohn  Amen.  Hier  hebet  sich  an  das 
Gebeth,  welches  Gott  selbst  geschrieben  hat  und  dem  der  heilige 
Engel  St.  Michael  gesendet  hat  zu  Mechelburg  in  dem  Land  Brit- 
tania.  Dieser  Brief  hanget  vor  St.  Michaels  Bild,  und  niemand  weisz 
woran  er  hanget,  er  ist  mit  Giildenen  Buchstaben  geschrieben,  und 

The  Himmelsbrief  299 

wer  ihn  angreifen  will  dem  weichet  er,  wer  ihn  aber  abschreiben 
will,  zu  dem  neigt  er  sich  und  thut  sich  selber  gegen  ihn  auf. 

Dieweil  Gott  die  Welt  also  geliebl  hat,  dasz  er  seines  einge- 
bohrnen  Sohns  nicht  verschont  hat,  williglich  dargeben  in  den  bittern 
Todt,  dardurch  das  menschliche  Geschlecht  zu  erlosen. 

Titul  iinsers  einigen  Erlosers  und  Seligmachers,  der  All- 
machtige  Jesu  Christi,  allerweisester,  allerweiseste,  aller  durchlauch- 
tigste  und  uniiberwindlichste  Fiirst  und  Herr  Jesus  Christus,  wahrer 
Gott  von  Ewigkeit,  gekronter  Kaiser  der  himmlischen  Herrscharen, 
erwahlter  Konig  zu  Sion  und  des  ganzen  Erdbodens,  zu  aller  Zeit 
Mehrer  der  heiligen  Christi.  Kirchen,  einiger  Hoher  Priester  und 
Erzherzog  der  Ehren,  Herzog  des  Leben.  Margraf  zu  Jerusalem, 
Landgraf  in  Judaa,  Burggraf  in  Galilaa,  Fiirst  des  Friedens,  Graf 
zu  Bethlehem,  Freyherr  von  Nazareth,  Obrister  Kriegsheld  seiner 
streitenden  Kirchen,  Ritter  der  hoUischen  Pforten,  Triumphier-Herr, 
Sieg  Herr,  und  Ueberwinder  der  Tods  Siinden  und  des  Teufels; 
Herr  der  Herrlichkeit  und  Gerechtigkeit,  Pfleger  der  Wittwen  und 
Waisen,  Trost  der  Armen  und  Betriibten,  Richter  der  Lebendigen 
und  der  Todten  und  des  Himmels.  Vaters  geheimster  und  ver- 
trautester  Rath.  Unser  allergnadigster  Herr,  Herzallerliebster  und 
getreuter  Gott  und  Herr.  Titul  und  Namen  der  allerseligsten  Jung- 
frau  Maria  und  Mutter  Gottes.  Der  allheiligsten  groszmachtigsten 
und  uniiberwindlichsten  Fiirstin  und  Fran  Jungfrau  Maria.  Eine 
gekronte  Kaiserin  des  himmlischen  Reiches,  Groszherrscherin  der 
Englischen  Herrscharen,  geborene  Konigin  in  Jerusalem  Israel, 
Churfiirstin  des  gelobten  heil.  Laudes,  Herzogin  aus  Judaa,  Grafin 
zu  Loretto, 

Freyfrau  zu  Bethlehem,  triumphirte  Zerknirscherin  der  alten 
Schlangen,  gewaltige  Ueberwinderin  der  Heiden,  siegreiche  Ver- 
wiisterin  der  ganzen  Welt.  Jungfraulche  Gespons  und  Mutter  des 
Allerhochsten  unser  nach  Gott  allergradigste  Kaiserin  und   Frau. 

(Gedruckt  zu  Kollen  bei  Heinrich  Kapp,  im  Jahr  Christi,  1725.) 

Merke  an,  das  ist,  das  ist  das  Gebot,  das  Gott  selbst  gesagt  und 
geofifenbaret  hat. 

Wer  am  Sonntag  arbeitet,  der  ist  meinem  Geboth  ein  Abtretter, 
ihr  sollt  zur  Kirche  gehen  und  mit  Andacht  bethen,  auch  sollt  ihr 
verbringen  gute  Werke  und  was  ihr  die  ganze  Woche  versaumt  habt, 
sollt  ihr  am  Sonntag  biissen  und  Gott  um  Gnad  bitten,  ihr  sollt  am 
Sonntagg  keine  Hoffart  der  Welt  treiben,  am  Sonntag  sollt  ihr  arme 
Lent  Wittwen  und  Waisen  oder  reisende  Leute  speisen  und  tranken 

300  The  Himmelshrief 

und  ihr  sollt  glauben,  dasz  ich  Jesus  Christus  diesen  Brief  selber 
mit  meiner  eigenen  Hand  geschrieben  und  gesandt  habe,  dasz  ihr 
nicht  thun  sollt  wie  die  unverniinftg  Thier.  Ich  hab  euch  in  der 
Woche  sechs  Tag  zu  arbeiten  und  den  Sabbath  zu  Feyern  gegeben, 
auch  sollt  ihr  am  Sonntag  zur  Kirche  gehen,  Gottesdienst  und 
Predigt  zu  horen,  sonsten  werd  ich  euch  strafen.  Ihr  sollt  am 
Samstag  nach  Bethzeit  nimmer  arbeiten  wegen  meiner  Mutter 
Maria,  ihr  sollt  am  Sonntage  friih  zur  Kirchen  gehen,  ihr  seyd 
gleich  jung  oder  alt  und  mit  Andacht  beten  fiir  eure  Siinden,  damit 
sie  euch  vergeben  werden,  schwore  nicht  bey  meinem  Namen  oder 
meinem  Blut,  auch  sollt  ihr  euern  Nachsten  nicht  verachten  und 
sonst  keine  falsche  Kundschaft  geben,  ihr  sollt  nicht  todten  weder 
mit  dem  Schwert  noch  mit  der  Zungen,  hinterrucks  begehret  nicht 
Silber  oder  Gold  mit  Ungerechtigkeit,  freuet  euch  nicht  iiber  euer 
Giiter  oder  Reichthum,  verachtet  nie  die  armen  Lent,  liebet  euern 
Nachsten  als  euch  selbsten,  Ehre  Vater  und  Mutter,  so  giebt  euch 
Gott  die  Gesundheit  Frieden  und  langes  Leben  auf  Erden  und  wer 
das  nicht  recht  glaubt,  der  wird  verlohren  und  verflucht  und  ich 
sage  euch  durch  meinen  Mund,  dasz  ich  diesen  Brief  selber 
mit  meinen  eigenen  Handen  geschrieben  hab  und  wer  es  nicht  glau- 
ben will  und  widersprichts  der  wird  von  der  Christlichen  Kirchen 
verlassen  und  Nimmer  keine  Hiilf  von  mir  haben.  Dieser  Brief  soil 
auch  von  einem  Haus  zu  dem  anddern  abgeschrieben  werden  und 
wenn  der  so  viel  Siinden  gethan  hatte,  so  viel  als  Sand  am  Meer 
liegt,  so  viel  als  Sterne  am  Himmel  sind,  so  viel  Laub  und  Gras  auf 
Erden  steht,  beichtet  er  es  und  thut  Busz,  hat  Reu  und  Leid  iiber 
seine  Siinden  und  Missethaten,  so  werden  sie  ihm  vergeben,  wer 
mein  Geboth  verachtet  und  das  nicht  glauben  will,  der  wird  eines 
bosen  und  jahen  Todes  sterben.  Bekehret  euch  vor  dem  Bosen, 
sonst  werdet  ihr  gepeinigt  in  der  Hollen,  ich  werde  euch  fragen  am 
jiingsten  Gericht  von  wegen  euren  groszen  Siinden  und  ihm  werdet 
keine  Antwort  geben  konnen,  darum  haltet  mein  Geboth,  die  ich 
euch  gesagt  hab  durch  meinen  heiligen  Engel  St.  Michael  und  wer 
diesen  Brief  in  sein  Haus  hat,  dem  kann  der  bose  Feind  kein 
Schaden  zufitgen,  der  ist  versichert  vom  Blitz,  Donner,  Hagel 
Wasser  und  Feuers  Nothe,  vor  alien  bosen,  sichtbaren  und  unsicht- 
baren  Feinden.  Der  ist  behiitet  und  bewahret  vor  allem  Uebel  des 
Leibes  und  der  Seelen  und  wann  eine  schwangere  Frau  diesen  Brief 
bey  sich  hat  deren  kann  nicht  mislingen  in  der  Geburt,  sie  kann 
leicht  gebahren  und  bringt  eine  liebliche  Frucht  auf  der  Welt,  das 
Kind  wird  lieb  gehalten  von  alien  Leuten,  darum  gebiete  ich  euch, 
dasz  ihr  mein  Gebot  haltet,  die  ich  wahrer  Jesus  Christus  Gottes 
Sohn  selber  geschrieben  hab. 

The  Himmclsbrief  301 


The  Himmelsriegel  and  the  other  material  contained  in  this 
tract  give  us  the  most  direct  and  convincing  evidence  that  the 
Himmelsbrief,  as  it  has  come  down  to  us,  is  a  CathoHc  substitute 
for  the  old  heathen  rites  and  practices. 

Im  Namen  Gottes  des  Vaters,  Gottes  des  Sohnes,  Gottes  des 
Heil.  Geistes,  ein  Einiger  Gott,  Amen.  Unserer  Heben  Frauen 
Traum.  Jesus  Christus,  Gottes  Sohn  und  reiner  Jungfrau  Alaria. 
Als  die  heilige  Jungfrau  zu  Bethlehem  auf  dem  Berge  eingeschlafen 
war,  kam  zu  ihr  der  Sohn  Gottes,  ihr  lieber  Engel,  und  sprach  zu  ihr : 

"Meine  allerliebste  Mutter,  schlafest  du  oder  wachest  Du  ?"  Sie 
sprach:  "Ich  habe  geschlafen  und  Du  hast  i^h  gewecket  und  hat 
mir  schrecklich  getraumet.  Ich  habe  gesehen,  als  warest  du  im 
Garten  gefangen  mit  Stricken  gebunden  von  Kaiphas  zu  Pilato,  von 
Pilato  zu  Herode  gefiihret  worden,  dasz  sie  Dein  heiliges  Haupt 
geschlagen,  mit  Dornen  gekronet,  Dich  aus  dem  Richthause 
gefiihret,  Holz  auf  Deine  heiligen  Schultern  geleget,  aus  der  Stadt 
auf  den  hohen  Berg  gefiihret  und  an  das  Kreuz  geschlagen  haben, 
so  hoch,  dasz  ich  dich  nicht  habe  erreichen  konnen.  Deine  heilige 
Seite  wurde  durchstochen,  daraus  Blut  und  Wasser  geflossen  und 
auf  Dich  getropfet  hat;  darnach  Dich  vom  Kreuze  abgenommen,  in 
der  Erde  Schosz  wie  einen  Todten  gelegt  und  begraben,  dasz  mir 
aus  groszen  Schmerzen  das  Herz  hatte  mogen  zerspringen." 

Jesus  sprach  darauf  zu  ihr:  "Meine  alterliebste  Mutter,  es  ist 
Dir  ein  wahrhafter  Traunm  vorgekommen.  Wer  an  diesen  Traum 
gedenket  oder  bei  sich  tragen  wird,  der  wird  von  alien  bosen  Sachen 
befreit  bleiben,  und  wird  nicht  jahlings  sterben,  audi  nicht  ohne 
Empfahung  des  heiligen  Sacramentes  aus  dieser  Welt  verscheiden. 
Ich  und  Du,  liebe  Mutter,  werden  bei  seinem  lezten  Ende  sein  und 
seine  Seele  in  das  Himmelreich  einfiihren." 

Die  Sieben  heiligen  Himmels-Riegel,  welche  ein  frommer  Ein- 
siedler  von  seinem  Schutzengel  bekommen  hat.  Mit  Bewilligimg 
der  hohen   Geistlichkeit   zu   Koln   zum   Druck  befordert   im  Jahre 


Ihr  frommen  und  andachtigen  Christen,  ich  bitte  euch  in  Jesu 
Namen,  ihr  wollet  anhoren  die  grosze  Kraft  und  Wirkung  von  den 
sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegeln,  die  ein  frommer  Einsiedler  von 
seinem  Schutzengel  bekommen  hat.  Und  als  der  fromme  Einsiedler 
sterben  wollte,  so  hat  er  die  grosze  Kraft  und  Wirkung  von  den 
sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegeln  offenbaret  und  gesprochen : 

Welcher  Mensch  die  sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel  bei  sich 
tragt,  von  diesem  Menschen  miissen  alle  bosen  Geister  und  Teufels- 

302  The  Himmelshrief 

Gespenster  abweichen  by  Tag  unci  Nacht,  unci  in  welchcm  Hause 
die  sieben  hciligen  Himmelsriegel  gedruckt  liegen,  \n  dieses  Haus 
wird  kein  Donnerwetter  einschlagen  und  es  wird  auch  in  alien 
Feuersbriinsten  befreit  sein.  Und  wenn  ein  Weib  Schmerzen  vom 
Kinde  hat,  so  nehmet  sie  die  sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel  und  legt 
sie  ihr  auf  die  Brust  oder  auf  den  Leib,  so  wird  sie  ohne  grosze 
Schmerzen  gebaren  und  mit  einer  gesunden  Leibesfrucht  erfreut 
werden.  Die  sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel  sind  avich  abprobirt 
worden  bei  einem  Weibe,  welches  schon  fiinf  todte  Kinder  zur  Welt 
geboren,  als  sie  aber  mit  dem  sechsten  Kinde  schwanger  war  und. 
Mutter  werden  sollte,  so  hat  ihr  die  Hebamme  die  sieben  heiligen 
Himmelsriegel  auf  das  Haupt  gelegt  und  sie  ist  nun  mit  einer  leben- 
digen  Leibes-frucht  erfreut  worden.  Die  sieben  heiligen  Himmels- 
riegel sind  auch  abprobirt  worden  bei  einem  Manne,  welcher  acht 
Jahre  mit  bosen  Geistern  besessen  war ;  da  nahm  ein  Geistlicher  die 
sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel,  las  sie  iiber  den  Besessenen  und  legte 
sie  auf  dessen  Haupt — horet  Wunder!  da  sind  die  bosen  Geister  den 
Augenblick  von  ihm  gewichen.  Und  welcher  Mensch  die  sieben 
heiligen  Himmelsriegel  bei  sich  tragt,  diesem  Menschen  will 
Christus  gewisse  Zeit  vor  seinem  Ende  offenbaren  die  Stunde,  wann 
er  sterben  muss.  Wenn  aber  einer  die  sieben  heiligen  Himmels- 
viegel  sieben  Freitage  nacheinder  betet,  und  in  welchem  Hause  die 
sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel  sind,  in  dieses  Haus  wird  keine 
schlimme  Krankheit  kommen.  Denn  es  soil  kein  Mensch  sein,  er  soil 
die  sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel  bei  sich  tragen ;  wer  sie  aber  nicht 
lesen  kann,  der  bete  alle  Freitage  sieben  Vater-Unser  und  den  Glau- 
ben  zur  Ehre  des  bittern  Leidens  vmd  Sterbens  Jesu  Christi. 

Christus  Jesus,  Gottes  Lamm, 

Ich  komme  vor  deine  heiligen  fiinf  Wunden, 

Die  Du  am  hohen   Kreuzestamm 

Mit  Schmerzen  hast  empfunden ; 

Erhore  mein  Bitten,  erhor'  mich  doch, 

Ich  weiss,  mein  Gott,  Du  lebest  noch, 

Ach  lasz  mich  Gnad'  erlangen ! 

Nun  fangen  die  sieben  heiligen  Himmelsriegel  an :  O  Aller- 
heiligster  Herr  Jesu  Christ !  ich  ermahne  dich  deiner  allerheiligster 
Menschheit,  die  mit  Bewilligung  Gottes  des  Vaters  von  dem  heiligen 
Geiste  in  dem  Leibe  der  heiligen  Jungfrau  Maria  ist  empfangen  und 
geboren  worden ;  O  Jesu !  du  hast  dein  heiliges  Blut  ganz  geduldig- 
lich  fiir  uns  Sunder  und  Siinderinnen  vergossen ;  O  Jesu !  du  hast 
uns  mit  deinem  heiligen  bittern  Leiden  und  Sterben  die  himmlicheu 
Pforten  aufgeriegelt ;  O  Jesu!  du  hast  die  grosze  Arm.uth  und  die 
Verfolgung  deiner  Feinde  dreiundreiszig  Jahre  lang  ganz  geduldig- 

The  Himmelsbrief  303 

lich  fiir  uns  Sunder  gelitten.  O  mein  Heiland!  ich  betrachte  deine 
schmerzliche  Beurlaubung  von  deiner  herzliebsten  Mutter  Maria. 
O  mein  Jesu !  ich  gedenke  an  dein  demiithiges  Gebet  am  Oelberge, 
als  dir  vor  Mattigkeit  ganz  blutige  Schweisztrophen  iiber  dein 
heiliges  Angesicht  herabgeronnen  sind.  Ach,  mein  Jesu!  ich 
betrachte,  wie  du  bist  gefangen  worden,  mit  Stricken  gebunden,  von 
einem  Richter  zum  andern  gefiihret,  und  dein  allerheiligster  Leib  mit 
Geiszeln  zerfetzt,  dasz  dein  heiliges  Blut  iiber  deinen  ganzen  heihgen 
Leib  herabgeronnen  ist;  darnach  hat  man  eine  Dornenkrone  auf 
dein  heiHges  Haupt  gedriickt,  wodurch  viele  Dornenspitzen  dasselbe 
schreckHch  zerrissen  und  verlezt  haben.  Ach,  mein  Erloser!  ich 
betrachte  mit  wehmiithigem  Herzen,  wie  du  mit  einem  schweren 
Kreuze  bist  beladen  worden  und  dasselbe  iiber  den  Berg  Kalvari 
tragen  musztest,  dasz  du  davon  eine  tiefe  Wunde  auf  deiner 
heiligen  Schulter  empfangen  hast.  Ach,  mein  Jesu !  ich  betrachte, 
wie  du  an  das  heilige  Kreuz  nackend  angenagelt  worden  bist.  O 
mein  Seligmacher!  du  bist  drei  Stunden  an  dem  Kreuze  lebendig 
geblieben  und  hast  sieben  kraflige  Worte  gesprochen,  darnach  bist 
du,  o  mein  liebster  Jesu!  an  dem  heiligen  Kreuz  geschieden.  Ach 
mein  Jesu!  mit  deinem  allterheiligsten  bittern  Leiden  und  Sterben 
und  mit  deinen  sieben  heiligen  Worten  am  Kreuze  will  ich,  N.  N.,  in 
Gottes  Namen  meinen  Leib  und  Seele  auf  ewig  verriegeln.     Amen. 

Die  Sieben  Worte,  die  Jesus  am  Kreuze  gesprochen. 

I.  Vater,  vergieb  ihnen,  denn  sie  wissen  nicht,  was  sie  thun.  2. 
Weib,  siehe,  das  ist  dein  Sohn.  3.  Heute  wirst  du  mit  mir  im 
Paradiese  sein.  4.  Mein  Gott,  warum  hast  du  mich  verlassen.  5. 
Mich  diirstet!  6.  Es  ist  vollbracht.  7.  Vater,  ich  befehle  meinen 
Geist  in  deine  Hiinde. 


Ach  du  aller  heiligster  und  gekreuzigter  Herr  Jesus  Christus, 
ich  bitte  dich,  bewahre  dieses  Haus  und  alle  die  darinnen  wohnenden 
Seelen,  welche  du  mit  deinem  Blute  erloset  hast,  das  Kreuz,  Herr 
Jesus  Christus,  daran  du  um  unsertwillen  deinen  Geist  aufgeopfert 
hast!  Bedecke  dieses  Haus  der  Segen  des  Allerhochsten !  Gebene- 
deie  dieses  Hauses  der  heiligen  Dreifaltigkeit!  Gott  Vater,  Sohn 
und  heiliger  Geist,  erfiille  dieses  ganze  Haus,  Menschen  und  Vieh, 
mit  reichem  Segen !  Der  alterheiligste  Name  Jesu  segne  und  behiite 
all  Menschen,  die  in  diesem  Hause  aus-  und  eingehen,  dasz  kein 
Ungliick  nimmermehr  darein  komme,  vor  Krankheit,  Pestilenz  und 
anderen  gefahrlichen  Zufallen!  Ach,  Jesus,  behiite  es  vor  Feuers- 
und  Wassersnoth,  vor  Kreig  und  anderm  Ungliick,  vor  unglijcklicher 
Nahrung  und  schmahlicher  Armuth!  Das  Kreuz  Jesu  Christi  sei 
dieses  Hauses  Dach,  die  drei  Riegel  Jesu  seien  dieses  Hauses  Thor- 

304  The  Himmelsbrief 

ricgel,clie  Krone  JesuChristi  sei  dieses  Hauses  Schild  und  die  heiligeii 
fiinf  Wtinden  Jcsn  Cliristi  seicn  dieses  Hauses  Schloss  und  Mauer. 
O  du  hochgelobter  Ehrenkonig  bedecke  mit  deinen  Gnadenfliigeln 
die  Friichte  auf  dcm  Felde,  Garten  und  den  Baumen,  dasz  alien  kein 
Leid  vviderfahre  und  wir  unser  Leben  in  Gesundheit  selig  beschlies- 
zen  mogen.  Amen.  Das  helfe  uns  Gott  der  Vater,  Sohn  und  heiliger 
Geist.    Amen. 

5.    THE      LETTER. 

The  range  of  this  'letter"  is  wider  than  that  of  any  one  of 
the  preceding  and  might  possibly  be  considered  as  an  English 
elaboration  of  the  German  rubric : 

The  following  curious  and  remarkable  letter,  which  saved  the 
life  of  a  person  condemned  to  death,  as  no  instrument  of  murder  was 
able  to  kill  him,  has  already,  in  many  cases  in  our  own  land,  shown 
itself,  particularly  during  our  Revolutionary  War,  of  great  effect,  to 
such  who  had  it  in  their  possession,  during  their  greatest  danger, 
and  while  to  their  right  and  left  victims  of  death  fell  dead.  But  let 
each  one  read  the  letter  itself  and  learn  of  what  wonderful  service 
and  efficacy  it  is  and  how  desirable  it  must  be  to  obtain  a  copy.  The 
Letter  [After  the  Original.]  Count  Philip  of  Flanders  had  a  servant 
who  had  committed  a  crime  for  which  he  was  condemned  to  die,  but 
no  sword  would  execute  him,  no  sword  would  punish  and  execute 
him  right,  upon  which  the  Count  was  greatly  astonished  and  said: 
"How  shall  I  understand  this  thing?  tell  me  how  it  is,  and  I  will 
grant  you  your  life,  and  will  also  do  you  good."  The  servant  showed 
him  the  letter,  and  the  Count  was  pleased  with  it  and  had  it  tran- 
scribed and  given  to  his  servants. 

Must  you  appear  before  the  magistrate,  court  or  judge,  then 
take  this  letter  with  you,  and  whatever  you  may  ask  of  the  officer  it 
will  not  be  denied  you ;  or  have  you  an  enemy  who  designs  to  quarrel 
with  you,  take  this  letter  with  you  and  keep  it  on  the  right  side  of 
your  body,  and  he  will  not  be  able  to  overcome  you.  During  the 
pains  of  child  birth  and  if  it  cannot  be  born,  hang  the  letter  around 
the  neck  of  the  woman  and  the  child  will  be  born  with  but  little 
difficulty.  For  bleeding  of  the  nose,  give  the  letter  into  the  right 
hand  of  the  person  bleeding,  and  it  will  help  immediately.  Read  or 
say:  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  thou  who  art  the  true  man  and  son  of  God, 
protect  thou  me  from  the  assaults  of  all  kinds  of  weapons,  spear, 
sword,  sabre,  cutlass,  knife,  tomahawk,  rapier,  helmet,  burdon  or 

The  Himmelsbrief  305 

any  other  weapon  that  pierces  or  cuts  the  skm,  or  from  any  and 
everything  prohibited  by  holy  writ,  that  is  from  all  kinds  of  weapons, 
artillery,  cannon,  musket,  rifle,  gim,  or  pistol.  Lead  keep  thy  rights 
and  prove  thyself,  as  did  Mary  in  her  virginity  before  and  after 
the  birth  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  his  holy  raisen-colored  blood 
which  he  spilt  on  the  holy  cross.  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  protect  thou  me. 
Against  whoredom  and  breaking  in,  against  murder  and  man- 
slaughter, against  burning  and  any  calamity  by  fire,  against  thieves, 
against  ropes,  fetters  and  chains  to  bind.  Lord  Jesus  Christ  protect 
thou  me  and'desert  me  not,  and  do  not  thou  permit  me  to  be  damned, 
but  be  thou  with  me  to  the  end  and  permit  me  not  to  die  without 
receiving  thy  holy  sacraments — to  this  help  thou  me  God  the  Father, 
God  the  Son  and  God  the  Holy  Ghost.  The  Holy  Trinity  be  with 
me,  on  the  land  and  on  the  water,  in  the  wood,  in  fields,  towns, 
cities,  villages,  groves  and  thickets.  Lord  Jesus  Christ  protect  thou 
me  against  all  enemies,  seen  and  unseen,  secret  or  open ;  keep  me 
safe  from  all  harm  through  the  bitter  sufferings  and  death  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  his  holy  raisin-colored  blood,  which  he  shed 
at  the  foot  of  the  cross.  Jesus  Christ  was  conceived  at  Nazareth, 
born  at  Bethlehem,  and  crucified,  murdered  and  died  at  Jerusalem. 
These  are  words  of  truth  written  in  this  letter,  that  I  may  not  be 
caught  and  bound  by  men  or  murderers.  They  must  flee  from  me 
all  arms  and  guns,  and  not  take  hold  on  me  and  loose  all  their  power 
over  me.  Rifle  hold  thy  load.  The  cross  of  Christ  and  his  holy  five 
wounds  not  bound  with  power  must  conquer  all  arms,  like  as  the 
man  who  laid  his  hands  on  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  to  bind  him,  even 
so  hold  they  charge,  like  as  the  Son  was  obedient  in  the  Father  till 
death.  Rifle  or  deadly  weapon  hold  thy  charge  by  and  through  the 
almighty  hand,  and  so  must  all  deadly  weapons  be  brought  to 
nought,  in  the  name  of  God  the  Father,  God  the  Son  and  God  the 
Floly  Ghost.  Jesus  crossed  the  red  sea,  he  went  into  the  holy  land, 
thus  must  be  broken  all  ropes  and  bands.  Band  break  all  power  of 
canes  and  reeds,  arms  and  weapons  must  cease  their  dazzling.  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  protect  thou  me,  that  no  rope  may  cause  me  to  fall, 
no  bow  or  gun  may  cause  its  fire  to  be  cast  at  me,  that  no  weapon 
may  pierce  or  cut,  be  it  of  iron  or  steel,  be  it  of  metal  or  lead, 
that  I  may  be  blessed  so  much  like  as  the  cup  and  the  wine,  and  the 
true  bread  of  heaven  which  was  given  by  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  to 
his  twelve  disciples,  in  the  name  of  God  the  Father,  God  the  Son 
and  God  the  Holy  Ghost;  the  blessing  which  God  gave  to  the  first 
man  he  created,  come  and  overshadow  me.  The  blessing  that  God 
gave  to  Noah  overshadow  and  protect  me.  The  blessing  that  God 
gave  to  Mary  and  Joseph  as  they  removed  from  their  own  country, 
go  with  and  overshadow  and  protect  me.    The  reed  first  in  my  right 

3o6  The  Himmelshrief 

hand  go  through  the  enemy's  land  and  hand,  that  no  tree  may  fall 
upon  mc,  that  no  water  may  deluge  me,  that  no  snake,  adder  or 
poisonous  creature  may  bite,  nor  that  the  wolf  may  be  able  to  tear 
me,  protect  thou  me.  My  blood  may  it  flow  forever,  Jesus  of  Naza- 
reth King  of  the  Jews.    Amen. 

N  D 

I  Amen. 

6.   THE  "magdeburger  himmelsbrief.^" 

This  is  probably  the  commonest  in  the  Pennsylvania  German 
territory  and  has  no  variants,  I  believe.  It  is  the  only  one  pub- 
lished in  illuminated  form. 

Ein  Brief  so  von  Gott  selbsten  geschrieben,  und  zu  Magdeburg 
niedergelassen  worden  ist.  Er  war  mit  goldenen  Buchstaben  geschrie- 
ben, und  von  Gott  durch  einen  Engel  gesandt  worden ;  wer  ihn 
abschreiben  will,  den  soil  man  ihn  geben,  wer  ihn  verachtet,  von  dem 
weichet  der  Herr. 

Wer  am  Sonntag  arbeitet,  der  ist  verflucht.  Demnach  gebiete 
ich,  dasz  ihr  am  Sonntag  nicht  arbeitet,  sondern  andachtig  in  die 
Kirche  gehet ;  aber  euer  Angesicht  nicht  schmiicket ;  ihr  sollt  nicht 
fremdes  Haar  tragen,  und  sollt  nicht  Hoffart  treiben;  von  eurem 
Reichthum  sollt  ihr  den  Armen  geben,  reichlich  mittheilen  und  glau- 
ben,  dasz  dieser  Brief  mit  meiner  eigenen  Hand  geschrieben  und 
von  Christo  selbsten  ausgesandt  sey,  und  dasz  ihr  nicht  thut  wie  das 
unverniinftige  Vieh ;  ihr  habt  sechs  Tage  in  der  Woche,  darinnen 
sollt  ihr  cure  Arbeit  verrichten :  aber  den  siebenten  (namlich  den 
Sonntag)  sollt  ihr  heiligen;  werdet  ihr  das  nicht  thun,  so  will  ich 
Krieg,  Hunger,  Pestilenz  und  Theurung  unter  euch  schicken  und 
euch  mit  vielen  Plagen  strafen.  Audi  gebiete  ich  euch,  einem  jeden, 
er  sey  wer  er  wolle,  Jung  und  Alt,  Klein  und  Grosz,  dasz  ihr  am 
Samstag  nie  spat  arbeitet,  sondern  ihr  sollt  cure  Siinden  bereuen, 
auf  dasz  sie  euch  mogen  vergeben  werden.  Begehret  audi  nicht  Sil- 
ber  und  Gold,  treibet  nicht  Fleischeslust  und  Begierden ;  denket 
dasz  ich  euch  gemacht  babe  und  wieder  zernichten  kann. 

Freuet  euch  nicht,  wenn  euer  Nachbar  arm  ist,  habt  vielmehr 
Mitleiden  mit  ihm,  so  wird  es  euch  wohl  gehen. 

Ihr  Kinder !  ehret  Vater  und  Mutter,  so  wird  es  euch  wohl 
gehen  auf  Erden.  Wer  dies  nicht  glaubt  und  halt,  der  ist  verdammt 
und  verloren.  Ich  Jesus  habe  dieses  selbsten  mit  meiner  eigenen 
Hand  geschrieben,  wer  es  widerspricht  und  lastert,  derselbe  Mensch 
soil  keine  Hiilfe  von  mir  zu  erwarten  haben,  wer  den   Brief  hat 

The  Himmelsbrief  307 

unci  ihn  nicht  offenbaret,  der  ist  verflucht  von  der  christlichen 
Kirche,  und  wenn  cure  Siinden  noch  so  grosz,  waren  sollen  sie  euch, 
wo  ihr  herzlich  Reue  und  Leid  habt,  doch  vergeben  werden. 

Wer  es  nicht  glaubet,  der  soil  sterben  und  in  der  HoUe  gepeinigt 
werden,  auch  ich  werde  am  jiingsten  Tage  fragen  um  eurer  Si^in- 
den  willen,  da  ihr  mir  antworten  mvisset. 

Und  derjenige  Mensch,  so  diesen  Brief  bei  sich  tragt,  oder  in 
seinem  Hause  hat,  dem  wird  kein  Donnerwetter  Schaden  zufiigen, 
er  wird  fiir  Feuer  und  Wasser  sicher  sein,  und  wer  ihn  offenbaret 
vor  den  Menschenkindern,  der  wird  seinen  Lohn  haben,  und  froh- 
liches  Abscheiden  aus  dieser  Welt  empfangen. 

Haltet  meinen  Befehl,  den  ich  euch  durch  meinen  Engel 
gesandt  habe.  Ich  wahrer  Gott  vom  Himmelsthron,  Gottes  und 
Maria  Sohn.    Amen. 

Dies  ish  geschehen  zu  Magdeburg  im  Jahre  1783. 

The  "Endless  Chain  of  Prayer"  is  the  most  modern  form  of 
this  rubric.  There  are  two  versions,  a  longer  and  a  shorter,  which 
differ  materially  as  to  content.  In  the  longer  form,  the  prayer 
is  longer,  more  elaborate  and  rather  rhetorical,  and  it  also  con- 
tains a  curse  on  all  those  who  refuse  to  obey  the  directions  indi- 
cated in  the  "Prayer." 

The  Bishop,  to  whom  reference  is  made,  was  one  of  the 
Bishops  of  the  Methodist  Church,  if  I  mistake  not,  who  however 
refused  to  countenance  or  sanction  the  sending  out  of  such  a 
letter.     The  shorter  form  follows : 

Oh!  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the  eternal  God,  have  mercy  upon  all 
mankind.  Keep  us  from  all  sin  and  take  us  to  be  with  Thee  eternally. 
This  prayer  was  sent  to  Bishop  Lawrence,  recommending  that  it 
be  sent  to  nine  other  persons ;  it  must  not  be  signed ;  he  who  will 
write  it  for  nine  days,  commencing  the  day  received,  distributing 
it  to  nine  different  persons,  and  sending  one  each  day,  will  on  and 
after  the  ninth  day  experience  a  great  joy. 

Oh,  Jerusalem,  at  the  feast  it  was  said :  he  who  will  write  this 
prayer  will  be  delivered  of  every  calamity.  Please  do  not  break  the 
chain  and  please  copy  as  received,  trusting  that  the  blessing  of  God 
may  rest  upon  you  and  on  whom  sent  to  by  you." 

The  "Brief"  given  below  has  no  date  or  name  by  which  to 
distinguish  it,  the  original  being  in  the  library  of  the  Pennsyl- 

3o8  The  Himmelsbrief 

vania  Historical  Society.  It  is  the  only  one  of  the  entire  number 
in  which  superstition  does  not  play  a  prominent  part,  and  is 
therefore  a  late  development,  though  less  modern  than  the  "End- 
less Chain  Letter." 

"Himmelsbrief,  welchem  sich  jeder  kluge  Hausvater  mit  seiner 
Familie  genau  richten  soil,  um  einst  an  den  Ort  zu  kommen,  von 
woher  dieser  Brief  an  alle  Menschen,  wes  Standes  sie  sind  gesendet 
ist,  namlich  in  den  Himmel. 

Also  gebietet  der  Herr  des  Himmels  und  der  Erde :  Wer  von 
meinen  lieben  Geschopfen  auf  Erden,  die  ich  mit  Vernunft  begabt 
habe,  zu  mir  kommen  und  die  Freuden  des  Himmels  genieszen  will, 
musz  sich  piinktlich  nach  diesen  Regeln  richten.  Ihr  sollt  mich  als 
euren  Schopfer  und  Vater  anerkennen  und  verehren  und  mich  lieben, 
wie  meine  guten  folgsamen  Kinder;  ihr  sollt  cure  Ehrfurcht  fiir 
mich  auf  die  Art  thatig  an  den  Tag  legen,  dasz  ihr  mit  wahrer 
Andacht  des  Sonntags  in  meinem  Tempel  erscheint,  daselbst  zu  eurer 
Erbauung  singet  und  betet  und  au[f]  diese  Art  andern  euren  Kin- 
zum  guten  Geispiele  dienet.  Wenn  ihr  in  der  Kirche,  die  keiner 
versaumen  musz,  versammelt  seyd,  miiszt  ihr  blosz  an  das  denken, 
was  zu  eurer  Andacht  zu  eurem  Frieden  dienet,  alle  eure  hauslichen 
Geschafte  sind  in  der  Zeit  aus  euren  Gedanken  verbannt.  Ihr 
miiszt  aber  nicht  blosz  Horer  des  Worts  seyn,  sondeni  auch  Thater. 
Die  iibrige  Zeit  auszer  der  Kiche  sollt  ihr  nicht  mit  Spielen  und 
anderm  unni^itzen  Zeitvertreib  zubringen,  sondern  diesen  von  mir 
eingefiihrten  Ruhetag  zur  Erholung  eurer  korperlichen  Krafte 
benutzen  und  bios  auf  Nahrung  und  Erquickung  eurer  Geisteskrafte 
bedacht  seyn.  Die  iibrigen  Tage  in  der  Woche  soil  ein  Hausvater 
fiir  seine  Familie  arbeiten,  seine  Geschafte  getreu  und  sorgfaltig 
verrichten,  sparsam  leben,  und  fiir  das  Wohl  seiner  Familie  gewis- 
senhaft  sorgen,  sich  einer  guten  und  ehrbaren  Lebensarbeit  befleiszen 
und  iiberhaupt  sich  so  betragen,  dasz  seine  Kinder,  die  ich  ihm  zur 
Erziehung  anvertraute,  durch  sein  Beispiel  gute  und  brauchbare 
Alenschen  werden.  Jede  Hausmutter  soil  ihrer  Wirtschaft  ordent- 
lich  und  wie  es  sich  geziemt  vorstehen  und  ihren  Tochtern  die  beste 
Anleitung  dazu  geben ;  ihr  Gesinde  zur  Arbeit  anhalten,  und  dahin 
sehen,  dasz  dasjenige,  was  der  Hausvater  im  Schweisz  seines  Ange- 
sichtes  erwirbt,  zu  Rathe  gehalten  und  wohl  verwendet  werde.  Was 
die  Kinder  selbst  betrifft,  so  befehle  ich  euch,  dasz  ihr  euren  Eltem 
in  alien  billigen  Stiicken  folget  und  gehorsam  seyd,  damit  ihr  lange 
lebet  auf  Erden,  und  es  euch  wohl  gehe.  Auch  das  Gesinde  und 
jeder  Untergebene  soil  die  Befehle  seines  Herrn  gewissenhaft  und 
treu  befolgen,  seine  Arbeit  nach  Ordnung  verrichten,  und  jede  An- 

The  Himmelshrief  309 

weisung  dankbar  annehmen  und  bedenken :  wer  nicht  gehorchen 
lernt,  kann  auch  einst  nicht  befehlen.  Alle  iibrige  Lebensregel,  die 
ich  euch  durch  meine  Gesandten  habe  kund  thun  lassen,  sind  in  dem 
Hauptregel  begriffen ;  liebet  mich  iiber  alles  und  euren  Nebenmens- 
chen  als  euch  selbst.  Wer  dieses  thun  wird,  der  wird  sich  keinem 
Laster,  deren  es  unter  meinen  Geschopfen  schon  so  viele  giebt,  erge- 
ben.  Geiz  ist  eine  Wurzel  alles  Ubels.  Zank  verkiirzt  euch  euer 
Leben ;  Hoffarth  und  Stolz  ist  der  erste.  Schritt  zur  Schande.  Liigen 
ist  ein  schandliches  Laster;  Neid  und  Miszgunst  sey  euch  weit  ent- 
fernt.  Vertraglichkeit  bringst  Freundschaft  und  Segen.  Wollust 
verdirbt  alle  gute  Sinne  fiir  jedes  angenehme  in  der  Natur.  Suchet 
nichts  auf  eine  unrechtmaszige  Art  zu  ervverben,  sondern  betet  und 
arbeitet,  so  will  ich  euch  segiien  und  Wohlstand  verleihen.  Wer  dies 
alles  befolgt,  dem  wirds  Zeit  seines  Lebens  wohlgehen,  ihm  wird  es 
an  nichts  mangeln;  er  wird  froh  und  gliicklich  seyn,  und  einst  den 
Himmel  ererben,  wo  alle  gute  Seelen  versammelt  sind.  Wer  dies 
aber  auch  befolgt,  und  die  Lehre,  die  ich  durch  meinen  Sohn  Jesus 
Christus  habe  ertheilen  lassen,  mit  Fiiszen  tritt,  der  wird  zeitlich  und 
ewig  ungliicklich  seyn. 

Ein  Schon  Gcbct,  taglich  cu  betcn. 

O  Herr,  der  du  im  Himmel  wohnest,  du  bist  der  Urheber 
meines  Wesens  und  hast  mich  zu  einer  lebendigen  Hoffnung  wieder- 
geboren.  Du  tragst  gegen  mich  die  zartlichste  Liebe  eines  Vaters. 
Lehre  mich  dich  als  meinen  Gott  fiirchten  und  als  meinen  Vater 
verehren.  Und  damit  ich  dir  immer  ahnlicher  werden  moge,  so 
errege  in  mir  einen  Abscheu  gegen  alles  Bose  und  richte  mein  Herz 
zu  dir  gen  Himmel,  wo  mein  Biirgerrecht  ist.  Pflanze  eine  solche 
Furcht  in  meine  Seele,  dasz  ich  deinen  Namen,  der  grosz,  wunderbar 
und  heilig  ist,  in  Demuth  verehre,  und  in  alien  meinen  Handlungen 
denselben  auszudriicken  suche.  Dein  Name  sey  der  Grund  meines 
Lebens,  meines  Wohlseyns  und  meiner  Hoffnung.  Richte  deinen 
Thron  in  meiner  Seele  auf  und  herrsche  bestandig  darinnen.  Unter- 
driicke  durch  die  Kraft  deiner  Gnade  alle  aufriihrerische  Liiste 
welche  sich  gegen  dich  crheben.  Schenke  mir  dein  Wort  und  deine 
Gnadensmittel.  Durch  dieselben  bereite  mein  Herz  und  mache  es 
zu  deiner  heiligen  Wohnung.  Mache  mich  durch  deine  Gnade 
machtig,  mich  deinem  Willen  in  allem  Triibsal  mit  Freuden  zu 
unterwerfen  und  denselben  in  alien  Gebotcn  zu  vollbringen.  Gieb 
mir  einen  Theil  von  demjenigen  himmlischen  Eifer  zu  deinem  Dienst, 
womit  die  En  gel,  deine  Diener.  aufgeflammt  werden  und  mache  mich 
ihnen  immcr  ahnlicher. — Vor  alien  Dingen,  gniidiger  Vater,  gieb  mir 
ein    solches   Maas   der   Gnade,    wodurch   meine   Seele   zum   ewigen 

310  The  Hiininclsbricf 

Leben  erhalten  werden  kann.  Und  weil  ich  noch  auf  der  Welt  bin, 
so  lasz  es  Dir  zugleich  gefallen,  so  viel  wie  mir  zum  Unterhalt 
meines  Lebeiis  zu  geben,  als  du  es  fiir  gut  befindest.  Gieb  deinen 
Segen  zu  meinem  Brod,  dasz  es  mir  gedeihlich  und  nicht  schadlich 
werde.  Vergieb  mir  aber  auch  alle  Uebertretungen.  Lehr  mich  auch 
meinem  Nachsten  eben  so  gut  vergeben,  als  icb  will,  dasz  mir  um  des 
Verdienstes  Jesu  vergeben  werde.  Lass  nicht,  wenn  es  dir  gefallt, 
mich  heimsuchen,  nicht  iiber  mein  Vermogen  versucht  werden. 
Befreie  mich,  Herr  mein  Erretter,  von  Allen  Uebeln,  die  mich  jetzt 
driicken  und  mir  noch  bevorstehen.  Endlich  aber  erfiille  an  mir 
deine  Verheiszung.  Nimm  mich  auf  in  dein  ewiges  himmlisches 
Reich  und  in  die  stillen  Hiitten  des  Friedens,  wo  kein  Uebel  meine 
Ruhe  unterbrechen  wird.  Erhore  mich,  denn  du  bist  der  Herrscher 
iiber  zeit  und  Ewigkeit. 

Mein  Gott  und  Vater,  gieb  du  mir 

So  lang  ich  leb  auf  Erden, 

Dasz  ich  mag  christlich  fiir  und  fiir 

Durch  dich  erneuet  werden ; 

Und  dasz  dein  Geist  mir  Beistand  leist, 

Damit  zu  alien  Zeiten 

So  Zung  als  Mund,  von  Herzengrund 

Dein  hohes  Lob  ausbreiten. 

Ach  Vater  aller  Giitigkeit, 

Lasz  mich  die  Lieb  erweisen, 

Dem  Nachsten,  wie  dein  Wort  gebeut, 

Dasz  er  dich  moge  preisen. 

Lasz  mich  alle  Zeit  Barmherzigkeit 

In  meinem  Leben  iiben, 

Auch  die  mir  Feind  ohn  Ursach  sind 

Von  Herzensgrunde  lieben. 

Gieb,  dasz  ich  ja  weder  Hand  noch  Mund 

Den  armen  Nachsten  Kranke : 

Ach  lenk  mein  Herz  zu  deinem  Bund, 

Damit  ich  stets  bedenke, 

Dasz   jedem   hier  auch   wird   von   dir 

Mit  gleichem  Maasz  gemessen, 

Wie  er  gethan  an  jedermann. 

Dies  lass  mich  nie  vergessen. 

The  Himmelsbrief  311 

Gieb  auch,  dasz  ich  Barmherzigkeit 

Von  dir  in  mir  empfinde 

Weil  mir  dein  Wort  selbst  Gnad  anbeut, 

Zur  Tilgung  meiner  Siinde ; 

So  wird  kein  Leid  in  Ewigkeit 

Von  dir  mich  konnen  treiben, 

Und   deine  Treu   wird   immer   neu, 

Ja  ewig  bei  mir  bleiben. 

[Note. — In  all  of  the  foregoing,  special  pains  have  been  taken 
to  reproduce  accurately  the  text  of  the  originals.  This  is  particularly 
the  case  in  the  Holstein  translation  on  pages  297fif.] 

"Dr.  J.  C.  Hexamer,  "June  5,  1908. 

"Philadelphia,  Pa. 
"My  Dear  Sir:— 

"Enclosed  I  send  yon  clipping  of  an  editorial  from  the  'Evening 
Wisconsin,'  a  leading  daily,  published  at  Milwaukee.  I  have  fre- 
quently talked  with  the  editor  concerning  the  subject  of  school 
histories,  and  you  will  notice  that  he  takes  a  sensible  stand  on  that 
question.  The  editorial  was  brought  about  by  a  discussion  in  Mil- 
waukee now  going  on  relative  to  the  school  histories  in  use  in  the 
public  schools  of  that  city,  and  which  omits  all  mention  of  Kosciusko. 
There  are  a  large  number  of  Polish  residents  in  that  city,  and  they 
kicked.  I  send  the  clipping  to  you  for  the  reason  that  I  thought  you 
might  get  it  inserted  in  some  of  the  Eastern  papers  or  magazines. 
Probably  in  the  'German  American  Annals.'  These  expressions  in 
the  English  press  should  be  made  as  much  of  as  possible.  With  best 
regards,  "Yours  respectfully, 


"Manitowoc,  Wis." 
The  Truth  of  History. 

"A  fault  common  to  early  histories  of  the  United  States  was 
that  they  were  written  from  a  point  of  view  east  of  the  Alleghanies 
and  not  broad  enough  to  recognize  the  full  significance  of  men  and 
events  outside  of  the  narrow  confines  of  New  England.  Even  now 
it  would  be  difficult  to  name  a  work  which  gives  due  importance 
to  the  parts  borne  by  representatives  of  all  the  different  races  in  the 
composite  population  of  the  United  States  in  contributing  to  the 
nation's  development  and  progress.  Yet  such  a  setting  forth  is 
essential  to  'the  truth  of  history.' 

"There  is  utility  in  teaching  the  children  in  the  public  schools 
the  fact  that  an  Italian  discovered  the  American  continent  and  that 
the  Dutch  and  Swedes  and  the  French  as  well  as  the  English  were 
early  settlers  in  territory  now  within  the  borders  of  the  United 
States,  and  that  Lafayette,  the  Frenchman ;  Steuben,  the  German, 
and  Pulaski  and  Kosciusko,  brave  and  generous  sons  of  Poland, 
voluntarily  rendered  valuable  services  to  the  American  cause  during 
the  struggle  for  independence.  The  narrative  of  Haym  Salomen,  the 
Jew,  who  relieved  the  poverty  of  James  Madison,  afterwards  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  who  assisted  Robert  Morris  in  procuring 
the  money  which  financed  Washington's  army,  and  who  advanced 
thousands  of  dollars  of  his  own  to  the  government,  which  never 
repaid  him,  might  also  be  included  in  school  histories  with  good 

"Knowledge  of  such  facts  tends  to  bind  the  children  of  foreign 
parents  closer  to  their  adopted  country  and  tends  to  prevent  the 
children  of  American  parents  from  growing  up  little  bigots  with 
supercilious  and  cruel  prejudice  against  aliens  which  finds  no  justifi- 
cation in  'the  truth  of  history.'  " 

©erman  Clmertcan  Qnnals 




Historical,  Literary,  Linguistic,  Educational   and   Commercial   Relations 


Germany  and  America 


The  German  American  Historical  Society 
The  National  German  American  Alliance 
The  Union  of  Old  German  Students  in  America 


University  of  Pennsylvania. 


H.  C.  G.  Brandt, 

Hamilton  College. 
W.  H.  Carpenter, 

Columbia  University. 
W.  H.  Carruth, 

University  of  Kansas. 
Hermann  Collitz, 

Johns  Hopkins  University. 
Starr  W.  Cutting, 

University  of  Chicago. 
Daniel  K.  Dodge. 

University  of  Illinois. 
A.  B.  Faust, 

Cornell  University. 
Kuno  Francke, 

Harvard  University. 
Adolph  Gerber, 

Late  of  Earlham  College. 

Henry  Wood,  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

Julius  Goebel, 

University  of  Illinois. 
J.  T.  Hatfield, 

Northwestern  University. 
W.  T.  Hevvett, 

Cornell  University. 
A.  R.  Hohlfeld, 

University  of  Wisconsin. 
Hugo  K.  Schilling, 

University  of  California. 
H.  Schmidt-Wartenberg, 

University  of  Chicago. 
Hermann  Schoenfeld, 

Columbian  University. 
Calvin  Thomas, 

Columbia  University. 
H.  S.  White, 

Harvard  University. 

New  Series,  Vol.  6. 


Old  Series,  Vol.  10. 

published  by 

E.  M.  Fogel,  Business  Manager, 
Box  10,  College  Hall,  University  of  Pennsylvania 


JScrlln  :  IRew  JJorft  : 


XonDon  : 

Hcfpsfg : 


Paris : 


©crman  Qmcrican  Ctnnals 



New  Series,  November  and  December  Old  Series, 

Vol.  VI.     No.  6.  1908.  Vol.  X.     No.   6. 

By  Gilbert  G.  Benjamin,  Ph.D. 
German  Immigration  From  18 15  to  1848. 

In  a  recent  work^  Gonnard  states  that  "considered  in  its 
entirety,  during  the  fifty  years  from  1840- 1890,  the  German  im- 
migration is  an  epoch.  From  year  to  year  with  the  regularity 
of  a  physical  phenomenon,  a  regularity  greater  than  the  majority 
of  physical  phenomena,  there  scattered  over  the  new  World  and 
certain  parts  of  the  Old,  without  speaking  of  the  countries 
adjacent  to  Europe,  some  hundred  millions  of  men".  Although 
this  is  not  true  for  the  preceding  half  century,  the  immigration 
was  amazingly  great  in  comparison  with  earlier  periods.  To  quote 
the  same  author  further:  ''There  was  a  moment  in  the  history  of 
the  19th  century  when  it  could  be  asked,  whether  the  United 
States  would  be  Anglo-Saxon  or  German,  at  least  in  certain  of  the 
parts.  The  Teutonic  immigration  has  indeed  fallen  upon  tin's 
country  with  a  force  and  continuity  almost  incomparable."-  A 
further  investigation  will  show  that  this  statement  is  not  an  ex- 
aggeration during  the  period  under  discussion.     From  1832  to 

*  Gonnard,  L' Emigration  Europeene  au  XIX  Siecle,  Paris,  1906   p    no 
Ibid,  p.  14s  flf. 


3i6  Germans  in  Texas 

1846,  from  Bremen,  a  hundred  thousand  Germans,  to  put  it  in 
round  numbers,  immigrated  to  America,  or  on  the  average  11,000 
yearly.  From  1841  to  1846,  the  yearly  average  of  German  immi- 
grants amounted  to  19,000,  According  to  statistics  made  by 
Franz  Loher  in  1847,  the  following  is  the  exact  yearly  number  of 
immigrants  from  1841  to  1846: — ^ 

1841—  9,501 
1842 — 13,627 

1843—  9.910 
1844 — 19,641 
1846 — 31,607 

Total — 115,644 

In  fifteen  years,  a  grand  total  of  216,201  Germans  immi- 
grated to  this  country  from  Bremen  alone.  The  following  is  a 
table  for  the  same  years  of  the  number  of  emigrants  departing 
from  Bremen  and  landing  at  the  ports  named : — ■* 

To  New  York,  33,683  and  in  the  year  1846  alone  10,469 

"  Baltimore,    30,123       " 
"  New  Orleans,  30,448  " 
"  Philadelphia,  3,580     " 
"  Charleston,  728 
"  Galveston,  7,161  " 

"  Quebec,  426  " 




For  the  year  1847  ^be  same  authority  shows  the  following 
numbers : — 

'Loher,  Franz,  Geschichte  und  Ziistande  der  Dciitschcn  in  America.    Cin- 
cinnati and  Leipzig,  1847,  p.  271. 
*  Ibid,  p.  272. 

Germans  in  Texas  317 

New  York — 52,300 

New  Orleans — 20,000 

Baltimore — 10,000 

Galveston — 8,000.      Landed    here,    in    the    last    three 

months  (previous  to  July,  1847)  4)020  Germans. 
Philadelphia — 5,000. 
Quebec — 1,000. 
Boston — 500.      (15,504  emigrants  landed  here  up  to 

Dec.  I,  1846.) 
Mobile,  Savannah  and  other  harbors — 1,000. 

Some  600,000  Germans  landed  in  America  in  the  fifteen 
years  previous  to  1847  from  the  various  ports  of  departure,  or  on 
the  average,  about  40,000  Germans  annually.  The  chief  point  of 
departure  for  the  Southern  Germans  was  Havre.  Bremen  was 
the  principal  port  taken  by  the  Eastern  and  Northern  Germans.^ 

That  this  great  stream  of  immigration  did  not  remain  un- 
recognized in  the  United  States  is  shown  by  the  following: 

"The  emigration  from  Europe  in  the  present  season  appears 
much  greater  than  ever  it  was  before.  It  already  much  exceeds 
100,000  persons,  say  50,000  or  more  via  Quebec  and  the  remainder 
by  way  of  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Baltimore,  etc.  At  the  last 
named  places,  and  especially  Baltimore,  very  many  Germans  have 
arrived."  ® 

"We  learn  that  the  increasing  prospect  of  internal  commotion 
in  the  German  Empire  is  the  main  cause  of  this  immigration.  *  *  * 
We  are  further  informed  by  some  of  the  most  intelligent  that  it  is 
calculated  not  less  than  80,000  are  now  moving  and  preparing  to 
depart  for  this  country."  ^ 

We  may  well  ask  ourselves  the  question  how  came  this 
tremendous  mass  of  immigrants  and  what  was  its  character. 

"  Loher,  Franz,  Geschichte  und  Zustande  der  Deutschen  in  America.  Cin- 
cinnati and  Leipzig,  1847,  p.  271. 

•Cf.  Niles  Weekly  Register,  Sept.,  1832;  March,  1833.  Vol.  XLIII  or 
Vol.  VII,  Fourth  Series,  p.  40. 

'Cf.  The  York,  [Pa.]  Republican  quoted  in  Niles  Register,  Vol.  VII, 
Fourth  Series,  p.  68. 

3i8  Germans  in  Texas 

The  causes  which  impelled  this  tide  of  immigration  are 
many  and  complex.  The  Napoleonic  wars  as  a  matter  of  course 
devasted  a  great  portion  of  the  land,  and  drove  many  from 
employment.  The  business  depression  from  1815  on  caused  great 
distress.^  The  reactionary  movement  of  Metternich  and  his  con- 
freres resulted  in  almost  universal  dissatisfaction.  The  "Deutsche 
Burschenschaft"  was  the  chief  means  of  arousing  a  spirit  of  dis- 
content in  Germany.^  Its  declared  objects  were  the  fostering  of 
high  moral  ideals,  of  patriotism  and  a  truly  scientific  spirit.  Some 
of  its  members  had  definite  political  ideas.  Some  believed  in  a 
German  republic;  others  wanted  to  restore  the  empire.  The 
Kotzebue  incident  brought  affairs  to  a  crisis.  At  a  conference 
of  the  representatives  of  the  two  great  powers,  Austria  and  Prus- 
sia, held  in  Carlsbad,  a  reactionary  movement  was  agreed  upon. 
A  severe  censorship  of  the  press  was  established  and  a  special 
commission  was  appointed  to  investigate  "demagogical  intri- 
gues." For  ten  years,  this  commission  persecuted  everyone  sus- 
pected of  liberal  ideas. 

The  revolution  of  July,  1830,  in  Paris  was  followed  by  re- 
volts in  the  Rhenish  Palatinate  in  May,  1832,  and  in  Frankfurt 
and  in  Oberhessen  in  1833.  The  immediate  cause  of  these  up- 
risings was  the  so-called  "Bundestags  Ordonnanzen"  of  the  year 


The  time  was  ripe  for  emigration.  America  had  always  ap- 
peared to  the  oppressed  and  discontented  as  the  home  of  liberty, 
of  freedom  of  speech  and  of  the  press.  The  use  of  the  word 
"Europamiide"  at  this  time  shows  the  feeling  then  prevalent,  and 
implies  that  there  was  a  land  free  from  oppression.  Many  of  the 
discontented  left  home.  Some  settled  in  nearby  countries,  but  the 
younger  spirits  sought  the  United  States  as  a  place  where  their 
political  ideas  might  take  root  and  thrive.  Those  who  left  sent  let- 

'  Cf.   Deutsche  Pionkr,  Vol.  I,  p.  243ff.    "The  Three  Periods  of  German 

*  See  Bruncken,  German  Political  Refugees  from  1815-1860,     Ch.  3,  1904. 

Germans  in  Texas  319 

ters  home.  These  were  passed  from  hand  to  hand.  The  newspapers 
were  filled  with  accounts  either  by  immigrants  or  regarding  immi- 
gration. At  this  time  many  books  of  travel  were  published. 
Those  of  Arends,  Eggerling,  Brauns,  Bromme,  Gerke  and  Duden 
were  the  most  important.  The  work^"  of  Duden  had  a  far-reach- 
ing influence.  It  first  appeared  in  1829,  and  went  through  several 

Duden  visited  this  country  in  1824.  He  landed  at  Baltimore 
and  went  to  Missouri.     At  that  time  few  Europeans  had  ever 

"  Its  title  reads :  Bericht  iiber  eine  Reise  nach  den  westlichen  Staaten 
Nord  Amerika's  und  einen  mehrj'dhrigen  Aufenthalt  am  Missouri  (in  den 
Jahren,  1824,  1825,  1826  und  iS2y)  in  Bezug  auf  Auswanderung  und  Ueber- 
volkcrung  oder  Das  Lcben  im  Innern  der  Vereinigten  Staaten  und  dessen 
Bedeutung  fUr  die  h'dusliche  und  politische  Lage  der  Europder,  dargestcllt: 
a,  in  einer  Sammlung  von  Briefen;  b,  in  einer  Abhandlung  iiber  den  politi- 
schen  Zustand  der  Nord  Amerikaner;  c,  in  einem  Nachtrage  fiir  auswan- 
dcrnde  Deutsche  Ackerwirthe  und  diejenigen  welche  auf  Handelsunterneh- 
mungen  denken  von  Gottfried  Duden,  St.  Gallen,   1832. 

The  preface  of  the  1832  edition  reads  as  follows : 

"Von  Tag  zu  Tag  gewinnt  das  Land  des  Colombo,  Amerika,  an  Bedeu- 
tung, auch  fiir  uns.  Die  Uebervolkerung  Europas  wird  endlich  obwohl 
spat,  auch  von  unsern  Statistikern  als  dessen  Ruin  angesehen,  dem  es, 
starken  Laufes,  zueilt.  Die  Armuth,  der  Druck  jeglicher  Art,  die  volksaus- 
dorrenden  Finanzsysteme,  die  Bemauthung  bilden  bei  uns,  unsichtbar  und  um 
desto  gefahrlicher,  eine  Art  Leibeigenschaft  fiir  die  gemeinen  Volksklassen 
der  gewerbtreibenden  Staaten,  welche  die  eigentliche  gesetzliche  Sklaverei 
unlaugbar  in  Vielen  iiberbietet.  Dazu  kommt  dass  sich  dem  Kennen  von 
Geschichte  und  Politik  immer  umwiderleglicher  aufdringt :  die  Sonnen 
Europas  haben  ihren  Mittagskreis  langst  iiberschritten,  und  dessen  Ges- 
chichte, dessen  Volker — ihre  Rolle  ausgespieldt.  Wie  das  Licht,  das  der 
Sonne,  wie  das  der  Bildung  und  Kultur,  im  Osten,  in  Asien,  fiir  uns  anbrach, 
und  bei  uns  untergeht,  um  fiir  die  westliche  Halbkugel  Morgen  zu  schaffen, 
so  beginnt  in  Amerika  seit  einem  halben  Jahrhundert  eine  neue  Weltges- 
chichte,  und  wir  konnen  es  nicht  laugnen,  die  der  Freifieit,  der  grossen  Ideen. 
Amerika  ist  fiir  den  Forscher  eine  Briicke  vom  Nord-zum  Siidpol,  auf  der 
sich  die  letzten  Triimmer  morgenlandischer  Bildung  zu  einem  neuen,  grossen 
Baue  retten  und  sammeln  werden.  Die  politischen  Ereignisse  in  Deutschland, 
und  die  Wendung,  die  das  Streben  der  Volker  nach  Emanzipation  letzter 
Tage  genommen  zu  haben  scheint,  werden  diese,  wenn  auch  des  Europiiers 
Seele  mit  Wehmuth  belastende  Ansicht,  kaum  zu  widerlegen  im  Stande  sein. 
Die  kindische  Idee  hat  aufgehort,  dass  man  in  Amerika  sogleich  am  Strande 
die  Taschen  mit  Gold  fiillen  konne ;  aber  Fines  verheisst  es  dem  besonnen 
Auswanderer  umstreitig ;  hohe  Freiheit  und  Sicherung  leiblichen  Wohlstandes 
in  einem  Grade,  von  dem  Europa  keine  Ahnung  hat.  Millionen  finden  in  den 
herrlichen  Ebenen  und  ThJilern  des  Missouri  und  Mississippi  Raum  vollauf, 
und  eine  Natur  die  langst  des  Bewohners,  des  Bearbeiters  harret." 


320  Germans  in  Texas 

heard  of  that  river.  After  a  stay  of  three  years  in  this  country, 
he  returned  and  pubHshed  his  book  in  the  form  of  letters.  His 
book  was  written  in  a  Hvely  style  and  gave  a  very  rosy  picture  of 
life  in  the  Western  World.  It  resulted  in  thousands  of  men  dream- 
ing of  western  adventure  and  settlement.^^  He^^  gives  wonderful 
descriptions  of  the  fertility  of  the  soil,  the  personal  liberty  of  the 
settler,  and  the  great  abundance  of  game  of  all  kinds.  He  de- 
clares that  one  can  live  with  hardly  any  labor  of  his  hands.  His 
influence  was  particularly  strong  in  Southwest  Germany  and 
along  the  Rhine.  It  is  very  noticeable  that  most  of  the  immi- 
grants of  political  tendencies  came  from  these  regions. 

Now  an  entirely  different  kind  of  emigration  to  America  set 
in.  The  former  emigration  was  mainly  incited  by  economic 
reasons,  the  new  emigration  was  influenced  by  political  and  ro- 
mantic ideas.  Duden's  radical  tendencies  were  entirely  in  accord 
with  these  views.  The  stream  of  emigration  was  made  up  of 
educated  men  and  those  of  the  better  class.  This  political  emi- 
gration came  in  more  or  less  organized  groups.  They  had  more 
or  less  definite  ideas  of  establishing  States  in  the  United  States. 
These  States  might  or  might  not  be  members  of  the  Union.^^ 
These  States  were  to  be  predominantly  German  in  character.  Ger- 
man was  to  be  the  language  of  business,  school  and  government. 
German  culture  should  flourish  unhindered.  Some  of  the  bolder 
spirits  even  went  further  in  their  ideas.  "They  would  have  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  itself  bi-lingual,  and  if  the 
Americans  would  not  grant  this — why,  then  the  German  States 
would  secede  and  set  up  a  national  government  of  their  own"^^ 
Societies  were  formed  to  bring  these  plans  to  maturity.  The 
most    important    was    the    "Giessener    Auswanderungs-Gesell- 

"  For  Duden's  influence  cf.  Duetsche  Pionier,  Vol.  i,  p.  i8. 

"  See  Bruncken,  Gcr.  Pol.  Refugees,  p.  i6,  and  Baker,  Young  Germany 
in  America,  p.  50.     (Reprint  from  Americana  Germanica.) 

"  For  fuller  accounts  regarding  these  ideas  cf.  Baker,  Young  Germany, 
p.  6iff. ;  also  Bruncken,  Ch.  2. 

"  Bruncken,  Ch.  3. 

Germans  in  Texas  321 

schaft."^^  It  was  organized  originally  by  a  number  of  university 
men,  among  whom  Paul  Follen  was  the  leading  spirit.  Its  aims 
as  stated  in  a  pamphlet  issued  in  1833^®  were:  "The  founding 
of  a  German  state,  which  would,  of  course,  have  to  be  a  member 
of  the  United  States,  but  with  maintenance  of  a  form  of  govern- 
ment which  will  assure  the  continuance  of  German  custom,  Ger- 
man language,  and  create  genuine,  free  and  popular  life."  The 
intention  was  to  occupy  an  unsettled  and  unorganized  territory 
"in  order  that  a  German  republic,  a  rejuvenated  Germany  may 
arise  in  North  America."  The  members  were  men  of  means. 
Some  held  high  official  and  professional  positions.  They  sailed 
from  Bremen  to  New  Orleans  in  1834  in  two  vessels.  After  their 
arrival  in  this  country,  dissensions  arose  and  the  company  was 
broken  up.  Paul  Follen  settled  in  Missouri  on  Duden's  farm 
and  lived  there  several  years.  An  account  of  such  an  undertak- 
ing is  given  in  Niles'  Register  and  shows  clearly  what  vague  ideas 
were  prevalent  at  this  time.*^ 

Many  similar  societies  were  formed  with  this  plan  in  view. 
The  idea  was  not  only  taken  up  in  Germany,  but  found  followers 

"Cf.  Bruncken,  Ch.  3;  Baker,  p.  6ifif. ;  Koerner,  Das  Deutsche  Element, 
p.  30off. 

"  Cf.  Aufforderimg  und  ErkVdrung  in  Betreff  einer  Auswanderung  im 
Grossen  atis  Deutschland  in  die  N ordamerikanischen  Freistaaten.  Giessen, 
1883.     See  Der  Duetsche  Pionier,  Vol.  I,  p.  18. 

"Vol.  VII,  Fourth  Series,  p.  148.  "Wholesale  Emigration."  The  Stutt- 
gart Uniz'ersal  Gazette  of  September  2d  announces  that  a  plan  is  in  progress 
in  the  southwest  of  Germany,  to  make  up  a  state  and  ship  it  over  to  the 
United  States  to  become  a  twenty-fifth  member  of  the  Confederacy.  The 
following  notice  of  the  project  appears  in  that  publication :  "According  to 
accounts  from  the  South-West  of  Germany  a  society  of  liberal  men  are 
organizing  a  grand  plan  for  emigrating  to  North  America. 

"The  emigration  has  hitherto  been  precarious  because  it  did  not  rest 
on  any  solid  foundation  and  because  the  means  were  not  concentrated.  But 
now  it  is  different,  as  the  object  is  to  form  a  Nezv  Germany  beyond  the 
ocean,  which  is  to  receive  all  those  whose  hopes  and  claims  to  liberty  and 
right  are  disappointed  in  old  Germany.  In  order  to  be  admitted  into  the 
confederation  of  the  United  States,  the  law  requires  the  number  of  free 
inhabitants  above  25  years  of  age  to  be  60,000,  and  this  number  is  to  be 
assembled  before  any  further  measures  can  be  taken.  Many  of  the  Germans 
established  in  North  America  will  join  their  countrymen  and  the  plan  is  so 
popular,  that  scarcely  any  doubts  are  entertained  of  its  being  successful." 

322  Germans  in  Texas 

among  the  Germans  in  this  country.  In  Philadelphia  in  1836, 
a  society  was  formed  with  the  purposes  of  founding  a  German 
State  in  the  United  States.  Its  object  was  announced  as  "The  uni- 
fication of  the  Germans  in  North  America  and  by  this  means  the 
founding  of  a  new  German  Fatherland." 

In  New  York,  in  1839,  a  society  for  the  purpose  of  coloniz- 
ing Texas  was  formed.  This  was  the  "Germania  Gesellschaft." 
It  sent  out  on  the  2d  of  November,  of  that  year  130  persons  to 
form  a  German  State  in  the  "Lone  Star  Republic."  The  emi- 
grants departed  on  the  brig  "North"  which  was  owned  by  the 
society.  The  members  had  pledged  themselves  to  cultivate  for  a 
period  of  three  years  a  piece  of  land  in  common.  After  this 
period,  it  was  to  be  divided  among  the  members.  The  members 
consisted  of  men  of  all  classes  and  stations  in  life.  Provisions 
for  a  period  of  six  or  eight  months  had  been  provided,  together 
with  all  kinds  of  implements  for  the  construction  of  houses.  At 
Galveston,  a  station  was  to  be  erected,  to  which  the  arrivals  of 
the  second  division  might  resort.  The  first  Colonists  reached 
Texas  without  any  misfortunes  and  landed  at  Houston.  The 
president  and  those  who  had  any  money  left  returned  to  New 
York.     The  majority  of  the  others  came  to  want.^^ 

In  the  year  1841,  the  Teutonia  Order  was  formed  in  Texas. 
Its  existence  was  brief.  Fritz  Ernst,  who  settled  in  Texas  in  the 
early  thirties,  published  an  account  of  the  order.     He  says: 

"It  remains  for  them  (the  Germans)  either  to  become  entirely 
changed,  so  as  to  come  to  be  called  Americans  *  *  *  or  to  make  the 
attempt  in  a  social  way  among  the  few  Germans  living  here  to  form 
a  New  Germany.  *  *  *  The  former  appears  to  us,  as  certainly  to 
all  feeling  Germans,  as  entirely  impossible  and  must  remain  com- 
mitted to  our  successors;  and  the  latter  can  only  be  practicable,  if 
all  countrymen  be  united  collectively  through  a  bond;  if  concord, 
which  only  too  easily  disappears  in  a  foreign  land,  be  established 
among  them,  and  their  feeling  for  German  individuality  be  renewed, 
and  their  consciousness  of  their  German  worth  be  incited. 

"Buttner,  Brief e,  Vol.  II,  p.  209;  also  Eickhoff,  In  dcr  neuen  Heimath, 
pp.  324-325. 

Germans  in  Texas  323 

"Since  the  population  of  Texas  consists  of  immigrants  from 
different  countries,  who  must  all  consider  themselves  here  as  for- 
eigners, this  plan  appears  in  Texas  more  easily  to  be  carried  out,  than 
in  the  North  American  free  states  where  a  generation  born  there 
has  been  formed  as  the  leading  race." 

"Many  men  and  women  gathered  together  as  a  result  of  the 
attempt  to  carry  out  this  national  work,  who  took  up  the  idea  with 
enthusiasm,  and  after  mature  consideration  formed  a  Teutonic  order 
which  was  established  on  the  evening  of  Whitsuntide,  1841,  by 
twelve  persons  of  both  races,  and  whose  personnel  through  later 
admissions  of  members  amounted  in  the  course  of  a  month  to  fifty- 
three,  and  increased  with  each  meeting.  The  order  was  made  up  of 
many  degrees,  so  that  less  educated  Germans  might  take  part.  Ad- 
mission to  the  second  and  third  degrees  was  conditioned  on  talent 
and  ability ;  all  the  Germans  living  away  from  home  must  be  received 
into  membership,  because  it  guarantees  intellectual  entertainment, 
profit  and  pleasure  to  compensate  in  some  measure  for  the  lost  joys 
of  the  Fatherland,  and  because  it  embraces  in  itself  the  elements  of 
various  secret  and  knightly  orders,  and  thereby  breathes  pure  Ger- 
man nationality.  Among  its  manifold  aims  the  most  important  are: 
philanthropy  and  the  preservation  of  German  individual  traits  of 
character."  ^^  Korner  ^^  gives  the  purpose  of  the  order  as :  'The 
preservation  of  German  national  individuality,  the  furtherance  of 
German  immigration  and  the  facilitation  of  correspondence  between 
Texas  and  Germany.'  " 

In  this  connection,  brief  mention  must  be  made  of  the  so- 
called  "Adelsverein",  as  its  aims  were  undoubtedly  the  same  as 
the  others  noted.  Von  Behr  says :  "It  is  said  the  Union  wished 
to  found  a  feudal  state,  which  would  lend  money  to  its  settlers 
and  they  would  be  treated  in  a  way 'as  its  own  property."-^  We 
shall  treat  this  society  more  fully  in  a  later  chapter. 

What  was  the  character  of  the  immigration  of  this  period? 
Grund,  in  his  work  published  in  1837,  says: 

"  Cf.    Deutsche-Amerikanische  GeschichtsbVdtter,  Jan.,   1906,  pp.  21-22. 

"  "Erhaltung  der  Deutschen  National-Eigenthiimlichkeit.  Beforderung 
der  Deutschen  Einwanderung  und  Erleichterung  der  Korrespondenz  zwichen 
Texas  und  Deutschlands."     Korner,  p.  359. 

*'  Von  Behr,  Ottomar,  Leipzig,  1847. 

324  Germans  in  Texas 

"Until  recently  the  emigrants  from  Germany  were  chiefly  com- 
posed of  agriculturists,  with  an  occasional  admixture  of  operatives, 
but  the  late  unfortunate  struggle  for  liberty  in  Germany  has,  within 
the  last  five  or  six  years,  caused  the  expatriation  of  a  more  intelli- 
gent class ;  and,  accordingly,  settlements  have  been  made  in  the 
valley  of  the  Mississippi  and  in  the  State  of  Illinois,  by  a  body  of 
Germans  whose  edcuation  fitted  them  rather  for  the  drawing-room 
and  the  closet  than  for  the  hardships  of  cultivating  the  soil;  yet  they 
have  cheerfully  embraced  their  new  vocation;  and  the  physicians, 
lawyers,  theological  and  other  students  who  arrived  about  three 
years  ago  in  the  United  States  have  become  active  husbandmen; 
though  they  were  obliged  to  resign  the  romantic  idea  of  founding  a 
new  Germany  in  the  western  territory  of  the  United  States,"^-  and 
Niles  Register  says  that  "the  mania  for  emigration  to  America,  as 
it  is  called,  increases — and  many  persons  of  wealth  were  preparing 
to  leave  different  parts  of  Germany."  ^^ 

These  quotations  will  sufifice  to  show  that  the  emigration 
during  this  period  was  made  up  of  a  class  different  from  that  of 
the  earlier  period.  Men  of  wealth,  position  and  education  emi- 
grated to  America  in  great  numbers.  Many  among  them  had  held 
high  official  or  professional  positions  at  home.  The  "Forty- 
eighters"  swelled  the  ranks  of  this  class  of  immigrants. 

*■  Cf.  Grund,  F.  J. :   The  Americans.    London,  1837.    Vol.  II,  pp.  24-25. 
"  Cf.   Niles  Weekly  Register,  Vol.  XLIII,  p.  149. 

Germans  in  Texas  325 



It  is  an  interesting  commentary  that  no  history  yet  written 
of  Texas  contains  any  extended  mention  of  the  Germans  in  that 
State.  It  is  interesting  from  several  viewpoints.  In  that  State 
an  attempt  was  made  to  further  on  a  large  scale,  immigration 
such  as  probably  no  other  State  has  known.  The  Germans  have 
formed  a  most  important  part  of  its  population  from  the  very 
beginning;  Germans  took  part  in  the  Texan  War  of  Independ- 
ence, and  one  of  the  most  interesting  accounts  of  that  war  was 
written  by  a  German  who  was  a  participant  personally  in  many 
of  its  engagements;  the  Germans  as  a  class  were  educated  and 
cultured,  many  of  them  belonging  to  high  rank  in  their  own 
country  and  many  were  possessed  of  means ;  under  their  auspices 
the  first  public  school  supported  by  taxation  was  established; 
many  of  the  officials  of  the  State  have  been  Germans;  and  one, 
Gustave  Schleicher,  had  already  gained  a  national  reputation 
before  his  death  and  was  destined  to  still  higher  honors  had  he 
lived,  according  to  James  A.  Garfield  and  former  Secretary  of 
State  Bayard. 

In  1846  the  laws  of  Texas  were  ordered  to  be  translated 
into  German.^  That  they  had  early  gained  an  important  influence 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  as  early  as  1843  the  Texan  Congress 
granted  the  right  of  incorporating  a  university  to  certain  Ger- 
mans who  were  residents  of  the  "Lone  Star  Republic."  For  this 
purpose  a  league  of  land  was  donated  by  the  Congress.^ 

The  accounts  regarding  these  Germans,  as  far  as  Texas  is 

^  Fest  Ausgabe  sum  funfsigjahrigcn  Jubildnm,  1906.  Foot  note,  p.  86. 
Tait's  Edinburgh  Magazine,  1848,  p.  224.  AUgemeine  Zeitung,  No.  62, 
Mar.  3,  1847. 

^  Cf.  Laws  of  Eighth  Congress  of  Texas,  p.  948ff. 

326  Germans  in  Texas 

concerned,  are  meagre,  and  are  to  be  found  only  in  brief  articles 
in  journals  or  in  books  dealing  with  memoirs  of  pioneers.  It  is 
strange  that  no  account  has  yet  been  written  of  a  people,  who,  as 
early  as  1847,  formed  one-fifth  of  the  white  population.  Their 
attitude  toward  slavery  and  their  competition  with  slave  labor 
would  seem  to  have  deserved  some  mention.  Perhaps  the  future 
historian  of  the  State  will  give  them  their  due  regard. 

Even  before  Texas  had  gained  its  independence,  many  Ger- 
man families  were  found  in  that  territory.  The  reasons  why  they 
came  there  and  their  experiences  are  most  romantic. 

In  1 8 18- 1 9,  a  German  traveller  visited  Texas.  Texas,  at  that 
time,  still  belonged  to  Spain.  He  published  a  work  on  his  travels 
in  the  United  States,  in  which  he  makes  special  mention  of  Texas. 
It  is  interesting  to  speculate  what  might  have  happened  had  his 
ideas  been  carried  out.  The  Monroe  Doctrine  had  not  yet  been 
promulgated.  A  German  nation  on  this  side  of  the  water  might 
have  been  no  impossibility,  as  it  was  certain  to  have  been  at  a 
later  period.  His  book  must  certainly  have  had  readers,  and 
doubtless  it  may  have  fallen  into  the  hands  of  some  of  the  early 
German  settlers  in  this  territory.  He  describes  the  country  as 
extraordinarily  fruitful  in  wheat,  maize,  cotton  and  indigo;  the 
climate  in  the  interior,  on  account  of  the  many  mountains,  is 
healthful  and  temperate;  only  on  the  coast  are  there  any  swamps.^ 
He  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  Prussian  army,  and  suggested  the 
colonization  of  Texas  by  Prussia.  He  says  that  there  are  lead 
mines'*  in  the  province  at  present  being  worked.  Says  that  the 
country  produces  not  only  tropical,  but  all  European  vegetables; 
that  grapes  are  grown  and  wine  is  being  produced;  that  800 
pounds  of  cotton  can  be  grown  to  the  acre;  that  the  voyage  to 
Texas  can  be  made  in  eight  or  nine  weeks  with  favorable  winds. 
He  describes  the  condition  of  Spanish  agriculture  as  extremely 

'  Hecke,  J.  V.,  Reise  durch  die  Vereinigten  Staaten,   1818-1819.     Berlin, 
1821.     Vol.  I,  p.  IQSff. 

Ubid.    Vol.  II,  pp.  170-189. 

Germans  in  Texas  327 

poor.  San  Antonio  was  the  chief  city,  with  about  2,000  inhabi- 
tants, most  of  them  living  in  a  wretched  condition.  The  cities 
of  the  province  of  Texas  number  about  12,000  persons.  He 
advises  Prussian  colonization^  in  the  following  words : 

"If  there  is  a  piece  of  land  on  the  transatlantic  continent  favor- 
able to  a  colonial  possession  for  Prussia,  it  is  the  province  of  Texas 
whose  acquisition  by  purchase  from  Spain,  to  whom  it  has  neither 
use  nor  political  advantage,  might  be  very  easily  made.  Certainly 
very  important  results  in  agricultural,  political  and  mercantile 
respects,  would  accrue  from  the  possession  of  a  stretch  of  land  which 
is  greater  than  Germany.  Although  at  present  there  is  no,  or  very 
little,  civilized  population ;  in  a  short  time  it  would  become  a  flourish- 
ing colony,  if  Prussia  would  make  use  of  the  emigrants  from  Ger- 
many, who,  having  become  beggars  through  the  voyage,  suffer 
wretchedly  in  the  United  States;  furnish  them  free  transportation 
on  Prussian  ships;  give  them  the  land  either  gratuitously  or  grant 
them  support,  if  only  by  advanced  payments ;  then  they  would  have 
cultivated  after  five,  or  at  the  most,  ten  years,  fifty  acres  (Morgen) 
of  fertile  land.  If  one  reckons  only  a  frugal  revenue  from  the  soil 
as  thirty  grain,  then  the  colonist,  after  reserving  a  third  part  of  his 
ground  for  the  cultivation  of  fodder  and  vegetables,  receiving  from 
the  remaining  thirty-two  acres  nine  hundred  and  sixty  bushels  of 
wheat,  reckoning  this  at  one  and  a  half  Thaler  per  bushel,  will 
receive  a  pure  revenue  of  1,440  Thaler  yearly  and  be  able  to  pay 
back  all  sums  advanced  to  him  with  good  interest." 

He  continued  by  stating  that  the  mountains  in  the  interior 
of  the  country  have  never  been  investigated;  that  rich  metallur- 
gical finds  may  be  expected.  He  would  use  criminals  to  work 
these  mines  and  would  transport  for  that  purpose  all  that  have  in 
any  way  broken  the  law. 

To  quote  further : 

"The  advantages  in  a  commercial  respect  would  be  not  less  im- 
portant for  the  mother  country,  in  that  (a)  all  commerce  with  the 
Indians  as  far  as  the  Pacific  Ocean  would  come  into  the  hands  of 
the  Prussians;  (b)  for  Prussian  manufacturing,  Galveston  Bay 
would  be  a  very  suitable  emporium,  in  order  that  from  there  trade 

'  Ibid.    Vol.  I,  p.  iQsflf. 

328  Germans  in  Texas 

might  be  carried  on  along  the  Rio  del  Norte  into  Mexico,  and  on  the 
Mississippi,  the  Missouri,  Ohio,  Sabine  and  Red  Rivers  into  the 
United  States. 

"Through  such  commercial  canals,  Prussia  would  receive  the 
tropical  products  at  first  hand,  or  it  could  raise  cotton,  indigo  and 
sugar  itself,  and  this  circumstance  would  have  a  very  important 
influence  on  the  condition  of  manufacturing. 

"The  sum  for  which  this  acquisition  could  be  obtained  would 
not  be  very  heavy,  and  in  case  the  government  would  not  desire  to 
furnish  or  to  spare  the  necessary  amount,  the  merchants,  who  would 
receive  most  of  the  advantage  from  this  colonial  possession,  might 
without  difficulty,  advance  payments  to  the  State,  but,  as  soon  as 
Spain  has  shown  itself  ready  to  grant  the  cession,  a  commercial 
company  might  be  formed  like  the  East  India  Company,  which  should 
defray  all  expenses,  but  also  should  derive  all  profits,  and  the  State 
must  only  furnish  the  requisite  troops  for  the  protection  of  the 
colony.  Prussian  trade  would  receive  through  such  a  possession, 
a  wholly  different  expansion,  life  and  spirit  within  ten  years,  and  per- 
haps after  this  time,  in  case  the  colony,  as  already  agreed  upon, 
should  form  a  suitable  constitution,  it  would  number  a  million  inhab- 
itants. And  by  no  means  the  least  to  be  reckoned  are  the  advantages 
which  would  result  immediately  to  Prussia  from  the  possession  of 
such  a  piece  of  land." 

He  continues  by  saying  that  Prussia  could  send  over  10,000 
invalid  soldiers  in  order  to  protect  the  colony.  These  could  be 
given  possession  of  land  as  a  gift.  With  these,  the  colonists  could 
form  a  militia  to  prevent  the  danger  of  any  invasion. 

Prussia's  navy  would  be  built  up  through  this  colonial  pos- 
session. "Only  through  navigation  and  sea  trade  can  an  indus- 
trious nation  gain  wealth."  Only  by  means  of  its  navy  has  Eng- 
land reached  its  present  position.  ''Only  through  its  navy  has 
colossal  Russia  risen  so  high  in  commercial  industries,  in  wealth, 
and  in  culture  of  the  spirit  that  it  is  the  marvel  and  wonder  of 
the  age." 

"This  colony  would  furnish  with  grain,  salt  flesh,  butter  and 
other  products,  not  only  the  archipelago  of  the  Antilles,  but  also 
the  entire  northern  and  eastern  coast  of  the  South  American  conti- 
nent with  the  exception  of  Brazil." 

Whether  the  publication  of  this  work  had  any  influence  or 

Germans  in  Texas  329 

not,  many  settlements  of  Germans  were  located  in  Texas  in  the 
early  thirties.  Before  these  settlers  had  appeared,  a  company  of 
fifty-three  adventurers  landed  on  the  Texan  coast.  They  came 
from  New  Orleans  in  October,  1821.  They  marched  to  Goliad 
(La  Bohia)  and  took  possession  of  it.  They  were  made  prisoners 
by  Mexican  soldiers.  In  the  State  archives  there  is  a  report 
which  gives  their  names  and  nationalities.  Among  those  men- 
tioned, the  following  Germans  are  found:  Eduard  Hanstein, 
Joseph  Dirksen,  Ernst  von  Rosenberg,  Wilhelm  Miller,  Carl 
Cuans,  and  Gasper  Porton.®  Ernst  von  Rosenberg  joined  the 
Mexican  army  in  whose  service  he  rose  to  the  rank  of  colonel 
of  artillery.  He  took  the  side  of  Iturbide  and  was  shot  upon  the 
downfall  of  the  latter.  It  has  been  stated  that  the  so-called 
"Baron  de  Bastrop,"  who  aided  Austin  in  his  colonization 
schemes,  without  whose  intervention  Anglo-American  coloni- 
zation would  have  utterly  failed,  was  a  German.'^  It  has  been 
shown  from  official  documents  that  he  had  a  Spanish  name.^ 
Much  has  been  written  about  his  colonizing  of  Germans  in  Texas. 
Roemer,^  in  his  work,  states  in  discussing  a  visit  he  made  to  the 
town  of  Bastrop  that  the  "city  is  called  after  a  certain  Baron  v. 
Bastrop,  who  had  in  view  an  important  German  colonization 
undertaking,  and  had  already  obtained  an  important  piece  of 
land."  His  plans  were  later  prevented  on  account  of  his  death. 
Koerner^"  states  that  the  colony  of  Bastrop  was  settled  by  Olden- 
burgians  from  the  Duchy  of  Delmenhorst.  Mr.  H.  A.  Ratterman, 
the  editor  of  the  Deutsche  Pionier,  says  that  in  1823  Bastrop 

•Rosenberg,  Kritik,  p.  6.  Brown,  Indian  Wars  and  Pioneers  of  Texas, 
p.  283. 

'  Cf.  Rather:  DeWitt  Colony,  Texas  Historical  Association  Quarterly, 
1904-S,  p.  98. 

•Letter  from  E.  W.  Winkler,  Department  of  Agriculture,  Insurance 
Statistics  and  History,  Austin,  Texas,  of  this  year    (1907). 

*  Roemer,  F.,  Texas,  p.  208. 

"  Koerner,  Das  Deutsche  Element,  p.  359. 

330  Germans  in  Texas 

brought  a  number  of  Oldenburgian  peasants  and  founded  the  city 
of  Bastrop. ^^ 

Whatever  the  truth  may  be  regarding  Bastrop's  having 
settled  Germans  in  Texas  in  the  twenties,  ah'eady  in  the  early 
thirties  several  flourishing  settlements  are  found. 

Two  Germans  are  mentioned  among  the  early  Mexican 
impressarios  to  receive  grants  under  the  colonization  law  of 
Mexico.  These  were  Joseph  Vehlein  and  Robert  Lestwich.  The 
former  held  a  half  of  the  original  Hay  den  Edward  grant  between 
the  Sabine  and  the  Navasoto ;  the  latter  had  a  contract  to  bring 
in  two  hundred  families.^-  Among  the  first  real  German  settlers, 
however,  was  a  Friedrich  Ernst.  He  was  a  bookkeepers^  and  emi- 
grated from  Barel,  Duchy  of  Oldenburg.^^  In  1829,  Ernst 
decided  to  go  to  America.  He  came  to  New  York  and  bought  a 
hotel. s^  Duden's  book  came  into  his  hands  and  he  determined  to 
settle  in  Missouri.  This  was  in  the  year  1831.  While  in  New 
York  he  met  Charles  Fordtran.  They  set  sail  for  New  Orleans. 
W^hile  in  that  city,  they  learned  that  every  settler  with  his  family 
would  receive  a  league  and  labor^*^  of  land  from  the  Mexican 
Government, s'  so  they  decided  upon  immigrating  to  Texas.  They 
set  sail  in  the  Mexican  schooner  "Saltillo,"  and  landed  at  Harris- 

"  Deutsche  Pionier,  Vol.  16,  No.  9,  p.  ^72.  The  same  author  in  Deutsch- 
Ainerikanisches  Magazin,  1886.  p.  402,  says  under  the  heading,  "Die  Ansied- 
lungs-Projekte  des  Barons  Bastrop,"  that  Bastrop  had  many  colonization 
plans ;  that  the  City  of  Bastrop  was  laid  out  in  1823,  and  that  he  bases  his 
statement  on  Ehrenberg. 

'"  Schem,  Conversations  Lexicon,  pp.  69iff. 

"  Biography  of  Fordtran  says  that  Ernst  was  a  gardner.  Cf.  Brown, 
Indian  Wars  and  Pioneers,  p.  424ff. 

^*"Life  of  German  Pioneers  in  Early  Texas."  Cf.  Te.xas  Historical  Quar- 
terly, Vol.  II,  p.  227ff.    Article  by  Caroline  von  Hinueber,  daughter  of  Ernst. 

^'^  Deutsche  Pionier,  Vol.  16,  No.  9,  p.  3ff. 

"League  was  4428.4  acres;  a  labor  was  177,  or  onc-twenty-fifth  of  a 
league  or  sitio. 

"According  to  account  of  Mrs.  Hinueber  quoted  above.  In  F'ordtran's 
biography,  it  is  stated  that  they  met  an  American  on  their  way  to  New 
Orleans  while  on  board  the  steamer,  and  he  influenced  them  to  go  to  Texas. 
See  Brown,  p.  424!?. 

Germans  in  Texas  331 

burgh,  in  April,  1831.  They  remained  in  that  place  some  five 
weeks,  while  Fordtran  went  ahead  and  entered  a  league  of  land 
where  the  town  of  Industry  now  stands.  They  travelled  on  ox- 
carts to  San  Felipe  de  Austin  which  had  some  three  to  four  hun- 
dred inhabitants.  Ernst  is  evidently  the  first  German  to  bring 
his  family  into  Texas.  At  that  time  there  were  a  few  unmarried 
Germans  in  Texas. ^^  They  had  no  neighbors  as  far  north  as 
the  White  River,  in  Arkansas,  and  east  to  the  Sabine  River,  and 
south  to  the  settlement  at  San  Felipe.  They  had  only  one  neighbor 
to  the  west.  It  was  twenty-eight  miles  to  San  Felipe.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  the  hardships  endured  by  those  early  settlers. 
The  house  was  a  hut  covered  with  straw,  and  having  six  sides 
made  of  moss.^*^  Mrs.  Ernst  slept  on  a  deer  skin  without  a 
pillow,  on  the  floor.  They  had  only  corn  bread  at  first  to  eat, 
and  later  only  cow  peas.  The  nearest  mill  was  thirty  miles  distant. 
Ernst  wrote  to  his  former  neighbors.  This  letter  was  pub- 
lished in  the  local  newspaper.  Through  this  means  a  number  of 
Oldenburgers  and  Miinsterlanders  with  their  families  were 
brought  to  Texas  in  1834.-*^  Among  them  were  the  families  of 
Bartels,  Zimmerschreib,  lurgens,  Ainsler,  Walters,  Kleberg,  von 
Roedel,  Siebel  and  Grasmeyer.  Robert  Kleberg,  Sr.,  in  his 
memoir  mentions  the  names  R.  D.  Stolje  (probably  Stoelke)  and 
wife,  Reinerman  and  wife,  Bartels,  Damke,  William  Vrels,  John 
Hemike  and  George  Herder.  Ernst  became  an  influential  man 
in  the  republic.  He  took  part  in  the  Texan  Revolution,  and  was 
one  of  the  members  of  "the  Teutonia  Order,"  and  one  of  the 
incorporators  of  Hermann  University.  Fordtran  received  a 
contract  to  bring  in  eight  hundred  families. 

"  Mrs.  Hineuber  mentions  a  Hertzner,  a  tailor,  and  a  Grossmeyer — 
Deutsche  Pionier  calls  the  name  Wertzner. 

"  The  Civilian  and  Galveston  Gazette,  Dec.  2,  1843,  mentions  a  settler 
who  came  in  the  thirties,  evidently  Ernst.  It  says  that  he  built  a  camp 
interwoven  between  the  angles  with  moss. 

"  Der  Deutsche  Pionier,  article  by  Mrs.  Ernst,  says  that  through  Ford- 
tran's  efforts  some  German  immigrants  were  brought  to  Texas.     Cf.  above. 


Germans  in  Texas 

Through  a  letter  sent  by  Ernst  to  his  home  in  the  Duchy 
of  Oldenburg,  a  number  of  Germans  were  brought  to  Texas. 
Among  these  were  the  families  von  Roecler  and  Kleberg.  It 
does  not  seem  fitting  in  an  account  of  the  early  Germans  in 
Texas  to  omit  some  mention  of  Robert  Justus  Kleberg,  Sr.  He 
was  born  in  Herstelle,  Westphalia,  and  graduated  doctor  juris 
from  Goetingen.  In  1834,  he  determined  to  emigrate.  In  an 
account-^  written  about  him,  he  is  said  to  have  said : 

*T  wished  to  live  under  a  republican  form  of  government,  with 
unbounded  personal,  religious  and  political  liberty,  free  from  the 
petty  tyrannies,  the  many  disadvantages  and  evils  of  old  countries. 
I  was  an  enthusiastic  lover  of  liberty,  and  I  expected  to  find  in  Texas, 
above  all  countries,  the  blessed  land  of  my  most  fervent  hopes." 

How  he  happened  to  choose  Texas  for  his  home  is  told  in 
a  memoir  which  he  kept.    He  says : 

"We  had  accidentally  got  hold  of  a  letter  written  by  a  gentle- 
man, who  had  emigrated  some  time  before  us  from  the  Duchy  of 
Oldenburg  and  who  lived  near  where  now  is  Industry,  Texas,  Fritz 
Ernst  by  name.  In  this  letter  he  had  described  Texas,  then  a  prov- 
ince of  Mexico,  in  very  glowing  colors,  mentioning  also,  the  advan- 
tages oft'ered  by  the  Mexican  government,  namely,  a  league  and  a 
labor  for  every  man  with  a  family  and  one-half  league  for  every 
single  man.  This  letter  caused  us  to  change  our  first  intentions  to 
go  to  one  of  the  northern  States  and  to  choose  Texas  for  our  future 
home.  At  the  time  we  left,  hardly  anything  was  known  of  Texas, 
except  that  my  ideas  and  those  of  my  party  were  formed  by  the 
above  mentioned  letter,  in  which  Texas  was  described  as  a  beautiful 
country,  with  enchanting  scenery  and  delightful  climate,  similar  to 
that  of  Italy,  the  most  fruitful  soil  and  republican  government  with 
unbounded  personal  and  political  liberty,  free  from  so  many  dis- 
advantages and  evils  of  old  countries.  Prussia,  our  former  home, 
smarted  at  the  time  we  left,  under  a  military  despotism.  We  were 
enthusiastic  lovers  of  republican  institutions,  full  of  romantic 
notions,  and  believed  to  find  in  Texas,  before  all  other  countries,  the 
blessed  land  of  our  hope."" 

"  Brown,  Indian  Wars  and  Pioneers  of  Texas,  p.  289. 
"  Texas  Historical  Quarterly,  Vol.  II,  p.  228,  foot  note.     This  is  taken 
from  notes  written  by  Kleberg  in  1876. 

Germans  in  Texas  333 

This  memoir  shows  what  induced  men  of  his  stamp  to  leave 
the  Fatherland,  and  is  incidentally  interesting,  as  it  gives  an  idea 
how  the  immigrants  to  the  new  land  influenced  others  to  follow. 
The  company  of  which  Kleberg  was  a  member  was  made  up  of 
himself  and  wife  (he  had  married  Rosalia  von  Roeder,  daughter 
of  Lieutenant  Ludwig  A.  S.  von  Roeder),  Lieutenant  L.  A.  S. 
von  Roeder,23  Louis  Kleberg,  Mrs.  Otto  von  Roeder.  Three 
sons  of  von  Roeder  and  a  daughter,  together  with  a  servant  had 
preceded  the  party  to  Texas.  The  other  passengers  were  mainly 
from  the  Duchy  of  Oldenburg.  It  took  then  sixty  days  to  land 
in  New  Orleans.  They  finally  landed  at  Galveston,  December  22, 
1834.  During  the  War  of  Independence,  Kleberg  and  his  com- 
patriots took  part  in  the  bloody  storming  of  San  Antonio.  They 
later  settled  near  Cat  Spring,  in  Austin  County.  Kleberg  held 
many  offices  in  the  State,  and  became  a  Confederate  at  the  out- 
break of  the  Civil  War,  but  was  unable  to  serve  on  account  of 
his  advanced  age.  Kleberg  was  a  man  of  especial  culture.  Be- 
sides a  knowledge  of  the  classics,  he  was  a  master  of  three  modern 
languages  and  read  their  literature  in  the  original.  He  kept  up 
his  interest  in  literature  to  the  very  end.  No  country  could  help 
but  be  aided  by  the  addition  of  settlers  of  such  a  character. ^^ 

There  is  an  interesting  letter  by  one  of  these  early  settlers. 
He  gives  a  good  picture  of  the  voyage  and  of  the  settlement. 
On  account  of  its  early  date,  and  from  the  fact  that  it  has,  to  my 
knowledge,  never  been  quoted,  it  is  given  in  full;  it  is  dated, 
"Settlement  on  Mill  Creek,  in  Austin's  Colony,  State  of  Texas, 
New  Mexico,  February  i,  1832." 

"Ji^^^^^^^^y  of  the  previous  year  we  embarked  on  a  brig  to 
New  Orleans.  It  was  still  winter  on  our  departure  from  New  York, 
then  mild  spring  breezes  blew  upon  us  four  days  after  our  departure.' 

"'He  is  styled  Baron  von   Roeder  in  a  letter   from   M.   E.   Klebere.  of 
Galveston,  dated  Nov.  5,  1904. 

^For   an   account   of   the   life    of   these   settlers    see    Texas   Historical 
Quarterly,  Vols.  I  and  II. 

334  Germans  in  Texas 

Between  Cuba  and  Florida,  we  had  later  real  summer,  and  the  whole 
sea  voyage  of  a  thousand  miles  over  that  part  of  the  ocean,  through 
the  Bahama  Islands,  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  up  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Mississippi,  we  lay  constantly  against  the  wind  and  came  somewhat 
back.  On  the  Mississippi  up  to  New  Orleans,  a  hundred  and  twenty 
miles  (five  make  a  German  mile)  we  received  favorable  news  of 
Austin's  colony  in  Texas ;  we  embarked  again  in  the  schooner  of 
thirty-seven  tons  and  landed  after  an  eight-day  voyage  at  Harris- 
burgh  in  this  colony.  Each  immigrant  who  wishes  to  engage  in  farm- 
ing receives  a  league  of  land;  a  single  person,  a  one-quarter  of  a 
league.^^  A  league  is  a  league  long  and  the  same  distance  in  width. 
He  has  in  fees  for  surveying,  cost  of  introduction,  etc.,  to  pay  $i6o 
in  installments;  he  must  take  the  oath  of  citizenship  and  is  after  a 
period  of  a  year  a  citizen  of  the  free  United  States  of  Mexico ;  also 
as  Europeans,  who  are  especially  welcome,  we  received  a  peculiarly 
good  league  of  land,  and  built  upon  it. 

"The  State  of  Texas  in  which  our  colony  makes  nearly  the 
sixth  part,  lies  in  the  south  on  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  between  the  27 
degree  and  31  degree  north  latitude,  in  which  also  Napoleon's  fol- 
lowers have  settled.  The  rivers  Trinidad,  Rio  Brassos  (Brazos) 
and  Rio  Colorado  flow  through  Austin's  colony.  It  contains  the  chief 
city,  San  Felippe  de  Austin  and  the  settlements  of  Harrisburgh, 
Bassoria  (Brazoria),  and  Matagardo  (Matagorda).  One  sails  in 
three  or  four  days  to  Tampico  and  Vera  Cruz.  The  ground  is  hilly 
and  alternates  with  forest  and  natural  grass  plains.  Various  kinds 
of  trees.  Climate  like  that  of  Sicily.  The  soil  needs  no  fertilizer. 
Almost  constant  east  wind.  No  winter,  almost  like  March  in  Ger- 
many. Bees,  birds  and  butterflies  the  whole  winter  through.  A  cow 
with  a  calf  costs  ten  dollars.  For  ploughing,  oxen  are  used.  Planters 
who  have  seven  hundred  head  of  cattle  are  common.  Principal 
products:  Tobacco,  rice,  indigo  (grows  wild),  sweet  potatoes, 
melons  of  an  especial  goodness,  watermelons,  wheat,  rye,  vegetables 
of  all  kinds;  peaches  in  great  quantity  grow  wild  in  the  woods;  mul- 
berries, many  kinds  of  walnuts,  wild  plums,  persimmons,  sweet  as 
honey ;  wine  in  great  quantity,  but  not  of  a  particular  taste ;  honey  is 
found  chiefly  in  hollow  trees.  Birds  of  all  kinds,  from  pelicans  to 
humming  birds.  Wild  prey  such  as :  Deer,  bears,  raccoons,  wild  tur- 
keys, geese,  partridges  (the  latter  as  large  as  domestic  fowls),  etc.,  in 
quantity.  Free  hunting  and  fishing.  Wild  horses  and  buffalo  in 
hordes ;  wolves,  but  of  a  feeble  kind ;  also  panthers  and  leopards,  of 
which  there  is  no  danger;  rich  game,  delicious  roasts.     Meadows 

This  is  evidently  a  mistake  and  should  be  one-half  a  league. 

Germans  in  Texas  335 

with  the  most  charming  flowers.  Many  snakes,  also  rattlesnakes ; 
each  planter  knows  safe  means  against  them.  A  league  of  land  con- 
tains four  thousand  four  hundred  and  forty  acres  of  land,  moun- 
tain and  valley,  woods  and  meadows,  cut  through  by  brooks. 
Through  many  settlers  at  one  point,  the  value  of  it  rises  so  high  in 
price,  that  it  has  already  come  to  be  sold  at  a  dollar  per  acre. 
English  the  ruling  speech.  Slavery  forbidden,  but  silently  allowed. 
Day  labor  three-quarters  to  a  dollar,  with  board.  Clothing  and 
shoes  very  dear.  Each  settler  builds  himself  a  block-house.  The 
more  children,  the  better  for  easy  field  labor.  The  same  manner  of 
life  as  in  North  America.  Mosquitoes  and  knats  only  common  on 
the  coast.  Formerly  no,  and  later  on  only  community  taxes.  Yearly 
scarcely  three  months  work.  No  need  for  money,  free  exercise  of 
religion,  and  the  best  markets  for  all  products  at  the  Mexican  har- 
bors ;  up  the  river  there  is  much  silver,  but  there  are  still  Indian 
races  there.  We  men  satisfy  ourselves  with  hunting  and  horse- 
races. On  account  of  the  better  markets,  many  people  have  come 
here  from  Missouri.  One  should  go  from  Bremen  to  New  Orleans  ; 
from  here  to  Harrisburgh,  the  cost  is  ten  dollars  per  person ;  goods 
must  be  paid  extra ;  children  only  cost  half  price ;  living  utensils 
are  bought  in  New  Orleans ;  with  favorable  winds  the  journey  lasts 
only  four  days.  On  account  of  the  yellow  fever,  one  should  arrive 
in  New  Orleans  some  weeks  before  the  month  of  July,  or  after  the 
first  of  October.  Arrived  in  Harrisburgh,  wagons  with  oxen  are 
rented  to  San  Felippe  where  one  reports  to  the  land  office;  it  is  a 
good  thing  if  one  can  speak  English;  only  enough  money  is  needed 
as  is  necessary  to  purchase  a  league  of  land.  A  father  of  a  family 
must  remember  that  he  receives  on  his  arrival,  through  the  land 
granted  to  him,  a  county  (Grafschaft),  which  will  come  to  be  worth 
in  a  short  time,  from  seven  to  eight  hundred  (dollars),  for  which 
it  is  often  sold  here.  The  expenses  for  the  land  need  not  be  paid 
immediately.  Many  raise  the  money  from  their  cattle.  For  my 
acquaintences  and  former  countrymen  I  have  on  my  estate  a  stopping 
place  until  they  have  selected  a  league  of  land,  which  is  not  done 
so  quickly.  Col.  Austin,  however,  promised  recently  to  take  care 
that  German  arrivals  should  be  settled  immediately.  Who  is  un- 
married, will  bring  a  good  sensible  companion  for  life  with  him. 
He  who  is  married  knows  that  many  children  belong  to  wealth. 
Arrived  at  San  Felippe,  ask  after  Friedrich  Ernst  at  Mill  Creek.  It 
is  thirty  miles  from  there  and  you  will  find  me.  In  New  Orleans  are 
purchased  good  axes  for  cutting  wood  of  merchant  Martinstein, 
Rue  de  Chartres.  He  is  a  German,  and  he  will  take  especial  care 
that  you  have  everything  necessary,  on  the  journey  from  San  Felippe 
you  must  camp  in  the  open  air.  You  must  not  lack  meal  and  meat, 
a  pair  of  good  boots  and  rifle,  as  well  as  a  saddle  are  essential  needs. 

336  Germans  in  Texas 

The  chief  city  of  Texas  is  San  Antonio  on  the  Rio  del  Norte.    Your 
friend,  Fritz  Dirks. 

N.  B.  Passports  are  not  necessary.  Sons  over  seventeen  have 
like  part  in  the  settlement  of  the  land."-® 

When  the  above  was  written  I  had  not  seen  an  article  by 
Mr.  L.  F.  La  Frentz,  of  San  Antonio,  Texas,  in  Deutsch-Te.v- 
anische  Monatshefte,  vol.  11,  no.  4.  This  article  contains  a 
resume  of  the  letter  which  Fritz  Ernst  sent  to  his  compatriots 
in  Germany  and  which  was  published  in  a  newspaper  in  the 
Duchy  of  Oldenburg.  The  similarity  of  the  Ernst  letter  to  that 
quoted  above  leads  me  to  believe  that  either  the  author  of  the 
work  in  which  the  letter  signed  Fritz  Dirks  is  quoted  either  mis- 
understood the  name  or  that  the  name  Dirks  is  a  misprint  and 
should  read  Ernst.  In  many  paragraphs  the  words  of  the  two 
letters  are  identical.  The  letter  of  Ernst  as  stated  above  had 
a  great  influence  on  German  immigration. 

Many  Germans  were  participants  in  the  Texan  War  of  In- 
dependence. The  idea  of  battling  against  political  tyranny  and 
for  religious  freedom  appealed  to  their  revolutionary  feelings.  1 
Undoubtedly  this  war  with  its  romantic  history  later  drew  many 
Germans  to  Texas.  It  was,  doubtless,  aided  by  the  publication 
by  a  German  in  that  language  of  the  history  of  the  war.  This 
history  was  a  narrative  of  the  personal  experiences  of  the  author 
in  many  of  its  engagements.  It  appeared^"^  under  different 
titles,  and  evidently  had  a  large  circulation  in  Germany  as  many 
copies  are  still  extant.  The  author  was  born  at  Marienwerder. 
He  was  the  son  of  the  royal  Prussian  counsellor  to  the  govern- 
ment, Wilhelm  von  Ehrenberg.  As  a  member  of  "the  Burchen- 
schaft,"  at  Jena,  he  was  forced  to  come  to  America.    At  the  out- 

^Achenbach,  Hermann:  Tagehuch  meiner  Reise  in  d.  Nord  amerikan- 
ischen  Freistaaten  oder  das  neue  Kanaan.    Diisseldorf,  1835,  pp.  132-135. 

"  Ehrenberg,  Hermann :  Texas  und  die  Revolution,  von  Hermann  Ehren- 
berg, Burger  der  Republik;  Leipzig,  1843;  Der  Freiheitskampf  in  Texas,  1844; 
Fahrten  und  Schicksale  eines  Deutschen  in  Texas,  1845. 

Germans  in  Texas  337 

break  of  the  Texan  war  he  was  in  New  Orleans  and  enlisted  in 
the  first  company  of  the  "New  Orleans  Grays,"  of  which  com- 
pany many  Germans  were  members.  He  was  active  in  the  storm- 
ing of  San  Antonio  and  "the  Alamo."  After  various  adventures, 
he  came  with  "the  Grays"  under  the  command  of  the  unfortunate 
Colonel  Fannin,  and  took  part  in  the  Goliad  disaster  and  was 
one  of  the  few  to  escape  from  that  bloody  encounter.  He 
describes  his  experiences  in  a  very  dramatic  manner,  and  must 
have  had  a  strong  influence  over  his  German  compatriots  in  the 
Fatherland ;  how  much  this  one  story  led  the  romantic  German, 
who  was  seeking  adventure  and  was  without  doubt  charmed  by 
the  life  described  in  Ehrenberg's  works  to  thoughts  of  immigra- 
tion, it  would  be  difficult  to  say.  Bracht,  in  his  work^^  mentions 
Ehrenberg  as  one  of  the  authors  to  be  read  about  Texas.  Later 
Ehrenberg  became  a  topographical  surveyor  in  the  surveying 
corps  of  the  United  States.  He  published  his  reports  and  letters 
about  southern  Arizona  (1855-1860).^^  Among  others  who  were 
participants  in  the  Texan  Revolution,  were  Dr.  Gustav  Busen,^*^ 
Peter  Mattern,  George  Curtmann,  George  Voss,  Ed.  Harkort, 
who  was  chief  engineer  on  the  staff  of  Houston,  and  held  the  rank 
of  colonel;  Franz  Dieterich,  who  was  one  of  the  survivors  of 
the  Fannin  disaster,  March,  1836;  George  B.  Erath,  after  whom 
"Erath  County"  is  named,  and  who  was  a  member  of  the  legis- 
lature; Joseph  Biegel,  who  founded  Biegel's  settlement  ;^^  Dr. 
Wilhelm  Langenheim  and  Ferdinand  Lindheimer.  Of  these,  Voss 
and  Curtmann,  who  had  been  Jena  students,  lost  their  lives  at 
Goliad,  March  2y,  1836.^^  The  two  latter  deserve  separate  men- 
tion. The  former,  Wilhelm  Langenheim,  came  to  America  in 
1830,  and  had  been  some  years  previous  a  lawyer  in  his  native 

^  Bracht,  Viktor :   Texas  im  Jahre,  1848,  p.  308. 
**  Cf.  Koerner,  pp.  362-363. 

^For  a  sketch  of  his  life  cf.  ibid,  p.  252.    His  Hfe  was  most  dramatic, 
good  illustration  of  the  German  revolutionist  of  the  thirties. 
^  For  a  list  of  these  Germans  cf.  Rosenberg,  Kritik,  p.  7. 
"^For  a  list  of  Germans  in  Texan  Revolution  cf.  Appendix  A. 

338  Germans  in  Texas 

city  of  Braunschweig.  He  came  to  New  York  and  joined  a 
colony  of  Irish  and  Germans  who  intended  to  form  a  settlement 
on  Aransas  Bay,  Texas.  When  the  Texan  War  with  Mexico 
broke  out,  he  enlisted  and  showed  skill  in  the  storming  of  San 
Antonio.  He  shot  the  only  cannon  which  the  Texans  possessed. 
He  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Mexicans  during  the  expedition 
of  Colonel  Grant  at  San  Patricio.  Langenheim  was  one  of  the 
two  who  escaped  to  Matamoras.  He  was  there  taken  prisoner 
and  languished  ten  months  in  a  Mexican  prison.  He  was  saved 
from  being  killed  by  the  influence  of  a  Spanish  woman.  In 
1837,  he  took  part  in  the  war  against  the  Seminoles,  fighting  a 
year  and  a  half  in  all  engagements.  Later  he  settled  in  Philadel- 
phia, and  in  1846^^  returned  to  Texas.  He  later  returned  to 

Ferdinand  Jakob  Lindheimer  is  one  of  the  most  notable  fig- 
ures among  the  early  Germans  in  Texas.  He  was  born  in  Frank- 
furt am  Main  in  1801.^^  He  was  seventy-eight  years  old  at  his 
death.  He  had  studied  at  Jena,  and  perfected  himself  in  peda- 
gogy at  Berlin.  He  was  a  teacher  in  many  schools  in  Germany 
and  was  a  personal  friend  of  Goethe's  Zuleika,  Marianne  Wille- 
mer,  with  whom  he  corresponded.  He  came  to  America  in  1834 
and  was  a  member  of  the  Latin  settlement  in  St.  Clair  County; 
Illinois.  He  later  joined  the  colony  of  Sartorius  in  Mexico.  In 
1835  he  went  to  Texas  to  take  part  in  its  War  of  Independence. 
He  took  part  in  all  its  engagements  up  to  the  battle  of  San 
Jacinto.  After  the  war  he  settled  in  Texas  and  was  made  use 
of  by  Prince  Solms-Braunfels  and  later  by  von  Meusebach  in 
the  "Adelscolonie,"  at  New  Braunfels.     He  lived  in  this  city  until 

'^  Roemer  met  Langenheim  during  his  stay  in  Texas.  The  account  given 
by  Roemer  is  probably  from  an  account  furnished  him  by  Langenheim.  Cf. 
Roemer,  p.  205 ;  also  Koerner,  p.  361.  Koerner's  account  is  either  based  upon 
Roemer,  or  a  similar  account  given  by   Langenheim. 

"  Koerner  says  he  was  born  in  1802.  Dr.  Siemering,  who  was  a  personal 
friend,  says  the  date  was  1801.  Cf.  Koerner,  p.  362;  Deutsche  Pionier,  Vol. 
II,  No.  10,  p.  381,  article  by  Dr.  A.  Siemering. 

Germans  in  Texas  339 

his  death.  He  wah  the  editor  of  the  New  Braunfels  Zeitiing  from 
1853  until  1869.  During  his  Hfe  in  Texas,  he  became  known 
in  Europe  as  a  botanist.  He  collected  a  great  number  of  speci- 
mens and  sent  them  to  Germany.  He  was  one  of  the  best  known 
naturalists  of  his  day.  Many  botanical  specimens  were  named 
after  him  "Lindheimeriana."^^  He  was  aided  in  his  work  by 
a  queer  character  of  the  name  of  Friedrich.^^  The  latter  was 
peculiar  in  his  dress  and  lived  as  a  hermit.  He  and  Lindheimer 
went  to  Mexico  after  the  Texan  War.  Friedrich  was  a  student 
of  law  in  Germany  and  came  to  Texas  in  1834.  For  forty  years 
he  studied  in  Texas  with  the  greatest  assiduity.  The  University 
of  Leipzig  offered  a  prize  for  the  best  monograph  on,  and 
newest  discoveries  in,  entomology.  Friedrich  sent  a  complete 
work  in  Latin  with  a  rich  collection  of  beetles,  butterflies  and 
insects  of  all  kinds  and  received  the  prize.  Later,  he  and  Lind- 
heimer returned  to  Texas  and  devoted  themselves  to  their  chosen 

Among  the  settlements  between  the  Brazos  and  Colorado, 
founded  from  1 833-1 836  are  those  of  Shelby,  founded  by  the 
von  Roeder  family;  Frelsburg,  family  of  Frels,  Oldenburger; 
Industry,  founded  by  Ernst  and  Fordtran.^'^ 

That  there  were  many  Germans  settled  in  the  State  before 
the  great  stream  of  immigration  in  the  forties  is  shown  by  the 
mention  of  German  arrivals  in  the  newspapers  of  the  State.  The 
Houston  Telegraph,  December  11,  1839,  mentions  the  arrival  of 
forty  families  of  German  immigrants,  and  states  that  four 
hundred  families  of  that  nation  may  be  expected  before  January 
first  of  the  following  year.  The  same  paper,  under  date  of 
September  14,  1842,  announces  the  arrival  of  Counts  Joseph  de 
Boos-Waldeck  and  Victor  de  Leiningen.     They  had  come  to 

"  Cf.    Roemer,   p.   425ff;    Texas   Historical   Quarterly,    II,    pp.    172-173; 
Deutsche  Pionicr,  Vol.  II,  No.  10,  p.  381 ;  Koerner,  p.  364. 

^^  Cf.  Deutsche  Pionier  as  supra;  also,  Vol.  12,  No.  10,  pp.  394-5. 
"  Mgebroff,  p.  2, 

340  Germans  in  Texas 

arrange  for  the  later  immigration  made  by  the  "Adelsverein." 
The  Civilian  and  Galveston  Gazette,  January  7,  1843,  announces 
the  arrival  from  Havre  on  the  ship  "Ebro"  of  one  hundred  and 
seventeen  immigrants.  The  Telegraph^^  reports  that  some  sixty 
families  had  arrived  at  Galveston ;  that  they  were  all  farmers  and 
intended  to  settle  in  the  interior.  The  influence  of  Ernst  is  seen 
in  that  many  of  these  immigrants  are  bound  for  the  interior  and 
intended  to  settle  on  Mill  Creek.  The  same  paper  under  date  of 
December  27,  1843,  ^^rid  January  17,  1844,  notes  the  arrival 
of  fifty-two  and  a  hundred  and  twenty-nine  immigrants,  respec- 
tively. Like  those  noted  above,  they  were  intending  settling  on 
Mill  Creek. 

What  the  condition  of  these  early  German  immigrants  rose 
to  be  is  shown  by  statements  of  the  arrivals  in  the  thirties  and 
their  success  within  five  or  ten  years.  Several  had  come  without 
any  means  of  support  and  were  worth  from  $3,000  to  $5,000  in 
cash,  besides  owning  a  league  of  land,  have  hogs,  cattle  and 
horses  and  good  houses.  Their  skill,  industry  and  energy  are 
especially  marked. ^^  These  illustrations  are  sufficient  to  show 
the  character  of  the  early  German  inhabitant  in  this  State.  That 
he  must  have  exerted  a  strong  influence  in  developing  the  Texan 
Republic  is  shown  by  his  loyalty  and  patriotism  during  its  War  of 
Independence.  That  many  were  men  of  culture  and  refinement  is 
indicated  clearly  by  the  examples  of  such  men  as  Kleberg,  the 
von  Roeders,  Langenheim,  Ehrenberg  and  Lindheimer.  That 
their  love  of  music  was  not  given  up  with  their  leaving  the 
Fatherland  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  some  had  pianos.^" 

West  of  the  Colorado  River  there  were  no  noteworthy  Ger- 
man settlements  before  1844.^^ 

*  Houston  Telegraph,  Feb.  i,  1843. 

"  Civilian  and  Galveston  Gazette,  Dec.  2,  1843. 

*•  Texas  Quarterly,  Vol.  I,  p.  298. 

"  Rosenberg,  Kritik,  p.  7. 

1683 — October  6 — 1908. 


Two   Hundred   and   Twenty-fifth    Anniversary   of   the 
Arrival  of  the  First  German  Settlers  of  Germantown. 

Laying  of  the  Cornerstone  of  a  Monument  to  Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius,  Their  Leader. 

Under  the  Auspices  of  the  National  German  American  Alliance 
and  the  German  Society  of  Pennsylvania. 

Next  Tuesday,  October  6,  will  be  observed  as  "German 
Day"  by  Germans  throughout  the  country  to  celebrate  the  anni- 
versary of  the  arrival  on  these  shores  of  the  first  permanent 
colony  of  German  settlers,  225  years  ago.  Their  guiding  spirit 
was  Pastorius,  one  of  the  most  remarkable  men  of  Colonial  times, 
who  spoke  and  wrote  seven  languages  and  wrote  the  first  school- 
books  said  to  have  been  published  in  America.  The  descendants 
of  his  followers  point  proudly  to  the  fact  that  the  Bible  was 
printed  three  times  in  German  and  the  New  Testament  seven 
times  before  an  edition  appeared  in  any  other  European  language, 
and  they  hold  in  great  respect  the  name  of  the  printer,  Christopher 

German  Americans  from  many  other  States  will  be  here  to 
join  in  the  celebration.  The  State  presidents  of  forty-two 
branches  of  the  National  German  American  Alliance — an  organi- 


342  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

zation  with  2,600,000  members — have  accepted  invitations.  On 
the  morning  of  October  6  a  parade  will  be  formed  at  Broad 
street  and  Erie  avenue,  with  at  least  15,000  men  in  line.  These 
will  include  the  German  societies  of  Philadelphia  and  representa- 
tives of  German  societies  from  other  States.  From  Maryland 
will  come  a  "Flag  Division,"  carrying  more  than  300  flags  of  all 
the  German  societies  of  Maryland.  There  will  also  be  delegations 
from  Camden,  Riverside,  Wilmington,  Reading,  Lancaster,  Tren- 
ton, Elizabeth  and  other  cities. 

Forty  bands  of  music  have  been  engaged  for  the  parade. 
The  citizens  of  Germantown  will  join  in  the  celebration,  and  it  is 
estimated  that  they  will  have  2,500  men  in  line,  composed  of 
fraternal  and  other  bodies,  and  a  historical  division,  consisting 
of  fourteen  sections,  with  numerous  floats  depicting  important 
events  in  German  American  history,  beginning  with  the  first  set- 
tlement of  Germantown. 

Colonel  James  B.  Coryell  will  be  grand  marshal  of  the 
Germantown  procession,  and  Magistrate  A.  H.  Ladner  will  be 
grand  marshal  of  the  Philadelphia  parade. 

The  entire  parade  will  march  out  Germantown  avenue  as 
far  as  Carpenter  street.  Triumphal  arches  will  be  erected  at 
Wayne  Junction — the  beginning  of  old  Germantown  proper — 
and  at  the  entrance  to  Vernon  Park,  where  the  cornerstone  cere- 
monial of  the  Pastorius  monument  will  be  held. 

A  large  stand,  beautifully  decorated,  will  be  erected  in 
Vernon  Park,  from  which  the  parade  will  be  reviewed  by  the 
distinguished  guests,  including  Governor  Stuart,  Mayor  Reyburn, 
the  German  Emperor's  special  ambassador,  the  mayors  of  all  the 
important  cities  who  have  been  invited  to  attend  the  Founders' 
Week  celebrations,  the  consuls  of  all  the  nations  represented  at 
this  port,  invited  by  the  German  American  Alliance,  and  the 
officers  of  the  two  German  men-of-war  which  will  be  sent  here 
especially  for  this  occasion. 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  343 

The  Cornerstone. 

The  cornerstone  to  be  unveiled  consists  of  a  huge  block  of 
granite,  eight  feet  high,  with  bronze  tablets,  designed  by  the 
German  sculptor,  Otto  Schweitzer,  of  this  city,  and  costing 
$2,000.  At  the  left  hand  on  the  tablet  are  Pastorius  and  his 
followers.  Above  them  are  the  genii  of  science,  industry  and 
art.  The  sculptural  work  has  been  outlined  by  J.  Otto  Schweit- 
zer. The  cornerstone  will  be  eight  feet  high,  and  is  to  have  the 
following  inscription:  "To  mark  the  site  of  the  monument  to  be 
erected  in  honor  of  the  founders  of  the  first  permanent  German 
settlement  in  our  land,  who  arrived  at  Philadelphia,  October  6, 
1683."  Then  will  follow  the  names  of  the  first  German  settlers, 
and  also  the  seal  of  Germantown,  with  the  motto,  "Vinum,  linum 
et  textrinum." 

The  cornerstone  will  be  part  of  a  monument  to  be  ultimately 
erected  to  commemorate  the  deeds  of  Germans  or  those  of 
German  extraction  in  upbuilding  this  country.  The  proposed 
monument,  when  finished,  will  cost  $60,000,  of  which,  it  is 
expected,  $30,000  will  be  appropriated  by  Congress.  A  bill  for 
this  purpose  has  been  introduced,  and  provides  also  that  the  final 
design  shall  be  selected  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  Governor 
of  Pennsylvania  and  the  president  of  the  National  German  Amer- 
ican Alliance. 

The  unveiling  of  the  cornerstone  will  be  performed  by  Dr. 
C.  J.  Hexamer,  president  of  the  National  German  American 
Alliance,  who  will  formally  present  it  as  a  gift  to  the  city  of 
Philadelphia.  The  speech  of  acceptance  will  be  made  by  Mayor 
Reyburn.  An  oration  in  German  will  be  delivered  by  the  Rev. 
George  von  Bosse,  and  A.  J.  Barchfeld,  member  of  Congress 
from  Pittsburgh,  will  deliver  the  oration  in  English.  The  pro- 
gramme will  include  singing  by  a  grand  chorus  of  1,000  voices, 
made  up  of  the  United  Singers  of  Philadelphia,  and  a  children's 
chorus  of  800  voices,  selected  from  the  various  German  Sunday 

344  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

The  Programme. 
Following  is  the  programme: 

Morning — 9  O'Clock. 
Parade  to  Germantown. 

10  O'clock. 
Celebration  in  Vernon  Park,  Germantown. 

Selection Orchestra 

Song,  "Der  Tag  des  Herrn"  Kreutzer 

The  United  Singers  of  Philadelphia  (over  800  voices). 
Herman  G.  Kumme,  leader. 

Opening  Address    Henry  Schwemmer 

German  Oration Rev.  George  von  Bosse 

Unveiling  of  the  Cornerstone  of  the  Pastorius  Monument  by 

Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer  and  presentation  to  the  city. 

Acceptance  for  the  city  by  Mayor  Reyburn. 

Presentation  of  a  subscription  to  the  Monument  Fund  raised  by 

school  children. 

Children's  Chorus "Unser  Vaterland" 

Specially  composed  for  this  occasion  by  J.  Stumpf.  Sung  by  the 
children's  choruses  of  the  various  German  Sunday  schools 
of  Philadelphia.     Mr.  J.  Stumpf,  leader. 

English  Oration   A.  J.   Barchfeld,   M.   C. 

Grand  Chorus,  "Dankgebet"   Kremser 

The  United  Singers  of  Philadelphia. 
"America"   Sung  by  all  present. 

The  visiting  ladies  will  be  entertained  jointly  by  the  local 
ladies'  committee  of  the  National  German  American  Alliance, 
of  which  Mrs.  A.  Ehrlich  is  chairman,  and  the  ladies'  committee 
of  Germantown.  A  luncheon  will  be  served  by  these  in  the 
museum  building  in  Vernon  Park,  which  will  be  specially  set 
apart  for  that  purpose.  The  Germantown  committee  has  arranged 
that  the  historic  spots  will  be  shown  to  parties  of  one  hundred 
visitors.     Sight-seeing  in  automobiles  is  also  arranged. 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  345 

The  children  participating  in  the  exercises  will  be  given  a 
luncheon  in  the  Town  Hall.  Each  child  will  be  presented  with  a 
handsome  souvenir  medal.  The  obverse  side  will  show  the  ship 
Concord,  in  which  the  first  German  settlers  arrived.  On  the 
reverse  side  will  be  an  inscription  giving  the  date  and  occasion  of 
the  celebration. 

Each  child  will  be  given,  also,  a  box  of  candy  in  a  souvenir 
box,  the  lid  of  which  will  be  decorated  with  a  finely  executed 
print,  which  has  been  made  by  Max  Zeitler,  engraver  of  the 
United  States  seal.  This  shows  the  house  built  in  Germantown 
by  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius,  and  afterwards  owned  by  his  son 
Samuel;  the  house  built  in  1748  by  Daniel  Pastorius,  a  grandson 
of  Francis  Daniel,  and  the  house  built  in  1796  by  Daniel  Pasto- 
rius, a  great-grandson  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius.  The  first 
two  houses  stood  on  the  site  of  the  present  Methodist  Church  at 
the  corner  of  High  street. 

Above  the  picture  of  the  three  houses  are  inscribed  the  dates 
"1683"  and  "1908"  and  the  words  "Commemorating  the  225th 
Anniversary  of  the  Founding  of  Germantown."  In  the  middle 
of  this  inscription  is  an  old  seal  of  Germantown,  bearing  the 
date  "1691."  On  the  lower  part  of  the  print  is  seen  a  fac-simile 
of  the  seal  of  Pastorius,  stamped  with  his  arms ;  the  coat-of-arms 
of  Penn,  the  German  arms  and  an  old  court  seal  of  the  borough 
of  Germantown.  On  one  side  of  the  print  is  engraved  a  map  of 
old  Philadelphia  and  on  another  an  old  map  of  Germantown. 
The  whole  design  has  been  adopted  for  the  official  souvenir  post 
card  of  the  National  German  American  Alliance. 

An  artistic  medal  for  German  Day  has  been  designed  by 
Frank  Sima. 

The  guests  of  honor— about  100 — who  will  attend  the  un- 
veiling are  to  be  met  at  the  Bellevue-Stratford  and  escorted  to 
Vernon  Park  in  automobiles  by  a  reception  committee  of  citizens 
of  Germantown.  After  the  ceremonies,  they  will  be  taken  to  the 
Manheim  Cricket  Club,  where  an  elaborate  luncheon  will  be 

346  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

Evening  Exercises  at  Academy. 

In  the  evening  a  demonstration  will  be  held  in  the  Academy 
of  Music.  The  exercises  will  begin  at  7.30  o'clock.  Dr.  Hexamer 
will  deHver  the  opening  address  and  will  be  followed  by  Governor 
Stuart,  the  representative  of  the  German  Emperor,  Professor 
Adolph  Spaeth,  D.  D.,  who  will  deliver  the  German  oration,  and 
Herman  Ridder,  president  of  the  New  York  Staats-Zeitung,  who 
will  deliver  the  oration  in  English.  An  elaborate  musical  pro- 
gramme, with  chorus  singing,  has  been  arranged  for  the  occasion. 

Celebration  at  the  Academy  of  Music. 

Overture,  "Der  Freischuetz"    Weber 

Orchestra,  Louis  Koemmenich,  leader. 

"Das   Deutschenlied,"   specially  composed   for  this  occasion  by 

Louis  Koemmenich.     The  United  Singers  of  Philadelphia. 

Herman  G.  Kumme,  leader. 

Opening   Address   by   the    President   of   the    National    German 

American  Alliance,  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer. 

Address  by  Governor  Stuart. 

Address   by   the    Representative   of   his    Majesty,   the    German 


German  Oration Prof.  Dr.  Adolph  Spaeth 

Songs — 

"Die  Auswanderer"    Gevaert 

Junger  Maennerchor,  Louis  Koemmenich,  leader. 

"Waldweben"    Weber 

Harmonic,  Eugen  Klee,  leader. 

"Hoch  Empor"   Curti 

Philadelphia  Quartet  Club,  Emil  F.  Ulrich,  leader. 
Introduction  to  the  third  act,  dance  of  the  apprentices,  entrance 
of  the  Meistersingers  and  welcome  to  Hans  Sachs,  from  the 

"Meistersingers  of  Nuremberg"   Wagner 

Orchestra,  Louis  Koemmenich,  leader. 
English  Oration,  Herman  Ridder,  President  of  the  New  York 


German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  347 

Gothenzug Kriegeskotten 

Orchestration  by  Koemmenich. 
Mixed  chorus,  800  voices,  and  orchestra.     Various  mixed 
choruses  of  the  city.     Eugen  Klee,  leader. 
"The  Star-Spangled  Banner" Sung  by  all  present. 

Tickets  for  the  concert  are  now  for  sale  at  Heppe's,  11 15 
Chestnut  street,  and  will  be  sold  on  the  night  of  the  concert  at  the 
box  office  at  the  Academy  of  Music. 

The  Germantown  Committee  in  charge  of  the  celebration  is 
composed  of  more  than  100  of  the  most  prominent  citizens  of 
Germantown,  with  Charles  F.  Jenkins  as  chairman  of  the  Execu- 
tive Committee;  Mahlon  N.  Kline,  vice-chairman;  Walter  Will- 
iams, treasurer,  and  William  H.  Emhardt,  Jr.,  secretary.  Mar- 
shall T.  Farra  is  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Stands ;  Richard 
L.  Austin,  Finance ;  J.  Levering  Jones,  Reception ;  Jacob  J.  Seeds, 
Entertainment,  and  James  B.  Coryell,  Parade. 

The  Executive  Committee  representing  the  National  German 
American  Alliance  and  the  German  Society  of  Pennsylvania  is 
headed  by  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer,  president;  Herman  Heyl,  secre- 
tary, and  Hans  Weniger,  treasurer. 

The  following  are  chairmen  of  committees:  Designs  and 
Plans  of  a  Memorial  Stone,  Carl  P.  Berger;  Oration,  Henry 
Schwemmer;  Police,  Albert  H.  Ladner;  General  Invitation  and 
Souvenir  Book,  Henry  Lierz;  Quarters  and  Transportation, 
J.  B.  Mayer;  Music,  Arno  Leonhardt;  Reception,  Dr.  Joseph 
Krauskopf ;  Historical,  Professor  Dr.  Marion  D.  Learned;  Sing- 
ers, Henry  Detreux;  Turners,  Albert  L.  Weise;  Medical,  Dr. 
Victor  Leser ;  Press,  Adolph  Timm ;  Ladies,  Mrs.  Antoine  Ehr- 
lich,  Jr.;  Decoration  and  Badge,  Frank  Sima;  Printing,  Max 
Zeitler;  Finance,  M.  Richards  Muckle;  German  Citizens  of  Ger- 
mantown, J.  F.  Otterstetter;  Tickets  and  Boxes,  E.  W.  Siegmann; 
German  Department  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Dr. 
Edwin  M.  Fogel ;  Historical  Map  of  Germantown,  Dr.  Naaman 
W.  Keyser;  German  Churches,  the  Rev.  G.  von  Bosse;  German 

348  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

Schools,  Dr.  W.  A.  Haussmann;  Invitation  of  Honorary  Guests, 
John  C.  Oeters;  Germantown  Committee  on  Sites  and  ReHcs, 
Ciiarles  F.  Jenkins;  Germantown  Committee  for  Germantown 
Souvenir  Book,  Horace  F.  McCann ;  Committee  for  New  Jersey, 
WiUiam  A.  Sangtinette ;  Legislative,  P.  A.  Wildermuth ;  Com- 
mittee for  Delaware,  Christopher  Bauer;  Beneficial  Societies, 
John  E.  Schoenherr;  Trades  Unions,  August  Lange;  Uniformed 
Companies,  Anton  Rapp;  Volksfest-Verein,  Gott.  Hammer; 
Finance  and  Subscription,  Gen.  Louis  Wagner ;  School  Societies, 
George  Fischer. 

Oration  delivered  on  German  Day,  October  6,  1908,  in  commem- 
oration of  the  landing  of  the  thirteen  families,  who,  in  A.  D. 
1683,  under  the  leadership  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastoriiis, 
founded  the  first  German  settlement  in  America,  and  on  the 
occasion  of  the  unveiling  of  the  Pastorius  Memorial  Stone 
in  Germantoivn,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  by 

Rev.  Georg  von  Bosse. 

Esteemed  Friends :  It  is  a  solemn  day  we  celebrate,  the 
German  Day,  the  day  that  is  to  bear  witness  concerning  the  share 
that  the  Germans  have  contributed  to  the  development  of  this 
vast  country,  so  abundantly  blessed  by  God,  and  in  the  forma- 
tion of  this  youthful  nation  that  striveth  onward  puissantly  and 

It  is  a  blessed  hour  that  hath  united  us  to  lay  the  corner- 
stone of  a  monument  in  honor  of  that  man  who  himself  hath 
laid  the  foundation  stone  of  German  culture  in  America. 

It  is  a  site,  hallowed  in  history,  where  we  now  stand.  Here 
the  £rst  German  settlers  toiled  in  the  sweat  of  their  brow ;  here 
rose  the  first  German  tozvn  in  America;  here  the  first  German 
anthem  ascended  heavenward ;  here  the  first  protest  against 
abomniable  slavery  was  fulminated;  here  stood  the  first  German 
printing  press;  here  the  first  Bible  was  printed  in  America,  and, 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  349 

that  too,  in  the  German  language;  here,  too,  the  first  religious 
periodicals  and  the  first  newspaper  were  edited,  and  each,  also, 
in  the  German  language.  Here  it  was,  where  German  characters 
first  promulgated  to  the  marveling  nations  of  earth  the  birth  of 
this  great  Republic.  Here  it  was,  where  German  hearts  jubilantly 
throbbed,  when  the  glorius  Declaration  of  Independence  was 
promulgated, — and,  as  in  many  other  localities — the  ground  here, 
too, — hath  been  besprent  with  the  precious  life-blood  of  Germans 
who,  in  the  Battle  of  Germantown,  fought  for  liberty's  sacred 


It  is  a  solemn  day  we  celebrate,  the  German  Day.  For,  a 
quarter  of  a  century  ago,  in  October,  1883,  on  the  200th  anni- 
versary of  the  landing  of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  and  the 
thirteen  families  from  Krefeld,  the  first  German  Day  was  inaugu- 
rated principally  through  the  efforts  of  those  men  whose  mem- 
ory we  cherish.  Dr.  Gottlieb  Theodore  Kellner  and  Prof.  Oswald 
Seidensticker.  The  idea  of  the  celebration  of  a  German  Day 
had  its  opponents,  and  not  a  few,  but  owing  to  the  energy  of 
the  National  German  American  Alliance,  under  the  able  leader- 
ship of  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer,  the  institution  of  the  German  Day 
bids  fair  to  become  permanent.  And  to-day  after  twenty-£ve 
years  have  rolled  by  like  some  wild  melody?  'Tis  not  a  handful 
of  Germans  that  celebrate  this  day  in  some  remote  corner — nay, 
by  tens  of  thousands  they  have  flocked  together  to  the  birthplace 
of  the  German  Day;  they  have  come  as  representatives  from  all 
the  states  of  our  vast  country;  the  eyes  of  millions  are  this  day 
fixed  upon  us ;  the  absent  are  with  us  in  spirit  there  in  the  ancient 
city  of  Krefeld,  whence  came  the  first  German  settlers,  and  in 
distant  Sommerhausen,  the  birthplace  of  Pastorius,  yea  even 
throughout  the  German  Empire,  at  whose  head  the  German  Em- 
peror, who  hath  sent  a  representative  to  this  celebration  of  ours, 
in  his  capacity  as  promoter  of  amicable  relations  between  the  two 
countries.  Nor  do  we  stand  alone  in  this  celebration.  Verily, 
Americans,  not  of  German  kith  and  kin,  Americans,  not  biased 
by  blind  prejudices,  not  hampered  by  nativism,  but,  rather,  true 

350  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

and  genuine  Americans,  worthy  sons  of  this  land  of  liberty,  and 
those  who  could  not  come,  they  are  with  us  in  spirit,  and  fore- 
most among  these  the  President  of  the  United  States,  Mr. 
Theodore  Roosevelt,  who  is  intimately  conversant  with  German 
thought  and  culture. 

But  what  is  the  purport  of  the  German  Day?  It  has  been 
instituted  to  bear  witness  concerning  that  which  Germans  have 
wrought  in  behalf  of  our  country. 

We  hear  so  much  of  what  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  and  their 
descendants  have  done  for  our  country,  but  that  which  Germans 
have  done  is  passed  over  oftentimes  in  silence  or  belittled.  Names 
of  German  men,  worthy  of  fame,  have  been  buried  in  oblivion. 
A  Senator  from  one  of  the  New  England  States  informs  us,  that 
among  14,000  names,  10.376  English,  1439  Scotch  and  only  659 
German  names  (mirabile  dictu)  are  found  worthy  of  admittance 
in  a  biographical  dictionary!  In  the  face  of  such  statistics  it  is 
high  time  that  we  German  Americans  awake  and  snatch  from 
oblivion  the  names  of  our  ancestors  who  have  left  footprints  in 
the  sands  of  time.  The  National  German  American  Alliance 
has,  I  am  happy  to  say,  auspiciously  inaugurated  this  work. 
Time  there  was,  when  I  fondly  cherished  the  specious  delusion, 
that  all  the  culture  we  have,  is  the  work  of  the  descendants  of 
the  Pilgrim  Fathers,  but  inspired  by  the  labors  of  Doctor  Hexa- 
mer,  an  American  of  German  descent,  and  of  Professor  Learned, 
an  American  of  English  descent,  I  have  taken  up  the  study  of 
German  culture  in  America,  and  a  new  light  burst  upon  my 
vision.  I  blushed  because  of  the  consciousness  of  my  ignorance. 
I  was  filled  with  indignation  on  hearing  the  work  of  our  ances- 
tors spoken  of  lightly,  yet  was  my  heart  filled  with  joy  on  notic- 
ing how,  now,  justice  is  gradually  being  done  to  the  merits  of 
German  Americans. 

This  glorius  day  is  to  strengthen  us  in  all  the  endeavors  we 
hold  necessary  for  the  welfare  of  our  country.  We  would  give 
to  our  nation  the  best  traits  of  German  character.  Our  Turners' 
and   Singers'   Societies  strive  to  educate  body  and  soul.     The 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  351 

National  German  American  Alliance  strives  to  popularize  the 
study  of  the  German  language,  the  language  of  a  great  people  and 
of  so  many  great  men,  the  language  of  all  the  learned  of  modern 
times,  the  language  of  our  heart  and  soul.  We  would,  more- 
over, preserve  the  purity  of  our  government.  We  would  educate 
our  children  in  such  a  manner,  that  they  have  within  themselves 
the  necessary  moral  fortitude  to  disdain  a  coercive  yoke,  which,  as 
Bishop  Warburton  correctly  remarks,  can  only  influence  us  to 
outward  practice.  We  would  introduce  innocent  recreation  into 
our  hurried  and  worried  business  life.  And,  again,  we  would 
advocate  amicable  relations  between  our  nation  and  other  nations, 
and  especially  with  Germany.  It  is  my  fervent  wish,  that  this 
German  Day  may,  in  the  near  future,  become  a  day  of  fraterniza- 
tion of  all  the  various  nationalities  represented  in  this  glorious 
Republic ! 

It  is  a  hallowed  hour  that  uniteth  us.  A  memorial  stone,  that 
is  to  be  the  foundation  stone  of  a  monument  in  honor  of  Francis 
Daniel  Pastorius  and  of  the  thirteen  families  from  Krefeld,  is  to 
be  unveiled.  Let  us  briefly  review  the  life  of  this  remarkable 
man.  Born  at  Sommerhausen  in  Franconia  on  September  26, 
1 65 1,  he,  as  a  youth,  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  jurispru- 
dence, and  on  October  6,  1683,  he  arrived  here  in  the  good  ship 
"Concord,"  and  was  welcomed  by  his  friend,  William  Penn,  who 
ceded  to  him  the  ground  whereon  Germantown  now  standeth. 
There  remaineth  unto  us  no  portrait  of  this  first  German  pioneer, 
but  what  of  that?  His  picture  is  mirrored  forth  from  out  his 
works,  an  ever  attractive  likeness;  be  he  an  adviser  and  mar- 
shaller  amidst  the  group  that  confided  in  his  guidance,  or  an 
humble  believer  in  the  Crucified  Nazarene,  expounding  Sunday 
after  Sunday  to  his  devout  congregation  the  exemplary  life  of  the 
Theanthrope  and  imploring  strength  from  on  high,  or  as  burgo- 
master, governing  with  a  firm  hand  his  youthful  commonwealth, 
or  as  a  judge,  censuring  and  admonishing,  or  as  a  teacher,  edu- 
cating and  ennobling  his  disciples,  or  as  a  writer  in  various 
tongues,  or  as  a  husbandman  nursing  with  tender  care  the  young 

352  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

scions  of  his  field,  or  behold  we  him  in  his  full  strength,  hurling 
with  flaming  eye  the  first  protest  against  slavery  into  the  world ; 
everywhere  his  image  is  an  attractive  one,  and  his  example, 
worthy  of  imitation.  Verily,  as  saith  the  poet  Schiller,  "he  was 
the  creator  of  his  own  merit."  To  erect  a  monument  in  honor 
of  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius  is  naught  but  a  work  of  gratitude, 
incumbent  not  only  upon  German  Americans,  but  upon  all  Ameri- 

It  is  a  landmark  of  culture  wc  are  now  standing  on.  Pas- 
torius' commonwealth  hath  survived  two  and  a  quarter  centuries 
and  bids  fair  to  continue  in  vigor.  Here  is  the  fountain-head 
of  the  multitudinously  ramifying  stream  of  German  culture. 
The  coat-of-arms  of  Germantown,  a  three-leafed  clover,  a  grape 
and  a  flax  plant  and  weaver's  bobbin,  surrounded  by  the  legend : 
"Vinum,  linum  et  textrinum,"  hath  become  the  coat-of-arms, 
wherever  German  culture  hath  gained  a  hold  in  this  land. 

Wherever  Germans  have  settled,  we  find  from  the  Atlantic 
to  the  Pacific,  from  the  Gulf  to  the  Great  Lakes,  blooming  com- 
munities, imbued  with  deep  and  true  religious  feeling,  devoid  of 
zealotism  and  fanaticism,  the  breath  of  true  liberty  permeateth 
them,  and  German  men  stand  ready  to  vindicate  the  fair  goddess, 
and  German  housewives  educating  their  offspring  to  become  use- 
ful citizens  and  unrepiningly  immolating  their  sons  on  liberty's 

A  noble-hearted  German  woman,  several  years  ago, 
offered  valuable  prizes  to  stimulate  the  study  of  German  culture 
in  America.  The  day  is  not  distant,  when  the  fruits  of  this  work 
shall  become  the  delectation  of  all. 

Permit  me,  dear  friends,  to  close  with  the  words  of  Pas- 
torius :  "A  blessing  upon  thee,  German  posterity ;  a  blessing  on 
thee,  fraternal  German  nation,  a  blessing  for  evermore." 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  353 


German  Day  of  Founders'  Week,  October  6,  1908. 

Governor  Edwin  H.  Stuart,  and  staff. 

Mayor  John  E.  Reyburn,  and  cabinet. 

Count   Hatzfeld-Wildenburg,    representative   of   the 

German  Emperor. 
Captain  Retzmann. 
Von  Prittwitz  und  GafTron. 
Hon.  Samuel  W.  Pennypacker. 
Werner  Hagen. 
Gustav  A.  Walther. 
Theodor  von  Thodorowich. 
Arnold  Katz. 

Congressman  A.  J.  Barchfeld,  of  Pittsburg. 
Hermann  Ridder,  of  New  York  City. 
Rev.  Dr.  Adolph  Spaeth. 
Rev.  Georg  von  Bosse. 
Mrs.  Mary  A.  Wallace,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Daniel  B.  Pastorius. 
Mrs.  Daniel  B.  Pastorius. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  C.  Pastorius  Ridley. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Conrad  B.  Slater,  Sr. 
C.  B.  Slater,  Jr. 
Joseph  Keller,  of  Indianapolis. 
John  Tjarks,  of  Baltimore. 
Col.  E.  C.  Stahl,  of  Trenton. 
H.  C.  Bloedel,  of  Pittsburg. 
Theodore  Sutro,  of  New  York  City. 
Rudolf  Cronan,  of  New  York  City. 
Karl  A.  M.  Scholtz,  of  Baltimore. 
Kurt  Voelckner,  of  Washington,  D.  C. 
George  Grimme,  of  Newark. 
Hon.  Adolph  Lankering,  of  Hoboken. 
Julius  Moersch,  of  St.  Paul,  Minn. 
Carl  Eberhard,  of  Boston. 
Prof.  Leo  Stern,  Milwaukee. 
Hon.  John  Schwaab,  Cincinnati. 
A.  F.  Trappe,  Baltimore. 
Carl  Illig,  Richmond,  Va. 
Charles   Toussaint,    Savannah,   Ga. 

254  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

Henry  M.  Freeh,  Pawtucket,  R.  I. 

Carl  Lichtenberg,  Providence,  R.  I. 

W.  J.  Gentsch,  Detroit,  Mich. 

Hermann  Pistorius,  Saginaw,  Mich. 

Martin  Meyerdirck,  of  Baltimore. 

Rev.    Dr.   Julius   Hoffman,   Baltimore. 

Henry  Arnold,  Pittsburg. 

Paul  Heine,  Lancaster. 

Adam  Schueler,  Altoona. 

Albert  Friedmann,  Reading. 

William  J.  Goeckel,  Wilkes-Barre. 

Fritz  Wagner,   Sr.,   Scranton. 

H.  C.  Boenish,  New  Castle. 

A.  P.  Leatherman,  Doylestown. 

Gustav  Rathke,  Bristol. 

Prof.  August  Ischinger,  Erie,  Pa. 

Christopher  Bauer,  of  Wilmington. 

Wm.  A.  Sangtinette,  of  Camden. 

Harry  Vilmow,  of  Wilmington. 

Hermann  Hardenberg. 

William  A.  Proetzel. 

Albert  Gottscho. 

Otto  Schweitzer. 

Louis  Koemmenich. 

J.  Stumpf. 

H.  G.  Kumme. 

Emil  F.  Ullrich. 

Eugen  Klee. 

James  B.  Sheehan. 

Henry  Boylan. 

Nicholas  Redmond. 

Peter  J.  Higgins. 

John  M.  Greene. 

John  A.  Gillan. 

Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer. 

Arno  Leonhardt. 

P.  A.  Wildermuth. 

Rev.  Dr.  Jos.  Krauskopf. 

Prof.  Dr.  Marion  D.  Learned. 

Col.  Richards  M.  Muckle. 

General  Louis  Wagner. 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  355 

Gottl.  Hammer. 
John  A.  Schoenherr. 
G.  A.  Schwartz, 

F,  H.  Harjes. 
C.  J.  Braun. 
O.  Frotscher. 

J.  A.  Heintzelman. 
Charles  A.  Hexamer. 
Martin  Hotz. 

G.  A.  Kirchner. 
Henry  Schimpf. 
Richard  Strohm. 
Hans  Weniger. 
Hermann  Heyl. 
Carl  P.  Berger. 
Henry  Schwemmer. 
Albert  H.  Ladner. 
Henry  Lierz. 

J.  B.  Meyer. 
Henry  Detreux. 
A.  L.  Weise. 
Dr.  Victor  Leser. 
Adolph  Timm. 
Hermann  Weder. 
Otto  Moses. 
Franz  Ehrlich,  Jr. 
Frank  Sima. 
Max  Zeitler. 
J.  F.  Otterstetter. 
E.  W.  Siegmann. 
Dr.  Edwin  Vogel. 
Dr.  Naaman  Keyser. 
Dr.  W.  A.  Haussmann. 
Samuel  G.   Seeger. 
John  C.  Getters. 
Dr.  Harry  F.  Keller. 
Charles  F.  Jenkins. 
Horace  F.  McCann. 
Anton  Rapp. 
Franz  Becker. 
August  Lange. 
Georg  Fischer. 

356  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

The  Unveiling  of  the  Cornerstone  by  the  President  of  the  Na- 
tional German  American  Alliance,  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer. 
Ladies  and  Gentlemen : — With  profound  love  we  this  day 
think  of  our  German  ancestors.  German  puissance,  German 
valor,  German  perseverance  and  German  family  life,  perpetual 
fountain  of  true,  self-sacrificing  love,  which,  to  protect  those 
that  are  near  and  dear,  engenders  heroic  deeds  of  patriotism ;  all 
these  things  have  contributed  infinitely  towards  exalting  our 
country  to  her  high  estate.  For  liberty,  that  highest  ideal  of  the 
Germans  from  time  immemorial,  our  fathers  fought,  not  alone 
with  protests  against  slavery,  at  a  time  when  Anglo-Americans 
in  New  England  executed  witches,  but  also  on  the  battlefield. 
The  names  of  Steuben,  De  Kalb,  Herchheimer  and  Muehlen- 
berg  shall  live  for  all  time.  Nor  will  a  grateful  people  ever  for- 
get, that  almost  200,000  Germans  were  ready  to  shed  their 
blood  for  the  Union,  that  not  one  star  might  be  torn  from  our 
glorious  banner,  and  that  we  might  be,  as  we  now  are,  a  united 
and  powerful  nation. 

And  yet  our  ancestors  did  not  seek  to  triumph  in  san- 
guinary wars,  but  rather  in  the  arts  of  peace.  Wherever  Ger- 
mans settled,  the  wilderness  was  transformed  into  garden  spots 
and  blossomed  as  the  rose.  Their  lands  flowing  with  milk  and 
honey.  In  every  trade,  art,  and  industry  they  excelled.  Ger- 
man teachers,  painters,  sculptors,  poets,  musicians  and  men  of 
science  have  filled  the  world  with  admiration. 

To  investigate  and  record  the  deeds  of  our  ancestors,  to 
educate  our  youth,  "ut  sit  mens  sana  in  corpore  sano"  (that 
a  sound  mind  may  dwell  in  a  sound  body),  and  that  they  may 
be  proud  of  their  kin;  to  assist  German  immigrants  and  to  edu- 
cate them,  so  that  they  may  become  useful  citizens  of  our  Repub- 
lic, and  to  imbue  all  of  Uncle  Sam's  children  with  the  fact,  that: 
"Full  many  a  gem  of  purest  ray  serene"  is  found  in  German  lore, 
and  that  its  flowers  may  not  be  born  to  blush  unseen  and  waste 
their  sweetness  on  the  desert  air — such  are  the  principal  aims  of 
the  great  National  German  American  Alliance. 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  357 

We  now  erect  this  cornerstone,  a  work  of  German  art,  not 
as  part  of  a  local,  but  of  a  national  monument  of  the  Germans  of 
America.  It  is  hence  a  sacred  obligation  unto  all  in  whose  veins 
German  blood  courses,  to  strive  to  complete  this  work  in  a  worthy 

In  the  annals  of  this  first  German  settlement  we  find 
recorded  the  belssing  of  our  venerable  father  Pastorius  (whose 
name,  being  interpreted,  means:  a  shepherd),  and  if  we  will 
cleave  unto  one  another,  as  we  now,  in  this  solemn  hour,  do  vow, 
to  pursue  our  high  cultural  mission  indefatigably,  this  self-same 
blessing  shall  be  fulfilled: 

"All  hail,  German  progeny! 
All  hail,  ye  German  brethren! 
All  hail  for  evermore !" 

And  now,  Mr.  Mayor,  I  have  the  honor  to  transfer  to  you 
for  the  City  of  Philadelphia  in  behalf  of  the  National  German 
American  Alliance  this  cornerstone,  as  an  ornament  unto  the 
City  of  Brotherly  Love,  as  an  emblem  of  German  loyalty  to  the 
land  of  our  adoption  or  birth,  and  as  a  token  of  everlasting  amity 
between  the  new  and  the  old  Fatherland. 

Opening  Speech  of  Dr.  C.  J.  Hexamer,  Academy  of  Music. 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen : — On  this  day,  a  quarter  of  a  century 
ago,  a  reverent  multitude  was  also  assembled,  as  there  is  this 
evening,  to  celebrate  the  first  "German  Day."  Many  that  were  with 
us  then  are  no  longer  in  the  land  of  the  living,  but,  as  all  that  is 
good,  their  works  will  endure  as  long  as  there  are  Americans,  that 
are  proud  of  their  German  ancestry.  We  gratefully  acknowledge 
the  services  Dr.  Oswald  Seidensticker  and  Dr.  Kellner  have  ren- 
dered to  bring"  about  a  more  perfect  union  among  German  Ameri- 
cans and  to  secure  for  them  in  public  life  the  position  of  honor 
they  rightly  deserve. 

Of  all  the  nationalities  represented  in  America  we  have  the 

358  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

most  partiotic  celebration;  for,  whilst  others,  as  for  instance, 
the  French  celebrate  historical  events  in  their  native  country,  or 
as  the  Irish,  Welsh  and  English  celebrate  the  feast  of  their  patron 
saints — we  celebrate  the  day  on  which  the  first  German  settlers 
set  foot  on  this  shore,  nor  do  we  panegyrize  deeds  wrought  in 
foreign  lands,  but  the  works  that  Germans  wrought  in  building 
up  this  land  and  our  nation. 

More  eloquent  orators  than  I  will  depict  the  heroic  deeds  of 
our  ancestors  in  war  and  in  peace,  and  they  will  show  how  inti- 
mately German  influence  is  interwoven  with  our  national  develop- 

As  in  the  past,  so  may  it  be  in  time  to  come.  Never  shall 
the  command  :  "Germans,  to  the  front !"  remain  unheeded. 

I  now  have  both  the  honor  and  pleasure  to  introduce  to  you 
the  Governor  of  the  State,  concerning  which  a  colonial  governor 
(Thomas)  wrote  in  1748.  "The  Germans  in  the  province  form, 
as  I  believe,  three-fifths  of  the  entire  population,  and  through 
their  industry  and  thrift  they  have  been  largely  instrumental  in 
raising  this  colony  to  its  present  flourishing  condition." 

Ladies  and  gentlemen.  His  Excellency,  the  Governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  Edwin  H.  Stuart. 

Speech  of  Rev.  Dr.  A.  Spaeth,  delivered  at  the  Academy  of 
Music  on  the  evening  of  October  6,  1908. 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen: — On  this  evening  ten  years  ago  we 
celebrated  the  German  Day  in  this  very  place.  Our  celebration 
at  that  time  was  in  honor  of  Bismarck,  who  died  in  1898.  We 
German  Americans  considered  that  tribute  not  incompatible  with 
our  specifically  American  celebration,  inasmuch  as  we,  as  Ameri- 
can citizens  of  German  descent,  are  in  duty  bound  to  render  a 
strict  account  before  the  tribunal  of  our  conscience  as  to  whether 
we  really  do  our  best  to  fulfill  our  mission  in  this  great  Republic. 
We  all  feel  that  what  Bismarck  has  done  for  the  German  people 
has  been  and  still  is  a  potent  stimulus  unto  us. 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  359 

They  are  proud  of  being  Germans  and  are  conscious  of  their 
vocation.  As  for  us  German  Americans,  let  us  not  be  content 
with  remembering  that  which  our  forefathers  have  done  for  this 
country,  but  rather,  let  us  familiarize  our  Anglo-American  fellow- 
citizens  with  the  noble  deeds  of  German  Americans  in  behalf 
of  our  beloved  country,  deeds,  which,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  have 
often  been  passed  over  in  silence  or  wilfully  misrepresented. 

The  grand  festivities  of  this  week  render  our  celebration  espe- 
cially felicitous.  The  founding  of  the  City  of  Brotherly  Love 
and  of  this  great  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  go  hand  in 
hand  with  the  first  German  immigration,  that  humble  colony  of 
thirteeen  families  from  Crefeld,  who  founded  Germantown. 

That  which  is  truly  great  and  ideal  in  those  early  German 
colonists  is,  I  think,  their  perfect  sympathy  with  William  Penn 
and  their  profound  conviction  that  liberty  of  conscience  must  be 
the  cornerstone  of  the  new  commonwealth  which  he  established. 
Liberty  of  conscience  was  the  magnet  that  attracted  them  hither, 
the  talisman  by  virtue  of  which  they  heeded  not  the  terror  and 
the  toil  of  the  wilderness,  but,  like  Roger  Williams,  they  trusted 
in  "God's  merciful  providence  to  them  in  their  distress." 

That  first  German  immigration,  though  a  feeble  beginning, 
was  strengthened  in  time,  and,  for  these  225  years,  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  Germany's  sons  have  come,  attracted  by  the  same 
talismans :  Religious  toleration  and  liberty  of  conscience.  By  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  Germans  in  Pennsylvania 
numbered  about  90,000.  Dr.  William  Smith,  the  first  Provost 
of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  feared  the  legislature  would 
be  compelled  to  engage  the  services  of  an  official  interpreter,  in 
order  that  one-half  of  the  legislators  might  understand  the  other. 
The  good  Doctor  went  so  far  even,  as  to  organize  a  "Society  for 
the  propagation  of  the  Gospel  among  the  Germans." 

Well,  methinks,  those  worthy  German  divines.  Rev.  Michael 
Schlatter  and  Rev.  Heinrick  Melchior  Muehlenberg  attended  full 

360  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

well  in  their  day  to  the  "Propagation  of  the  Gospel  among  the 
Germans."  Although  that  great  philosopher  and  philanthropist, 
Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin,  was  at  one  time  averse  to  the  "swarm- 
ing of  Palatinate  boors"  into  Pennsylvania,  yet,  we  are  happy 
to  note,  that  he  afterwards  did  justice  to  our  forefathers  in  say- 
ing: "Their  industry  and  frugality  are  exemplary.  They  are 
excellent  husbandmen  and  contribute  greatly  to  the  improvement 
of  the  country." 

We  are  not  here  to  form  a  distinct  German  nationality,  but 
to  contribute  our  share  to  the  promotion  of  the  great  American 
nation.  Let  us  not  forget  how  bravely  German  Americans 
fought,  not  only  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  but  also  for  the  pre- 
servation of  this  glorious  Republic !  Many  years  before  there  was 
in  the  American  Colonies  or  States  a  slave  problem — the  German 
Pilgrim  Fathers  of  Pennsylvania  raised  a  protest  against  the 
abhorred  abomination  of  slavery.  As  early  as  1775  the  Germans 
of  Pennsylvania  issued  an  appeal  to  the  Germans  in  the  remain- 
ing Colonies,  which  is  redolent  of  warm  patriotic  sentiment.  In 
this  appeal  the  Germans  throughout  the  Colonies  are  urged  to 
join  the  national  movement  and  to  rise  against  British  despotism 
and  oppression.  German  volunteers,  called  "Associators,"  had 
their  headquarters  in  the  schoolhouse  of  the  Lutheran  Zion 
Church  on  Cherry  street  below  Fourth  street,  in  which  building, 
also,  the  German  Society  of  Pennsylvania  was  founded  and 
where  for  almost  half  a  century  the  meetings  of  the  German 
Society  were  held. 

But  higher  than  martial  fame  we  deem  the  interest  that 
Germans  have  taken  in  the  intellectual  development  of  our  nation. 
German  schools,  and  pre-eminently  German  parochial  schools, 
have  uplifted  millions  of  German  American  children  by  virtue 
of  sound  instruction,  not  only  in  those  branches  that  make  up  the 
sum  of  worldly  wisdom,  but  also  in  the  knowledge  of  those 
higher  things  that  teach  us  to  live  piously  here,  and  by  their 
observance  gain  for  us  a  crown  of  glory  in  the  hereafter.  German 
universities  have  furnished  us  professors,  divines  and  teachers, 
and  latterly  a  more  intimate  union  has  been  formed  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  exchange  professorships. 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  361 

Let  us  in  conclusion,  dear  friends,  ask  ourselves,  whether 
we  are  ever  mindful  of  our  high  mission,  whether  we  hold  fast  to 
a  truly  ideal  conception  of  this  world,  nor  suffer  ourselves  to  be 
borne  along  by  greed  of  gain  or  indulgence  in  transient  pleasures. 
In  asking  ourselves  these  questions,  the  observance  of  this  Ger- 
man Day  will  not  remain  an  empty  sound,  not  a  display  of 
elaborate  oratory,  but  rather,  a  strengthening  of  our  moral  life, 
a  strengthening  of  our  civic  virtue  to  the  end,  that  honor  may 
be  reflected  upon  the  nation  whence  we  sprang  and  that  the  land 
of  our  adoption  may  ever  be  proud  of  her  German  American 

Address  delivered  {in  English)   by  Herman  Ridder  before  the 
German  Society  of  Philadelphia,  at  the  Academy  of  Music, 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  on  the  evening  of  Tuesday,  October  6th. 
Mr.  Chairman,  Ladies,  and  Gentlemen : — 

Upon  a  previous  occasion  when  addressing  the  German 
Friendly  Society,  of  Charleston,  S.  C,  I  said:  "In  the  world's 
history  two  hundred  years  are  only  a  minute  space  of  time,  but 
in  the  character  of  the  interdependence  of  two  nations  (Germany 
and  America)  it  is  a  mighty  progress  from  the  farm  laborer  to 
the  exchange  professor."  Following  a  similar  trend  of  thought 
Professor  Goodnight,  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  intro- 
duces his  admirable  book  on  "German  Literature  in  American 
Magazines"  with  the  words :  "A  highly  important  factor  in  the 
cultural  development  of  America  and  one  which  is  more  and 
more  attracting  investigation  is  the  very  significant  influence  of 
Germany  during  the  nineteenth  century." 

Education  in  the  American  colonies  prior  to  the  Revolu- 
tionary War  was  for  obvious  reasons  distinctly  English  in  spirit 
and  tradition.  Although  such  reasons  no  longer  prevail,  but,  on 
the  contrary,  by  the  lessons  of  more  than  a  century's  history 
should  have  worked  in  a  very  different  direction,  the  education 
in  the  common  schools  of  the  United  States  has  continued  to 
be  English  in  spirit  and  tradition,  and  it  is  only  in  the  educa- 

362  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

tional  institutions  of  higher  degree  that  pupils  are  taught  of  the 
history  and  importance  of  other  nations  and  of  their  influence 
upon  forming  the  character  of  the  American  nation.  This  ought 
to  be,  this  must  be  corrected. 

Who  performed  the  hard  pioneer  work  of  penetrating  the 
American  wilderness  and  clearing  the  American  forests,  and 
stood  the  brunt  of  the  fight  with  the  Indians  on  the  Mohawk, 
the  Shenandoah,  the  Ohio  and  the  lower  Mississippi  but  the 
German  immigrant?  Who  created  during  the  Revolutionary 
War  a  disciplined  and  well-drilled  American  army,  but  the  vet- 
eran of  Frederick  the  Great's  army.  Baron  von  Steuben?  Who 
during  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  prepared  for  the  government 
a  code  of  instructions  for  the  army  of  the  United  States  in 
the  field  but  that  former  German  soldier  who  had  fought  under 
Bluecher  at  Ligny  and  after  emigrating  to  America  became  a 
professor  at  Columbia  College  and  an  adviser  of  the  govern- 
ment on  questions  of  military  and  international  law — Francis 
Lieber?  Of  his  three  sons  one  served  in  the  Confederate  army, 
another  in  the  Illinois  troops  of  the  Union  army  and  the  third 
got  a  commission  in  the  regular  army.  Who  saved  the  nation 
from  bankruptcy  at  a  time  of  its  direst  financial  distress  and 
firmly  established  the  credit  of  the  Federal  government  but 
Albert  Gallatin,  a  Swiss  of  French  extraction,  but  a  German  by 
intellectual  training  and  intuition?  Who  gave  an  inspiration  to 
American  poets  and  philosophers,  to  Longfellow  and  Emerson 
but  Goethe  and  Schiller,  and  before  them  Gessner  and  Lavater, 
Gellert  and  Herder? 

From  the  earliest  times  of  the  American  colonies  Germans 
have  taken  a  prominent  part  in  the  work  of  science,  both  as  in- 
structors and  investigators,  and  to-day  we  find  them  scattered 
throughout  our  colleges  and  universities.  On  this  day  we  cele- 
brate, foremost  in  our  thoughts  is  Francis  Daniel  Pastorius, 
one  of  the  most  learned  men  of  his  time,  who  landed  with  thir- 
teen German  families  at  Philadelphia  on  the  6th  of  October, 
1683,  and  founded  Germantown,  now  a  part  of  your  city.  In 
this  German  settlement  the  first  paper  mill  in  America  was 
erected  by  Wilhelm  Rittinghuysen,  the  father  of  the  first  Amer- 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  363 

ican  astronomer,  the  renowned  David  Rittenhouse,  who  was 
professor  of  astronomy  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  from 
1779  to  1782.  In  1763  Rittenhouse  was  called  upon  to  settle 
the  most  difficult  part  of  the  boundary  line  between  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Maryland,  and  when,  soon  after,  the  official  survey- 
ors, Charles  Mason  and  Jonathan  Dixon,  examined  his  work 
they  found  nothing  to  change.  His  attainments  in  astronomy 
may  be  inferred  from  the  words  of  praise  given  him  by  Thomas 
Jefferson,  who  said:  "We  have  supposed  Mr.  Rittenhouse  sec- 
ond to  no  astronomer  living;  but  in  genius  he  must  be  the  first 
because  he  was  self  taught." 

The  first  glassworks  in  America  were  started  by  Caspar 
Wistar,  who  was  born  in  Hilspath,  near  Heidelberg,  in  1696, 
and  came  to  this  country  in  171 7.  His  grandson,  Dr.  Caspar 
Wistar,  was  a  distinguished  physician,  who  in  1789  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  chemistry  at  the  College  of  Philadelphia 
and  after  this  institution  was  merged  with  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania,  in  1792,  he  became  professor  of  anatomy.  After 
the  death  of  Thomas  Jefferson  he  was  elected  president  of  the 
American  Philosophical  Society.  He  opened  his  house  once  a 
week  and  gathered  around  him  a  group  of  students,  scientists 
and  travelers.  These  reunions  were  known  as  "Wistar  parties" 
and  became  the  nucleus  and  model  of  all  modern  aesthetic  clubs. 

The  first  American  work  on  organizing  and  conducting  a 
school  was  written  by  your  countryman,  Christopher  Dock,  "the 
pious  schoolmaster  on  the  Skippack."  His  book  on  school  man- 
agement, entitled  "Die  Schulordnung,"  published  in  1770  by 
Christopher  Saur,  of  Germantown,  was  valued  as  the  standard 
work  on  the  subject  and  was  used  as  such  in  large  parts  of  the 
country  for  more  than  half  a  century. 

Passing  from  the  eighteenth  to  the  nineteenth  century  names 
of  Germans  and  German  descendants  suggest  themselves,  not 
singly  but  by  scores,  as  standing  out  prominently  in  the  field  of 
literature  and  science,  many  of  whom  were  your  own  Pennsyl- 
vania countrymen.  I  will  only  mention  Frederick  Valentine 
Melsheimer,  who  was  called  the  "father  of  entomology  in  Amer- 
ica;" William  Reichenbach,  professor  of  mathematics  at  Frank- 

364  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

lin  and  Marshall  College;  Samuel  S.  Haldeman,  professor  of 
natural  science  and  later  of  comparative  philology,  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania;  Dr.  Joseph  Leidy,  professor  of  anat- 
omy, at  the  same  institution.  Ever  growing  with  the  progress 
of  American  culture  is  the  list  of  Germans  participating  in  and 
contributing  to  its  expansion,  including  in  our  present  genera- 
tion celebrities  like  the  late  Professor  H.  von  Hoist,  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago,  whose  "Constitutional  History  of  the  United 
States"  is  universally  praised  as  the  most  exhaustive  and  the 
only  impartial  and  fearlessly  written  work  on  that  subject;  and 
like  those  well-known  Harvard  professors,  Kuno  Francke,  au- 
thor of  "German  Ideals,"  and  the  valiant  Hugo  Munsterberg, 
who  has  very  recently  brought  upon  himself  the  wrath  of  the 
whole  Prohibitionist  party. 

In  this  connection  it  is  fit  to  mention  the  name  of  Friedrich 
List,  a  native  of  Reutlingen,  Wiirttemberg,  and  a  young  pro- 
fessor of  political  science  at  the  University  of  Tiibingen,  who, 
as  a  political  refugee,  came  to  Philadelphia  in  1825  and  remained 
in  this  country  a  number  of  years  until  he  returned  to  Germany 
as  a  Consular  Agent  of  the  United  States  Government.  While 
in  your  State  he  discovered  the  coal  fields  in  the  vicinity  of 
Tamaqua  and  built  a  railroad  to  carry  the  product  of  the  mines 
to  the  seaboard.  He  devoted  much  study  to  the  American  rail- 
road system,  and  on  his  return  home  he  utilized  his  experience 
gained  in  America  in  working  out  a  plan  for  a  complete  net  of 
railroads  in  Germany.  The  first  railroad  built  on  this  plan  was 
the  line  connecting  the  cities  of  Leipzig  and  Dresden,  in  Saxony. 
List  was  the  author  of  several  works  on  political  economy  which 
are  considered  of  great  scientific  value. 

Your  former  governor,  the  Honorable  Samuel  W.  Penny- 
packer,  has  said :  "The  dawn  of  our  science  of  pedagogy  and 
the  most  extensive  literary  production  of  the  American  colonies 
were  both  due  to  the  eflforts  of  the  Mennonites.  of  Pennsylvania," 
and  the  able  superintendent  of  the  public  schools  of  your  city, 
Professor  Brumbaugh,  in  his  "Life  and  Works  of  Christopher 
Dock"  adds :  "To  the  sturdy  German  stock  that  came  to  the 
colony  of  Pennsylvania  in  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  365 

tury  we  are  indebted  for  more  of  the  initial  influences  that  have 
made  for  the  progress  and  prestige  of  our  American  civiliza- 
tion than  many  historians  record  or  know.  By  a  strange  per- 
versity they  have  accepted  one  from  another  the  traditional  mis- 
conception of  these  people,  for  which  Provost  William  Smith 
and  Benjamin  Franklin  are  largely  responsible.  It  is  the  excep- 
tion and  not  the  rule  to  find  among  historians  and  chroniclers 
a  rare  spirit  imbued  with  insight  and  sympathy  who  patiently 
investigates  the  actual  conditions  of  the  Pennsylvania  German 
civilization  and  records  its  virtues  as  well  as  its  failures." 

Benjamin  Franklin  was  not  only  a  great  scholar  and  states- 
man, but  a  thoroughgoing,  practical  business  man.  In  1732,  at 
the  age  of  twenty-six  years,  he  published  the  first  German  paper 
in  America,  the  "Philadelphische  Zeitung  oder  Newspaper  in 
High  Dutch,"  which  shows  that  at  that  time  Franklin  recognized 
the  value  and  utility  of  the  German  immigration.  This  paper 
did  not  enjoy  a  long  existence ;  a  copy  of  its  second  issue  can  be 
found  at  the  library  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania. 
Later  on  Franklin  seems  to  have  become  alarmed  at  the  mass 
and  influence  of  the  immigrated  Germans.  In  1751  he  wrote: 
"Why  should  the  Palatine  boors  be  suffered  to  swarm  into  our 
settlements  and  by  herding  together  establish  their  language  and 
manners  to  the  exclusion  of  ours?  Why  should  Pennsylvania, 
founded  by  the  English,  become  a  colony  of  aliens  who  will 
shortly  be  so  numerous  as  to  Germanize  us  instead  of  our  Angli- 
cifying  them  and  will  never  adopt  our  language  and  customs 
any  more  than  they  can  acquire  our  complexion?"  And  Dr. 
William  Smith,  provost  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
thought  it  possible  "that  the  Provincial  Legislature  would  be 
forced  to  appoint  an  official  interpreter  that  one-half  of  the  leg- 
islators might  be  able  to  understand  the  other  half."  Franklin 
was  soon  made  to  feel  that  he  had  committed  a  political  blunder ; 
he  tried  to  explain  that  the  term  "boor"  was  only  a  synonym 
for  farmer. 

While  the  German  American  is  a  peaceful  and  law-abiding 
citizen,  he  is  also  strongly  imbued  with  the  Teutonic  spirit  of 
freedom  and  independence,  so  that  when  the  oppression  of  the 

366  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

American  colonies  by  the  British  Ciown  became  more  and  more 
intolerable  the  Germans  were  the  very  first  to  rise  in  opposition. 
Two  years  before  the  Declaration  of  Independence  was  pro- 
claimed the  German  citizens  of  Pennsylvania  began  to  advocate 
publicly  the  absolute  and  unconditional  separation  from  Eng- 
land. As  the  dissatisfaction  in  the  American  colonies  grew  and 
revolt  became  more  evident,  the  King  of  England  asked  to  be 
informed  as  to  two  matters :  first,  whether  the  Germans  in  Amer- 
ica favored  an  independent  government  and,  second,  if  many  of 
them  had  been  soldiers  before  emigrating.  His  inquiries  were 
answered  in  a  letter  dated  Philadelphia,  June  20th,  1770,  and 
published  in  the  London  "Remembrancer,"  which  said:  "It  is 
amazing  to  see  the  spirit  of  the  Germans  among  us.  Thousands 
of  them  have  served  as  soldiers  in  their  own  country.  They 
speak  with  infinite  pleasure  of  sacrificing  their  lives  and  property 
for  the  preservation  of  liberty,  which  they  know  full  well  how 
to  value  from  its  deprivation  by  despotic  princes."  The  late  Rev- 
erend George  C.  Heckman  has  said :  "There  would  not  have 
been  a  united  colonial  rebellion  nor  any  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica but  for  the  patriotism  of  the  Germans  of  the  colonies." 

The  first  troops  to  arrive  at  Boston  to  assist  the  New  Eng- 
enders in  their  revolt  were  Germans  from  Pennsylvania.  They 
arrived  there  on  the  i8th  of  July,  1775,  only  thirty-two  days 
after  Congress  had  called  the  citizens  to  arms.  The  first  sol- 
diers to  go  to  New  England  from  the  South  were  Germans  from 
Virginia.  They  marched  to  Boston,  a  distance  of  six  hundred 
miles,  over  rough  roads,  in  fifty-four  days.  These  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Virginia  Germans  were  better  armed  than  the  New 
England  citizen  soldiers  and  their  rifles  did  much  more  effective 
service  in  battle  than  the  shotguns  of  the  latter.  When  Wash- 
ington saw  them  march  into  his  camp  at  Cambridge  he  sprang 
from  his  horse  to  shake  their  hands,  while  tears  of  gratitude 
moistened  his  eyes.  It  was  the  bravery  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Riflemen,  a  German  regiment  commanded  by  Colonel  John  Peter 
Koechlin,  that  earned  for  the  battle  of  Long  Island  the  name 
of  "The  Thermopylae  of  the  American  Revolution."     "These 

German  Day  of  Founders'  Week  367 

men,"  writes  an  American  historian,  "stood  their  ground  until 
as  many  as  seventy-nine  men  in  one  company  had  been  killed 
and  the  rest  of  the  army  had  completed  its  retreat.  Long  Is- 
land was  the  Thermopylae  of  the  Revolution,  and  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Germans  were  the  Spartans." 

The  German  Moravians  of  Bethlehem  had  the  best  equipped 
military  hospital.  Berks  and  Lancaster  counties  at  that  time 
had  the  furnaces  and  foundries  that  smelted  the  ore  and  cast 
the  cannon  and  balls  for  the  Continental  army.  Most  of  the 
rifles  and.  other  arms  were  manufactured  in  Northampton,  York 
and  other  German  counties  of  Pennsylvania.  The  well-filled 
barns  of  the  Germans  in  Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and  Virginia 
furnished  a  large  portion  of  the  food  supplies  for  Washing- 
ton's troops. 

General  Peter  Muhlenberg  was  the  most  distinguished  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Germans  in  the  army  and  the  trusted  friend  of 
Washington.  He  led  the  reserve  troops  in  the  battle  of  Brandy- 
wine  and  other  bloody  fights.  It  was  a  division  of  Germans  that 
planted  the  flag  on  the  conquered  fortifications  at  Yorktown. 
Thus,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end,  did  the  former  country- 
men of  Frederick  the  Great  and  their  sons  take  a  prominent 
part  in  the  war  for  independence  and  freedom. 

During  the  Civil  War  there  were,  according  to  the  records 
of  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission,  187,858  Germans 
born  in  Germany  enlisted  in  the  different  regiments  of  the  North- 
ern States.  When  Abraham  Lincoln  called  on  Missouri  for  her 
quota  of  soldiers  the  Governor  replied  defiantly  that  Missouri 
would  never  furnish  soldiers  to  fight  her  sister  States.  But  that 
governor  had  overlooked  the  fact  that  long  before  the  outbreak 
of  the  rebellion  the  Germans  in  St.  Louis  and  other  places  had 
drilled  the  members  of  their  athletic  clubs  in  the  manual  of 
arms  for  the  defense  of  the  Union.  Their  strength  and  their 
influence  saved  Missouri  for  the  Union.  At  the  close  of  the 
Civil  War  Missouri  had  contributed  more  soldiers  to  the  north- 
ern armies  than  Massachusetts,  the  so-called  "Rock  of  Anti- 

368  German  Day  of  Founders'  Week 

Before  the  sun  set  on  that  12th  of  April  when  the  first  shot 
of  the  rebeUion  had  been  fired  at  Fort  Sumter,  Pennsylvania 
offered  $500,000  to  suppress  the  rebellion.  Three  days  after 
Abraham  Lincoln's  first  call  for  troops,  five  companies  of  Penn- 
sylvania Germans  from  Allentown,  Reading,  Lewistown  and 
Pottsville  arrived  at  Washington.  Among  the  Union  generals 
of  German  birth  or  descent,  none  had  a  better  record  for  gal- 
lantry or  bravery  than  your  countr}^man,  the  Late  Governor 
John  Frederick  Hartranft.  As  commander  of  the  51st  Penn- 
sylvania Regiment  he  was  in  all  the  operations  of  the  9th  Corps, 
and,  having  become  a  brigadier-general,  he  led  at  Antietam  the 
famous  charge  that  carried  the  lower  bridge.  He  was  in  com- 
mand of  a  division  that  gallantly  recaptured  Fort  Steadman 
before  Petersburg,  for  which  he  was  brevetted  major-general. 
While  governor  of  your  commonwealth  he  pursued  a  vigorous 
policy  during  the  great  railroad  strikes  of  July,  1877. 

In  the  late  war  with  Spain,  Admiral  Schley,  a  descendant 
of  that  famous  German  schoolmaster  and  founder  of  Freder- 
icksburg, Maryland,  Johann  Thomas  Schley,  destroyed  Cervera's 
fleet  near  Santiago.  General  Shafter,  who  conquered  the  land 
forces  in  that  part  of  Cuba,  is  also  of  German  ancestry. 

The  German  interpretation  of  government  is  based  upon 
the  theory  that  law  is  not  derived  directly  from  the  will  of  the 
people,  but  that  each  individual  citizen  possesses  an  inborn  right 
which  the  State  must  protect,  but  which  it  does  not  create,  and 
for  which  he  is  ready  to  fight  against  the  world.  In  other  words, 
the  citizen  is  the  protector  of  the  State,  instead  of  its  protege, 
and  to  this  theory  may  be  traced  the  attitude  taken  by  the  Ger- 
man American  citizens  upon  all  questions  of  personal  liberty, 
as  also  their  independence  in  politics.  It  is  this  spirit  of  free- 
dom and  independence  which,  together  with  straightforwardness 
in  all  dealings  and  industrious  habits  and  contentment,  has  en- 
abled the  German  element  to  participate  to  a  very  large  degree 
in  the  material  and  cultural  development  of  this  greatest  Re- 
public of  the  world,  and  in  shaping  its  destinies  from  the  time 
of  their  first  settlement  down  to  the  present  day. 


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